Shraddha (श्राद्धम्)

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Shraddha (Samskrit : श्राद्धम्) is the monthly funeral offering to the forefathers also called as Anvaharya (अन्वाहार्यम्).[1]

पितॄणां मासिकं श्राद्धं अन्वाहार्यं विदुर्बुधाः ॥ ३.१२३ ॥[2] pitr̥̄ṇāṁ māsikaṁ śrāddhaṁ anvāhāryaṁ vidurbudhāḥ ॥ 3.123 ॥

परिचयः ॥ Introduction

It is said that, the sages, forefathers, deities, bhutas (भूत-s), and guests look up to the householders for offerings and gifts that help them sustain. Hence, he who knows this, must give to them what is their due.

ऋषयः पितरो देवा भूतान्यतिथयस्तथा । आशासते कुटुम्बिभ्यस्तेभ्यः कार्यं विजानता ॥ ३.८० ॥ (Manu. Smrt. 3.80) [2]

r̥ṣayaḥ pitaro devā bhūtānyatithayastathā । āśāsate kuṭumbibhyastebhyaḥ kāryaṁ vijānatā ॥ 3.80 ॥

And the forefathers are to be worshiped by funeral offerings or Shraddha. पितॄञ् श्राद्धैश्च | pitr̥̄ñ śrāddhaiśca | (Manu 3.81)[2] In fact, for twice-born men, the rite in honour of the Pitrs excels that in honour of the deities; the rite in honour of the deities has been declared to be the previous sustainer of the rite in honour of the Pitrs (Manu Smrt. 3.203).[3]

दैवकार्याद्द्विजातीनां पितृकार्यं विशिष्यते । दैवं हि पितृकार्यस्य पूर्वं आप्यायनं स्मृतम् || ३.२०३ ||[2]

daivakāryāddvijātīnāṁ pitr̥kāryaṁ viśiṣyate । daivaṁ hi pitr̥kāryasya pūrvaṁ āpyāyanaṁ smr̥tam || 3.203 ||

श्राद्धकर्ता ॥ Shraddha Karta

Manusmrti says, an agnihotri brahmana, having completed the Pitruyajna on a new moon day, should offer Pindanvaharya Shraddha (पिण्डान्वाहार्य-श्राद्धम् । the funeral offering) every month (Manu Smrt. 3.122).[1]

पितृयज्ञं तु निर्वर्त्य विप्रश्चन्द्रक्षयेऽग्निमान् । पिण्डान्वाहार्यकं श्राद्धं कुर्यान्मासानुमासिकम् ॥ ३.१२२ ॥[2]

pitr̥yajñaṁ tu nirvartya vipraścandrakṣaye'gnimān । piṇḍānvāhāryakaṁ śrāddhaṁ kuryānmāsānumāsikam ॥ 3.122 ॥

श्राद्धसमयः ॥ Appropriate time for Shraddha

  • The days of krshnapaksha beginning with the tenth until the new moon day, except the fourteenth day, are considered most pure for a funeral offering; none other is as pure (Manu Smrt. 3.276).[1]

कृष्णपक्षे दशम्यादौ वर्जयित्वा चतुर्दशीम् । श्राद्धे प्रशस्तास्तिथयो यथैता न तथेतराः || ३.२७६ ||[2]

kr̥ṣṇapakṣe daśamyādau varjayitvā caturdaśīm । śrāddhe praśastāstithayo yathaitā na tathetarāḥ || 3.276 ||

  • One who performs shraddha on even days (like dvitiya | द्वितीया or chaturthi । चतुर्थी) and under the even constellations (like bharani । भरणी and rohini । रोहिणिः), gains the fulfilment of all his wishes; while the one who honours the forefathers on odd days (like pratipada । प्रतिपदा and trtiya । तृतीया) and under odd constellations (like Ashvini । अश्विनी and Krttika । कृत्तिका), obtains many progeny (Manu Smrt. 3.277).[1]

युक्षु कुर्वन्दिनर्क्षेषु सर्वान्कामान्समश्नुते । अयुक्षु तु पितॄन्सर्वान्प्रजां प्राप्नोति पुष्कलाम् || ३.२७७ ||[2]

yukṣu kurvandinarkṣeṣu sarvānkāmānsamaśnute । ayukṣu tu pitr̥̄nsarvānprajāṁ prāpnoti puṣkalām || 3.277 ||

  • Just as krshnapaksh is preferable than shuklapaksha for shraddha, similarly, the afternoon is considered a better time for the performance of a funeral offering than the forenoon (Manu Smrt. 3.278).[1]

यथा चैवापरः पक्षः पूर्वपक्षाद्विशिष्यते । तथा श्राद्धस्य पूर्वाह्णादपराह्णो विशिष्यते || ३.२७८ ||[2]

yathā caivāparaḥ pakṣaḥ pūrvapakṣādviśiṣyate । tathā śrāddhasya pūrvāhṇādaparāhṇo viśiṣyate || 3.278 ||

  • One should not perform a funeral offering at night, because that is the time of the rakshasas, neither during sunrise, sunset or just after the sun has risen (Manu Smrt. 3.280).[1]

