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Chaulam is also called Cūḍākarma and Cūḍākaraṇam. Cūḍā means tuft (of hair) that is kept on the back side of the head while the remaining part is clean shaven. In tradition it is popularly called "Śikhā". In Sanskrit the letters "la" and "ḍa" are often interchanged. So Caula and Cūḍā mean the same. The Saṃskāra for which the purpose is "Cūḍā" (tuft / Śikhā) is called Caulam, and also Cauḷam.
Caulam is to be performed during the third year by counting days from the date of birth –
जन्मनोऽपि तृतीये वर्षे चौलं पुनर्वस्वोः । आपस्तम्बगृह्यसूत्रम् १६.३॥
janmano'pi tṛtīye varṣe caulaṃ punarvasvoḥ । Āpastambagṛhyasūtram 16.3॥
Caulam has to be performed during the third year by counting days from the date of birth and in the star Punarvasu.