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Godana literally means "shaving the head and other parts of the body, including Śikhā” (tuft on the head). In Caulam tuft is exempted from shaving.
गावः केशाः दीयन्ते खण्ड्यन्ते अत्रेति गोदानम् (दो = अवखण्डने – दिवादि)
gāvaḥ keśāḥ dīyante khaṇḍyante atreti godānam (do = avakhaṇḍane – divādi)
"gāvaḥ" means hair. The Saṃskāra in which the hair is completely shaved is called Godānam.
एवं गोदानमन्यस्मिन्नपि नक्षत्रे षोडशे वर्षे (आपस्तम्बगृह्यसूत्रम्, १६.१२)
evaṃ godānamanyasminnapi nakṣatre ṣoḍaśe varṣe
Just like in the case of Caulam the procedure is to be followed (right from Brāhmaṇabhojanam, i.e. feeding Brāhmaṇas, down to Varadāna, i.e. donation of a cow to Brahmā / priest by father). It is to be performed during the sixteenth year (counted from the date of conception) and in auspicious Nakṣatras (stars) such as Rohiṇī.
Godānam has to be performed after the completion of Vedavratas and Snātakam. This Saṃskāra is to be performed by Ācārya. Vivāha will be there after Godānam. ("Godānam" is a term generally understood as "donation of a cow"). Keśānta (end of hair) is a synonym of Godāna. Godāna is performed on girls but silently (Śāṅkhyāyanagṛhyasūtram, 1.28.22).