रात्रौ श्राद्धं न कुर्वीत राक्षसी कीर्तिता हि सा । सन्ध्ययोरुभयोश्चैव सूर्ये चैवाचिरोदिते || ३.२८० ||[2]

rātrau śrāddhaṁ na kurvīta rākṣasī kīrtitā hi sā । sandhyayorubhayoścaiva sūrye caivācirodite || 3.280 ||

  • If one is unable to offer a shraddha every month, according to the rules given above, one may do it thrice a year - in winter, in summer and in the rainy season. However, the Panchamahayajnas have to be performed every day (Manu Smrt. 3.281).[1]

अनेन विधिना श्राद्धं त्रिरब्दस्येह निर्वपेत् । हेमन्तग्रीष्मवर्षासु पाञ्चयज्ञिकमन्वहम् || ३.२८१ ||[2]

anena vidhinā śrāddhaṁ trirabdasyeha nirvapet । hemantagrīṣmavarṣāsu pāñcayajñikamanvaham || 3.281 ||

श्राद्धहविः ॥ The Offerings of Shraddha

  • A Grhastha (गृहस्थः । householder) should perform shraddha daily with water, sesame, barley or with milk, roots, fruits in order to please the forefathers (Manu Smrt. 3.82).[1]

कुर्यादहरहः श्राद्धं अन्नाद्येनोदकेन वा । पयोमूलफलैर्वापि पितृभ्यः प्रीतिमावहन् ॥ ३.८२ ॥[2]

kuryādaharahaḥ śrāddhaṁ annādyenodakena vā । payomūlaphalairvāpi pitr̥bhyaḥ prītimāvahan ॥ 3.82 ॥

  • By the proper offering of sesame, rice and barley, masha, water, roots and fruits, men’s ancestors are satisfied for one month. (Manu Smrt. 3.267).[3]

तिलैर्व्रीहियवैर्माषैरद्भिर्मूलफलेन वा । दत्तेन मासं तृप्यन्ति विधिवत्पितरो नृनाम् || ३.२६७ ||[2]

tilairvrīhiyavairmāṣairadbhirmūlaphalena vā । dattena māsaṁ tr̥pyanti vidhivatpitaro nr̥nām || 3.267 ||

  • However, it is also said that, if a brahmana is unable to procure elaborate offerings, even if he satisfies the forefathers with water, he obtains thereby the whole reward for the performance of the shraddha. (Manu Smrt. 3.283).[1] For, even water offered to these with belief, in vessels, either made of silver or connected with silver, is conducive to imperishability. (Manu Smrt. 3.202).[3]

यदेव तर्पयत्यद्भिः पितॄन्स्नात्वा द्विजोत्तमः । तेनैव कृत्स्नं आप्नोति पितृयज्ञक्रियाफलम् || ३.२८३ ||

राजतैर्भाजनैरेषां अथो वा रजतान्वितैः । वार्यपि श्रद्धया दत्तं अक्षयायोपकल्पते || ३.२०२ ||[2]

yadeva tarpayatyadbhiḥ pitr̥̄nsnātvā dvijottamaḥ । tenaiva kr̥tsnaṁ āpnoti pitr̥yajñakriyāphalam || 3.283 ||

rājatairbhājanaireṣāṁ atho vā rajatānvitaiḥ । vāryapi śraddhayā dattaṁ akṣayāyopakalpate || 3.202 ||

  • The afternoon time, kusha grass, cowdung smeared yajna shala, sesame grains, liberality in serving food, taste of prepared food and distinguished brahmanas are greatest at all funeral offerings (Manu Smrt. 3.255).[1]

अपराह्णस्तथा दर्भा वास्तुसंपादनं तिलाः । सृष्टिर्मृष्टिर्द्विजाश्चाग्र्याः श्राद्धकर्मसु संपदः || ३.२५५ ||[2]

aparāhṇastathā darbhā vāstusaṁpādanaṁ tilāḥ । sr̥ṣṭirmr̥ṣṭirdvijāścāgryāḥ śrāddhakarmasu saṁpadaḥ || 3.255 ||

  • In fact, it is said that, the ancestors pray that 'May our family be endowed with someone who will please us by giving payas (milk-rice) mixed with honey and clarified butter, on the thirteenth lunar day or when the shadow of an elephant falls towards the east.'(Manu Smrt. 3.274).[1] Therefore, whatever thing, mixed with honey, one might offer on the thirteenth day of the month, during the rains, under the asterism of Magha,—that also would be imperishable. (Manu Smrt. 3.273).[3]

अपि नः स कुले भूयाद्यो नो दद्यात्त्रयोदशीम् । पायसं मधुसर्पिर्भ्यां प्राक्छाये कुञ्जरस्य च || ३.२७४ ||

यत्किं चिन्मधुना मिश्रं प्रदद्यात्तु त्रयोदशीम् । तदप्यक्षयं एव स्याद्वर्षासु च मघासु च || ३.२७३ ||[2]

api naḥ sa kule bhūyādyo no dadyāttrayodaśīm । pāyasaṁ madhusarpirbhyāṁ prākchāye kuñjarasya ca || 3.274 ||

yatkiṁ cinmadhunā miśraṁ pradadyāttu trayodaśīm । tadapyakṣayaṁ eva syādvarṣāsu ca maghāsu ca || 3.273 ||

