|This article needs editing.
Add and improvise the content from reliable sources.
Grhyasutras (Samskrit: गृह्यसूत्राणि) belonging to Kalpa of the Vedangas, as their title suggests, deal with grhya-karmani (गृह्यकर्माणि), i.e., the domestic activities. Written in the sutra style, these treatises systematically describe the grhyakarmas as practiced in their respective schools. The number and order of these activities vary from one Grhyasutra to another. Since most of the ceremonies prescribed in the Grhyasutras are to be performed with the help of the Grhyaagni, i.e., grhya fire, the domestic fire, the description of the setting up of this fire finds an important place in the Grhyasutras.
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Subject-matter of Grhyasutras
- 3 गृह्यकर्माणि ॥ Grhyakarmas
- 4 Shrauta and Grhyasutras
- 5 References
Grhyasutras belong to the class of Kalpasutra texts. Kalpas are important texts of six vedangas, the ancilliary subjects which are required to understand Vedas and hence are one among the Chaturdasha Vidyas. They pertain to domestic rituals as known from the word Grhya. Thus the subject matter of grhyasutras involves the domestic life of a person. They are the oldest manuals on the samskaras and in the whole set of Kalpa texts, the Dharmasutras as a rule follow the Grhyasutras.
The origin of the Grhyasutras appear to be traceable to an oral tradition prevalent among the people of ancient times which preserved them till date. They employ many mantras from the veda samhita parts while performing the domestic rituals. So one can understand the antiquity of these ceremonies which are traced back to the time of the Vedas.
Subject-matter of Grhyasutras
Samskaras form an important subject of the Grhyasutras. They pertain to the activities surrounding an individual and fundamentally prescribe the procedural methods and specifical mantras to be recited at different stages of a particular samskara. Dharmasutras on the other hand rarely describe the procedural aspects of a ritual and delve upon the code of conduct of an individual. Broadly the topics treated in these texts include pre-birth ceremonies for the mother Pumsavana, Seemantonnayana etc) and post-birth ceremonies of the child starting from Namakarana, a detailed account of Upanayana, Upakarma, Samavartana, Snataka conduct, marriage followed by Antyeshti or the funeral ceremonies. The Grhyasutras give a detailed account of the ceremony of Upanayana and other education related samskaras which a child undergoes starting from initiation into the study of Veda. Being the pivot of all domestic ceremonies, the marriage with its diverse and diffuse details occupies a great deal of explanation in the Grhyasutras.
The daily obligatory activities of a grhastha such as Panchamahayajnas, Pakayajnas and the periodical yajnas, shraddha, monthly rituals to be performed on the new-moon and full-moon days, annual rituals among other information are extensively discussed. The yajnas that are performed annually include Sravana, the Indrayajna, the Asvayuji, the Agrahayani, the Ashtakas, the Phalguni, and the Chaitriyajna.
Apart from the above, these texts contain ceremonies connected with agricultural operations, cattle welfare and festivities associated with them. The ceremony of Vrshotsarga, wherein a stud-bull is left at liberty, is discussed, so also the Sulagava yajna for the prosperity of cattle. Mantras which are to be recited while driving cattle to and from from pasture find a mention. Ploughing the field is started with special ceremonies as is the method of worshipping the Sita (which literally means a furrow). Agrayana yajna is connected with agriculture wherein the first fruits of the crop are to be offered to the deities. All these activities have marginally reduced but are still followed by our farmers in the present day.
Next topic of importance discussed in the Grhyasutras includes the choice of land for building a house, the rites to be performed for laying the foundation and the main door or gate of the house, and when the pujas to be performed when the owner first enters the house after its completion.
Other topics discussed include ceremonies to be performed on the appearance of certain animals such as cats, birds such as pigeons, crows in the house. Other events such as bursting of the central pillar in the house and other inauspicious signs such as sight of a solitary jackal or a cat and the prayaschittas for the same are discussed. Expiating actions for the neglect of obligatory duties and rites are aptly discussed.
Special attention is given to kamyakarmas done for fulfillment of certain desires, such as desire for prosperity of cattle, achievement of glory, gaining favour of certain people, appease an angry person, and desire to become a king.