  • However, whatever is given to the forefathers with utmost devotion and belief, according to the prescribed rule, one gains countless fruits for that in the other world (Manu Smrt. 3.275).[1]

यद्यद्ददाति विधिवत्सम्यक्श्रद्धासमन्वितः । तत्तत्पितॄणां भवति परत्रानन्तमक्षयम् || ३.२७५ ||[2]

yadyaddadāti vidhivatsamyakśraddhāsamanvitaḥ । tattatpitr̥̄ṇāṁ bhavati paratrānantamakṣayam || 3.275 ||

श्राद्धकार्यविधिः ॥ Shraddha Karya Vidhi

  • One should first perform a Devakarya (देवकार्यम् । offering in honour of the deities) as a protection for the offering to the forefathers; because the Rakshasas destroy a funeral offering which is left without such a protection.Therefore, one should begin and end the shraddha with a rite in honour of the deities; and not with a rite to the forefathers; for he who makes it begin and end with a rite in honour of the forefathers, soon perishes together with his progeny (Manu Smrt. 3.204 and 3.205).[1]

तेषामारक्षभूतं तु पूर्वं दैवं नियोजयेत् । रक्षांसि हि विप्रलुम्पन्ति श्राद्धमारक्षवर्जितम् || ३.२०४ ||

दैवाद्यन्तं तदीहेत पित्राद्यन्तं न तद्भवेत् । पित्राद्यन्तं त्वीहमानः क्षिप्रं नश्यति सान्वयः || ३.२०५ ||[2]

teṣāmārakṣabhūtaṁ tu pūrvaṁ daivaṁ niyojayet । rakṣāṁsi hi vipralumpanti śrāddhamārakṣavarjitam || 3.204 ||

daivādyantaṁ tadīheta pitrādyantaṁ na tadbhavet । pitrādyantaṁ tvīhamānaḥ kṣipraṁ naśyati sānvayaḥ || 3.205 ||

  • Then one should smear a pure and secluded place with cowdung, and carefully make it sloping towards the south. The forefathers are always pleased with offerings made in open, naturally pure places, on the banks of rivers, and in secluded spots (Manu Smrt. 3.206 and 3.207).[1]

शुचिं देशं विविक्तं च गोमयेनोपलेपयेत् । दक्षिनाप्रवणं चैव प्रयत्नेनोपपादयेत् || ३.२०६ ||

अवकाशेषु चोक्षेषु जलतीरेषु चैव हि । विविक्तेषु च तुष्यन्ति दत्तेन पितरः सदा || ३.२०७ ||[2]

śuciṁ deśaṁ viviktaṁ ca gomayenopalepayet । dakṣināpravaṇaṁ caiva prayatnenopapādayet || 3.206 ||

avakāśeṣu cokṣeṣu jalatīreṣu caiva hi । vivikteṣu ca tuṣyanti dattena pitaraḥ sadā || 3.207 ||

  • Then one should make the invited brahmanas, sit down on separate, prepared seats of kusha grass. Having seated those virtuous brahmanas on their seats, he should honour them with fragrant perfumes, sandalwood, flowers, incense, etc beginning with those called in honour of the Vishvedevas followed by those for the Pitrus. (Manu Smrt. 3.208 and 3.209)[1]

आसनेषूपक्ल्प्तेषु बर्हिष्मत्सु पृथक्पृथक् । उपस्पृष्टोदकान्सम्यग्विप्रांस्तानुपवेशयेत् || ३.२०८ ||

उपवेश्य तु तान्विप्रानासनेष्वजुगुप्सितान् । गन्धमाल्यैः सुरभिभिरर्चयेद्दैवपूर्वकम् || ३.२०९ ||[2]

āsaneṣūpaklpteṣu barhiṣmatsu pr̥thakpr̥thak । upaspr̥ṣṭodakānsamyagviprāṁstānupaveśayet || 3.208 ||

upaveśya tu tānviprānāsaneṣvajugupsitān । gandhamālyaiḥ surabhibhirarcayeddaivapūrvakam || 3.209 ||

  • Having presented to them Arghya with sesame and blades of kusha grass, one should offer oblations in the sacred fire with the brahmanas called for the shraddha, after having taken permission from everyone. (Manu Smrt. 3.210).[1]

येषामुदकमानीय सपवित्रांस्तिलानपि । अग्नौ कुर्यादनुज्ञातो ब्राह्मणो ब्राह्मणैः सह || ३.२१० ||[2]

yeṣāmudakamānīya sapavitrāṁstilānapi । agnau kuryādanujñāto brāhmaṇo brāhmaṇaiḥ saha || 3.210 ||

  • One should first, please Agni, Soma and Yama with oblations, afterwards one should satisfy the forefathers by offering of food. But if no sacred fire is available, one shall place the three offerings into the hand of a brahmana; for brahmanas are considered a form of Agni. Also, Pitru karma (पितृकर्म) must not be made in laukika agni (लौकिक-अग्निः) and an Agnihotri (brahmana who keeps a sacred fire) may perform shraddha only on the new-moon day. (Manu Smrt. 3.211, 212 and 282).[1]

अग्नेः सोमयमाभ्यां च कृत्वाप्यायनमादितः । हविर्दानेन विधिवत्पश्चात्संतर्पयेत्पितॄन् || ३.२११ ||

अग्न्यभावे तु विप्रस्य पाणावेवोपपादयेत् । यो ह्यग्निः स द्विजो विप्रैर्मन्त्रदर्शिभिरुच्यते || ३.२१२ ||

न पैतृयज्ञियो होमो लौकिकेऽग्नौ विधीयते । न दर्शेन विना श्राद्धमाहिताग्नेर्द्विजन्मनः || ३.२८२ ||[2]

agneḥ somayamābhyāṁ ca kr̥tvāpyāyanaṁ āditaḥ । havirdānena vidhivatpaścātsaṁtarpayetpitr̥̄n || 3.211 ||

agnyabhāve tu viprasya pāṇāvevopapādayet । yo hyagniḥ sa dvijo viprairmantradarśibhirucyate || 3.212 ||

na paitr̥yajñiyo homo laukike'gnau vidhīyate । na darśena vinā śrāddhaṁ āhitāgnerdvijanmanaḥ || 3.282 ||

  • After giving the two oblations in the fire for the forefathers and other ceremonies in such a manner that they end in the south, one should sprinkle water with his right hand on the spot where the pindas are to be placed. Then having made three portions out of the remainder of that food offering, one must, concentrating his mind and turning towards the south, place them on Kusha grass exactly in the same manner in which water was poured. (Manu Smrt. 3.214 and 215)[1]

अपसव्यमग्नौ कृत्वा सर्वमावृत्य विक्रमम् । अपसव्येन हस्तेन निर्वपेदुदकं भुवि || ३.२१४ ||

त्रींस्तु तस्माद्धविःशेषात्पिण्डान्कृत्वा समाहितः । औदकेनैव विधिना निर्वपेद्दक्षिणामुखः || ३.२१५ ||[2]

apasavyamagnau kr̥tvā sarvamāvr̥tya vikramam । apasavyena hastena nirvapedudakaṁ bhuvi || 3.214 ||

trīṁstu tasmāddhaviḥśeṣātpiṇḍānkr̥tvā samāhitaḥ । audakenaiva vidhinā nirvapeddakṣiṇāmukhaḥ || 3.215 ||

  • Having placed the pindas according to the prescribed rule, one should wash the same hand near those blades of Kusha grass for the sake of the three ancestors (beginning with the great grand father) who partake of the lepa (Manu Smrt. 3.216)[1]

न्युप्य पिण्डांस्ततस्तांस्तु प्रयतो विधिपूर्वकम् । तेषु दर्भेषु तं हस्तं निर्मृज्याल्लेपभागिनाम् || ३.२१६ ||[2]

nyupya piṇḍāṁstatastāṁstu prayato vidhipūrvakam । teṣu darbheṣu taṁ hastaṁ nirmr̥jyāllepabhāginām || 3.216 ||

  • Next, having done achamana (आचमनम् । sipping water in a ritual) turned towards the north, and slowly doing Pranayama (प्राणायामः) thrice, one should worship the six seasons and the forefathers. (Manu Smrt. 3.217)[1]

आचम्योदक्परावृत्य त्रिरायम्य शनैरसून् । षडृतूंश्च नमस्कुर्यात्पितॄनेव च मन्त्रवत् || ३.२१७ ||[2]

ācamyodakparāvr̥tya trirāyamya śanairasūn । ṣaḍr̥tūṁśca namaskuryātpitr̥̄neva ca mantravat || 3.217 ||

  • Then one should gently pour out the water remaining in the pindadana (पिण्डदानम्) vessel near the pindas, and then smell those pindas, in the same order in which they were placed. Later taking successively very small portions from the pindas, one should first make those seated brahmanas eat them. Meaning, one portion of the pinda offered to the pitru should be given to the corresponding brahmana seated on his behalf (Manu Smrt. 3.218 and 3.219)[1]

उदकं निनयेच्छेषं शनैः पिण्डान्तिके पुनः । अवजिघ्रेच्च तान्पिण्डान्यथान्युप्तान्समाहितः || ३.२१८ ||

पिण्डेभ्यस्त्वल्पिकां मात्रां समादायानुपूर्वशः । तानेव विप्रानासीनान्विधिवत्पूर्वमाशयेत् || ३.२१९ ||[2]

udakaṁ ninayeccheṣaṁ śanaiḥ piṇḍāntike punaḥ । avajighrecca tānpiṇḍānyathānyuptānsamāhitaḥ || 3.218 ||

piṇḍebhyastvalpikāṁ mātrāṁ samādāyānupūrvaśaḥ । tāneva viprānāsīnānvidhivatpūrvamāśayet || 3.219 ||

  • If the yajamana's father is living, he must offer shraddha to three ancestors beginning with the grandfather; or he may feed his own father as the brahmana invited in his position. But he whose father is dead, while his grandfather lives, should, after pronouncing his father's name, mention the name of his great-grandfather. According to Manu, either the grandfather may eat at that Shraddha as a brahmana guest, or the yajamana having received his permission, may perform shraddha of two previous ancestors (Manu Smrt. 3.220, 221 and 222).[1]

ध्रियमाणे तु पितरि पूर्वेषां एव निर्वपेत् । विप्रवद्वापि तं श्राद्धे स्वकं पितरमाशयेत् || ३.२२० ||