गृह्यकर्माणि ॥ Grhyakarmas
While the Shrauta sutras are based on the Shrutis, the Grhyasutras are said to rest on the Smrti texts, thus these grhya-karmani are said to be "Smartha" karmas. The authors of the Grhyasutras treat the subject matter of "grhya" very specifically denoted by their typical expressions such as those of
- Ashvalayana starts with उक्तानि वैतानिकानि गृह्याणि वक्ष्यामः १ meaning "the grhyani as distinguished from the vaitanikani (shrauta) are said"
- Shankhayana says अथातः पाकयज्ञान्व्याख्यास्यामः १ meaning "now with the discussion of the pakayajnas"
- Paraskara says, अथातो गृह्यस्थालीपाकानां कर्म १ meaning "now of the grhyasthalipakanam karma".
- Baudhayana directly starts with the differentiation of the Pakayajnas into seven and naming them, यथो एतद्धुतः प्रहुत आहुतश्शूलगवो बलिहरणं प्रत्यवरोहणमष्टकाहोम इति सप्त पाकयज्ञसंस्था इति ।१।
- Apastamba states his purpose succinctly, अथ कर्माण्याचाराद्यानि गृह्यन्ते १ meaning "now the karmani (ceremonies) derived from acharas (customs) and other practices"
- Gobhila states अथातो गृह्यकर्माण्युपदेक्ष्यामः १ meaning "now the grhya ceremonies are given"
We see from the above that the grhyasutras treat their subject pertaining broadly to grhya-karmani in exactly the same style in which the shrauta yajnas have been treated by the shrautasutras.
Like the Vedas, Grhyasutras are also handed down and preserved since ancient times through oral tradition. Transmission of what was studied, memorized and practiced manifested as the tradition or custom, which, came to be regarded as an authority of these rituals. This was the foundation of Sampradayas which are the present existing authorities in matters pertaining to Bharatiya culture and dharmas.
- Mantras recited during marriage are seen from Rigveda (10.85).
- The term "Pakayajna" is referred to in Taittriya samhita and the Brahmanas.
- Atharvaveda gives copious information about Grhya ritual described in Grhyasutras - marriage, Pumsavana, Jatakarma, Upanayana, Antyeshti, Godana, Astaka and so on.
- Brahmana texts mention a number of rites and rituals found in Grhyasutras example, Agrahayana ceremony (Ait. Brah. 7.9, Kaus. Brah. 4.12, Tait. Samh. 5.7.2)
- Sathapatha Brahmana discusses the Panchamahayajnas, and Upanayana, Garbhadhana, Namakarana (of the samskaras) and others such as Soshyantikarman, Ayushyakarman, and Medhajanana.
List of Grhyakarmani
Grhyakarmas are described elaborately in a the sutras but with a varied terminology from across sutras. In this section an attempt has been made to put together a list of Grhyakarmas and a brief description of the equivalent terms from various grhyasutras where possible. Some of these activities are described as periodical as well as special yajnas both in grhya and shrauta sutras. The broad categories include Samskaras, Panchamahayajnas, Pakayajnas which constitute a whole set of yajnas, Grhapravesa and other house related rites, Agricultural operations including cattle related rites and finally Prayaschittas.
In most of the Sutras the term Samskara generally signifies a subsidiary act of purification performed at Shrauta or Grhyakarmas. Most of them represent Upanayana by the word Samskara. Further the term was gradually extended to include all domestic rites. Gautama Dharmasutras gives a comprehensive list of 40 samskaras which include the Pakayajnas, Haviryajnas and Somayajnas apart from the rites performed from before conception to the death of an individual. However in the present days the norm is to consider only the body related samskaras pertaining to the individual under this heading. They are according to Gautama
- गर्भाधानपुंसवनसीमन्तो-न्नयनजातकर्म-नामकरणान्नप्राशन-चौड़ोपनयनम् । चत्वारि
- वेदव्रतानि स्नानं सहधर्मचारिणीसंयोगः...