पिता यस्य निवृत्तः स्याज्जीवेच्चापि पितामहः । पितुः स नाम सङ्कीर्त्य कीर्तयेत्प्रपितामहम् || ३.२२१ ||

पितामहो वा तच्छ्राद्धं भुञ्जीतेत्यब्रवीन्मनुः । कामं वा समनुज्ञातः स्वयं एव समाचरेत् || ३.२२२ ||[2]

dhriyamāṇe tu pitari pūrveṣāṁ eva nirvapet । vipravadvāpi taṁ śrāddhe svakaṁ pitaramāśayet || 3.220 ||

pitā yasya nivr̥ttaḥ syājjīveccāpi pitāmahaḥ । pituḥ sa nāma saṅkīrtya kīrtayetprapitāmaham || 3.221 ||

pitāmaho vā tacchrāddhaṁ bhuñjītetyabravīnmanuḥ । kāmaṁ vā samanujñātaḥ svayaṁ eva samācaret || 3.222 ||

  • Having poured water mixed with sesame, in which a blade of kusha grass has been placed, into the hands of the brahmanas, one should give the top portion of the pinda to the three brahmanas, saying, 'To the pitrus, Svadha !'(Manu Smrt. 3.223)[1]

तेषां दत्त्वा तु हस्तेषु सपवित्रं तिलोदकम् । तत्पिण्डाग्रं प्रयच्छेत स्वधैषामस्त्विति ब्रुवन् || ३.२२३ ||[2]

teṣāṁ dattvā tu hasteṣu sapavitraṁ tilodakam । tatpiṇḍāgraṁ prayaccheta svadhaiṣāṁ astviti bruvan || 3.223 ||

  • Then carrying the vessel filled with food with both hands, one should gently place it before the brahmanas. If the food is not brought with two hands, the wicked rakshasas take away that food (Manu Smrt. 3.224 and 225).[1]

पाणिभ्यां तूपसंगृह्य स्वयमन्नस्य वर्धितम् । विप्रान्तिके पितॄन्ध्यायन्शनकैरुपनिक्षिपेत् || ३.२२४ ||

उभयोर्हस्तयोर्मुक्तं यदन्नमुपनीयते । तद्विप्रलुम्पन्त्यसुराः सहसा दुष्टचेतसः || ३.२२५ ||[2]

pāṇibhyāṁ tūpasaṁgr̥hya svayaṁ annasya vardhitam । viprāntike pitr̥̄ndhyāyanśanakairupanikṣipet || 3.224 ||

ubhayorhastayormuktaṁ yadannamupanīyate । tadvipralumpantyasurāḥ sahasā duṣṭacetasaḥ || 3.225 ||

  • The yajamana should carefully keep the preparations of vegetables, pulses etc as well as milk, curd, clarified butter and honey on the ground (Manu Smrt. 3.226)[1]

गुणांश्च सूपशाकाद्यान्पयो दधि घृतं मधु । विन्यसेत्प्रयतः पूर्वं भूमावेव समाहितः || ३.२२६ ||[2]

guṇāṁśca sūpaśākādyānpayo dadhi ghr̥taṁ madhu । vinyasetprayataḥ pūrvaṁ bhūmāveva samāhitaḥ || 3.226 ||

  • All this one should present to one's guests (the brahmanas) by proclaiming the qualities of each dish (Manu Smrt. 3.228).[1]

उपनीय तु तत्सर्वं शनकैः सुसमाहितः । परिवेषयेत प्रयतो गुणान्सर्वान्प्रचोदयन् || ३.२२८ ||[2]

upanīya tu tatsarvaṁ śanakaiḥ susamāhitaḥ । pariveṣayeta prayato guṇānsarvānpracodayan || 3.228 ||

  • One should never drop a tear, become angry or utter an untruth, nor touch the food with his foot or toss it in the air especially while serving in the shraddha. Because, a tear sends the food to the Pretas, anger to the enemies, falsehood to the dogs, by hitting with foot sends it to the Rakshasas and tossing it takes it to the papis (instead of the pitrus) (Manu Smrt. 3.229 and 230).[1]

नास्रमापातयेज्जातु न कुप्येन्नानृतं वदेत् । न पादेन स्पृशेदन्नं न चैतदवधूनयेत् || ३.२२९ ||

अस्रं गमयति प्रेतान्कोपोऽरीननृतं शुनः । पादस्पर्शस्तु रक्षांसि दुष्कृतीनवधूननम् || ३.२३० ||[2]

nāsramāpātayejjātu na kupyennānr̥taṁ vadet । na pādena spr̥śedannaṁ na caitadavadhūnayet || 3.229 ||

asraṁ gamayati pretānkopo'rīnanr̥taṁ śunaḥ । pādasparśastu rakṣāṁsi duṣkr̥tīnavadhūnanam || 3.230 ||

  • Whatever may please the Brahmanas, that food should be served well. One should also say stories of Ishvara (ईश्वरः), for that is pleasurable to the forefathers. Infact, (at an offering in honour of the forefathers), one must let his guests hear the vedas, dharma shastras, akhyanas (आख्यान-s | legends), itihasas, Puranas, etc. So, one should delight the brahmanas, serve them food gradually and by repeatedly praising the qualities of the food, encourage them to eat more (Manu Smrt. 3.231, 232 and 233).[1]

यद्यद्रोचेत विप्रेभ्यस्तत्तद्दद्यादमत्सरः । ब्रह्मोद्याश्च कथाः कुर्यात्पितॄणां एतदीप्सितम् || ३.२३१ ||

स्वाध्यायं श्रावयेत्पित्र्ये धर्मशास्त्राणि चैव हि । आख्यानानीतिहासांश्च पुराणानि खिलानि च || ३.२३२ ||

हर्षयेद्ब्राह्मणांस्तुष्टो भोजयेच्च शनैःशनैः । अन्नाद्येनासकृच्चैतान्गुणैश्च परिचोदयेत् || ३.२३३ ||[2]

yadyadroceta viprebhyastattaddadyādamatsaraḥ । brahmodyāśca kathāḥ kuryātpitr̥̄ṇāṁ etadīpsitam || 3.231 ||

svādhyāyaṁ śrāvayetpitrye dharmaśāstrāṇi caiva hi । ākhyānānītihāsāṁśca purāṇāni khilāni ca || 3.232 ||

harṣayedbrāhmaṇāṁstuṣṭo bhojayecca śanaiḥśanaiḥ । annādyenāsakr̥ccaitānguṇaiśca paricodayet || 3.233 ||

  • One should promptly feed a daughter's son at a funeral offering, even if he be a student (brahmachari). For him to sit, one must offer a blanket made near the himalayas and sprinkle sesame grains on the place of shraddha. At a shraddha, a daughter's son, a blanket and sesame grains are considered pure. And purity, absence of anger and patience are praised (Manu Smrt. 3.234 and 235).[1]

व्रतस्थमपि दौहित्रं श्राद्धे यत्नेन भोजयेत् । कुतपं चासनं दद्यात्तिलैश्च विकिरेन्महीम् || ३.२३४ ||

त्रीणि श्राद्धे पवित्राणि दौहित्रः कुतपस्तिलाः । त्रीणि चात्र प्रशंसन्ति शौचमक्रोधमत्वराम् || ३.२३५ ||[2]

vratasthaṁ api dauhitraṁ śrāddhe yatnena bhojayet । kutapaṁ cāsanaṁ dadyāttilaiśca vikirenmahīm || 3.234 ||

trīṇi śrāddhe pavitrāṇi dauhitraḥ kutapastilāḥ । trīṇi cātra praśaṁsanti śaucamakrodhamatvarām || 3.235 ||

  • If a brahmana or an ascetic comes for food at the time of brahmana bhojana ritual, one may, with the permission of the invited brahmana guests, honour him according to his ability (Manu Smrt. 3.243)[1]

ब्राह्मणं भिक्षुकं वापि भोजनार्थमुपस्थितम् । ब्राह्मणैरभ्यनुज्ञातः शक्तितः प्रतिपूजयेत् || ३.२४३ ||[2]

brāhmaṇaṁ bhikṣukaṁ vāpi bhojanārthamupasthitam । brāhmaṇairabhyanujñātaḥ śaktitaḥ pratipūjayet || 3.243 ||

  • One should mix the leftovers of all the kinds of food together, sprinkle them with water and put it in front of the brahmanas and some of them on the kusha grass (Manu Smrt. 3.244)[1]

सार्ववर्णिकमन्नाद्यं संनीयाप्लाव्य वारिणा । समुत्सृजेद्भुक्तवतामग्रतो विकिरन्भुवि || ३.२४४ ||[2]

sārvavarṇikamannādyaṁ saṁnīyāplāvya vāriṇā । samutsr̥jedbhuktavatāmagrato vikiranbhuvi || 3.244 ||

  • Until the performance of Sapindikarana (सपिण्डीकरणम्), one must perform shraddha without vishvedeva and feed at the funeral offering one brahmana with food and one pinda. Once the Sapindikarana of the deceased has been performed, according to the shraddha ritual, the sons must offer pindas on the new moon day (Man Smrt. 3.248).[1]

आसपिण्डक्रियाकर्म द्विजातेः संस्थितस्य तु । अदैवं भोजयेच्छ्राद्धं पिण्डम् एकं च निर्वपेत् || ३.२४७ ||

सहपिण्डक्रियायां तु कृतायामस्य धर्मतः । अनयैवावृता कार्यं पिण्डनिर्वपनं सुतैः || ३.२४८ ||[2]

āsapiṇḍakriyākarma dvijāteḥ saṁsthitasya tu । adaivaṁ bhojayecchrāddhaṁ piṇḍam ekaṁ ca nirvapet || 3.247 ||

sahapiṇḍakriyāyāṁ tu kr̥tāyāmasya dharmataḥ । anayaivāvr̥tā kāryaṁ piṇḍanirvapanaṁ sutaiḥ || 3.248 ||

  • Having asked the question, 'Have you dined well?' to the well fed brahmana guests, one must get them to do achamana and give them a send off saying 'May you do as you please' (Manu Smrt. 3.251)[1]

पृष्ट्वा स्वदितम् इत्येवं तृप्तानाचामयेत्ततः । आचान्तांश्चानुजानीयादभितो रम्यतम् इति || ३.२५१ ||[2]

pr̥ṣṭvā svaditam ityevaṁ tr̥ptānācāmayettataḥ । ācāntāṁścānujānīyādabhito ramyatam iti || 3.251 ||