A few of these such as Jatakarma comprise of a number of subsidiary acts; important of them are Ayusha-homa, Prashana, Asmaabhimarshana, Medha-janana, and Stana-pradana. The sutras describe the establishment of Sutikagni, a fire kindled and maintained by the father near the southern side of the door in the chamber of the mother and newborn child. Other minor samskaras like Pravasagamana, Aditya and Chandradarshana, Nishkramanika, Karnavedhana for the newborn child are also described in the grhyasutras.
These include the five mahayajnas, which are the obligatory nityakarmas of a grhastha. They are the daily rites which have been instituted to remove the papa accrued due to the five household activities.
Now, while Gautama included these yajnas as part of samskaras, these yajnas are gradually fading away with very few people actively conducting them in the present society. Except for the Shraddha related yajnas the rest are rarely seen. Additionally the differences seen in the vidhis as per the veda shakas are not handed down to future generations.
|1||औपासनहोमः ॥ Aupanasa homa||हुतः ॥ Huta||अष्टका ॥ Ashtaka|
|2||वैश्वदेवम् ॥ Vaisvedeva||प्रहुतः ॥ Prahuta||पार्वणम् ॥ Paarvana|
|3||पार्वणम् ॥ Paarvana||आहुतः ॥ Ahuta||श्राद्धम् ॥ Shraddham|
|4||अष्टका ॥ Ashtaka||शूलगवः ॥ Shulagava||श्रावणी ॥ Shravani|
|5||मासिश्राद्धम् ॥ Masishraddham||बलिहरणम् ॥ Baliharana||आग्रहायणी ॥ Aagrahayani|
|6||सर्पबलिः ॥ Sarpabali||प्रत्यवरोहण ॥ Pratyavarohana||चैत्र्यी ॥ Chaitri|
|7||ईशानबलिः ॥ Ishanabali||अष्टकाहोमः ॥ Ashtaka homa||आश्वयुजी ॥ Asvayuji|
Agriculture and Cattle Related Yajnas
In the age of the sutra literature, a greater part of the people earned their livelihood by agriculture and cattle breeding. This is amply reflected in the rites connected to agriculture, krshaka, varsha and pashusampada were highly respected for they provide food to all beings. All aspects of agriculture find mention in these texts, namely, the earth, ploughs, start and end of the agricultural activities, implements, barns and storage, furrowing, sowing, reaping and thrashing of grains, cattle, birds and moles, deities of the rains, winds, and nakshatras. A few related yajnas were
- Bali (बलिः) to the earth and skies
- Halabhiyoga (हलाभियोगः) a ceremony of yolking the plough
- Sita Yajna (सीतायज्ञः) involved offerings at the time of furrowing
- Pravapana was done at the time of sowing
- Pralavana at the time of reaping the crop
- Khala yajna was at the time of threshing
- Prayayana was at the time of putting the corn into the barns
- Offerings to Akhuraja (the moles)
- Agrayana (आग्रयाणम्) or Nava-yajna is the offering of first fruits of the season in Tretagni or Grhyagni
- Vrshotsarga was done to let loose a stud-bull for the purpose of breeding
- Shulagava (one of the Pakayajnas) is performed by offering of an ox to Rudra for attaining good cattle progeny, sons and fulfillment of all desires.
Shrauta and Grhyasutras
Grhyasutras discuss about yajnas to be performed in domestic situations for short time periods, unlike the great yajnas like Asvamedha and Sattra yagas which are performed over a long time. Here we summarize how they differ from the Shrauta yajnas in many ways.
|1||Derived from Shrutis||Derived from Smrtis|
|2||Involve complex Shrauta yajnas||Involve simple Grhya yajnas|
|3||Entirely based on the Brahmanas||Founded on Brahmanas to a certain extent|
|4||Majority of shrauta yajnas extend over a long time period (years more than ten)||Grhya yajnas typically are of short duration (days)|
|5||Scope includes broad section of the society||Scope is limited to individual and his family|
|6||Ceremonies pertaining to welfare of the society at large||Ceremonies pertaining to welfare of the individual (samskaras)|
|7||Rtviks of upto sixteen are required for the conduct of these yajnas||Yajamana himself performs the grhyakarmas|
|8||These are mostly optional, kamyakarmas performed with an intent||These are mostly obligatory nityakarmas while some are kamya karmas.|