  • After that, the brahmana must say, 'May there be Svadha' for, at all rites in honour of the forefathers, the word Svadha is considered the highest honour (Manu Smrt. 3.252).[1]

स्वधास्त्वित्येव तं ब्रूयुर्ब्राह्मणास्तदनन्तरम् । स्वधाकारः परा ह्याषीः सर्वेषु पितृकर्मसु || ३.२५२ ||[2]

svadhāstvityeva taṁ brūyurbrāhmaṇāstadanantaram । svadhākāraḥ parā hyāṣīḥ sarveṣu pitr̥karmasu || 3.252 ||

  • Next one should inform the brahmanas, who have finished their meal, about the food which remains and according to their instructions one must dispose it (Manu Smrt. 3.253).[1]

ततो भुक्तवतां तेषामन्नशेषं निवेदयेत् । यथा ब्रूयुस्तथा कुर्यादनुज्ञातस्ततो द्विजैः || ३.२५३ ||[2]

tato bhuktavatāṁ teṣāṁ annaśeṣaṁ nivedayet । yathā brūyustathā kuryādanujñātastato dvijaiḥ || 3.253 ||

  • One must ask the satisfaction of the invited brahmanas by saying, 'Svaditam' at a Shraddha in honour of the forefathers, at a Goshthi-shraddha by saying sushrutam; at a Vriddhi-shraddha, sampannam; and at a rite in honour of the deities, ruchitam (Manu Smrt. 3.254)[1]

पित्र्ये स्वदितम् इत्येव वाच्यं गोष्ठे तु सुशृतम् । संपन्नम् इत्यभ्युदये दैवे रुचितम् इत्यपि || ३.२५४ ||[2]

पित्र्ये स्वदितम् इत्येव वाच्यं गोष्ठे तु सुशृतम् । संपन्नम् इत्यभ्युदये दैवे रुचितम् इत्यपि || ३.२५४ ||

  • Having sent the invited brahmanas back, one should carefully take a bath and standing towards the south, ask these blessings of the forefathers: 'May our race see generous men ! May our study of the vedas and our progeny increase ! May we never forsake the vaidika activity ! May we have enough riches to provide to our successors !' (Manu Smrt. 3.259).[1]

विसृज्य ब्राह्मणांस्तांस्तु नियतो वाग्यतः शुचिः । दक्षिणां दिशमाकाङ्क्षन्याचेतेमान्वरान्पितॄन् || ३.२५८ ||

दातारो नोऽभिवर्धन्तां वेदाः संततिरेव च । श्रद्धा च नो मा व्यगमद्बहुदेयं च नोऽस्त्विति || ३.२५९ ||[2]

visr̥jya brāhmaṇāṁstāṁstu niyato vāgyataḥ śuciḥ । dakṣiṇāṁ diśamākāṅkṣanyācetemānvarānpitr̥̄n || 3.258 ||

dātāro no'bhivardhantāṁ vedāḥ saṁtatireva ca । śraddhā ca no mā vyagamadbahudeyaṁ ca no'stviti || 3.259 ||

  • Having thus completed the shraddha offering, one should offer the pindas to a cow, a brahmana or a goat, or offer it to the sacred fire or water. Some make the offering of the pindas before the brahmana bhojana; some offer it for birds to eat or some leave it into fire or water (Manu Smrt. 3.260 and 261).[1]

एवं निर्वपणं कृत्वा पिण्डांस्तांस्तदनन्तरम् । गां विप्रमजमग्निं वा प्राशयेदप्सु वा क्षिपेत् || ३.२६० ||

पिण्डनिर्वपणं के चित्परस्तादेव कुर्वते । वयोभिः खादयन्त्यन्ये प्रक्षिपन्त्यनलेऽप्सु वा || ३.२६१ ||[2]

evaṁ nirvapaṇaṁ kr̥tvā piṇḍāṁstāṁstadanantaram । gāṁ vipramajamagniṁ vā prāśayedapsu vā kṣipet || 3.260 ||

piṇḍanirvapaṇaṁ ke citparastādeva kurvate । vayobhiḥ khādayantyanye prakṣipantyanale'psu vā || 3.261 ||

  • A faithful wife, who is desirous of bearing a son, may eat the middle pinda kept in the honour of the grandfather. By this, she will bring forth a son long-lived, successful, intelligent, wealthy, blessed with progeny and endowed with the qualities of truthfulness and righteousness. Then, having washed hands, one should serve food to one's own relations and then to others (Manu Smrt. 3.262 and 3.263).[1]

पतिव्रता धर्मपत्नी पितृपूजनतत्परा । मध्यमं तु ततः पिण्डमद्यात्सम्यक्सुतार्थिनी || ३.२६२ ||

आयुष्मन्तं सुतं सूते यशोमेधासमन्वितम् । धनवन्तं प्रजावन्तं सात्त्विकं धार्मिकं तथा || ३.२६३ ||

प्रक्षाल्य हस्तावाचाम्य ज्ञातिप्रायं प्रकल्पयेत् । ज्ञातिभ्यः सत्कृतं दत्त्वा बान्धवानपि भोजयेत् || ३.२६४ ||[2]

pativratā dharmapatnī pitr̥pūjanatatparā । madhyamaṁ tu tataḥ piṇḍamadyātsamyaksutārthinī || 3.262 ||

āyuṣmantaṁ sutaṁ sūte yaśomedhāsamanvitam । dhanavantaṁ prajāvantaṁ sāttvikaṁ dhārmikaṁ tathā || 3.263 ||

prakṣālya hastāvācāmya jñātiprāyaṁ prakalpayet । jñātibhyaḥ satkr̥taṁ dattvā bāndhavānapi bhojayet || 3.264 ||

  • After the brahmanas leave, having cleared the remnants from that place; one should perform the offerings of vaishvadeva and bhuta bali. This is the regulated procedure (Manu Smrt. 3.265).[1]

उच्छेषणं तु तत्तिष्ठेद्यावद्विप्रा विसर्जिताः । ततो गृहबलिं कुर्यादिति धर्मो व्यवस्थितः || ३.२६५ ||[2]

uccheṣaṇaṁ tu tattiṣṭhedyāvadviprā visarjitāḥ । tato gr̥habaliṁ kuryāditi dharmo vyavasthitaḥ || 3.265 ||

  • It is said that, one should duly perform shraddha (the rites in honour of the forefathers), untired, holding the kusha grass in the hands, unto death (Manu Smrt. 3.279).[1]

प्राचीनावीतिना सम्यगपसव्यमतन्द्रिणा । पित्र्यम् आ निधनात्कार्यं विधिवद्दर्भपाणिना || ३.२७९ ||[2]

prācīnāvītinā samyagapasavyamatandriṇā । pitryam ā nidhanātkāryaṁ vidhivaddarbhapāṇinā || 3.279 ||

श्राद्धभोजनम् ॥ Shraddha Bhojana

Manusmrti talks in detail about who and how many brahmanas must be fed on the occasion of the monthly shraddha called Pindanvaharya (पिण्डान्वहार्यम्), who must be avoided, and what kind of food should be served, etc. (Manu Smrt. 3.124).[1] Some of the rules pertaining to Shraddha Bhojana are enumerated below.

  • It is said that one must feed two brahmanas at the offering to the deities, and three at the offering to the forefathers, or one each on either occasion; even a wealthy man must not entertain a large gathering of brahmanas. Because expanding the scale of yajna destroys five things - appropriate treatment of the invited, place, time, purity and presence of the most virtuous brahmana as guests; one should not, therefore, seek to entertain a large company (Manu 3.125 and 126).[1]

द्वौ दैवे पितृकार्ये त्रीनेकैकमुभयत्र वा । भोजयेत्सुसमृद्धोऽपि न प्रसज्जेत विस्तरे ॥ ३.१२५ ॥

सत्क्रियां देशकालौ च शौचं ब्राह्मणसंपदः । पञ्चैतान्विस्तरो हन्ति तस्मान्नेहेत विस्तरम् ॥ ३.१२६ ॥[2]

dvau daive pitr̥kārye trīnekaikamubhayatra vā । bhojayetsusamr̥ddho'pi na prasajjeta vistare ॥ 3.125 ॥

satkriyāṁ deśakālau ca śaucaṁ brāhmaṇasaṁpadaḥ । pañcaitānvistaro hanti tasmānneheta vistaram ॥ 3.126 ॥

  • Therefore, one must feed atleast one brahmana in honour of the forefathers at the shraddha, which is a part of the five great yajnas (Manu Smrt. 3.83).[1]

एकमप्याशयेद्विप्रं पित्रर्थे पाञ्चयज्ञिके ॥ ३.८३ ॥[2]

ekamapyāśayedvipraṁ pitrarthe pāñcayajñike ॥ 3.83 ॥

  • All the food must be kept hot, and the guests shall eat in silence; even if the yajamana (यजमानः) asks about the qualities of the food, the brahmanas must refrain from saying anything; meaning, one must avoid unnecessary banter during the feast. Because, as long as the food remains warm, the brahmanas eat in silence and the qualities of the food are not proclaimed, only until then the forefathers partake of the food. While, the fruit of what a brahmana eats by tying a cloth around the head, facing the south and wearing his sandals goes to the rakshasas (Manu Smrt. 3.236, 237 and 238).[1]

अत्युष्णं सर्वमन्नं स्याद्भुञ्जीरंस्ते च वाग्यताः । न च द्विजातयो ब्रूयुर्दात्रा पृष्टा हविर्गुणान् || ३.२३६ ||

यावदुष्मा भवत्यन्नं यावदश्नन्ति वाग्यताः । पितरस्तावदश्नन्ति यावन्नोक्ता हविर्गुणाः || ३.२३७ ||

यद्वेष्टितशिरा भुङ्क्ते यद्भुङ्क्ते दक्षिणामुखः । सोपानत्कश्च यद्भुङ्क्ते तद्वै रक्षांसि भुञ्जते । । ३.२३८ । ।[2]

atyuṣṇaṁ sarvaṁ annaṁ syādbhuñjīraṁste ca vāgyatāḥ । na ca dvijātayo brūyurdātrā pr̥ṣṭā havirguṇān || 3.236 ||

yāvaduṣmā bhavatyannaṁ yāvadaśnanti vāgyatāḥ । pitarastāvadaśnanti yāvannoktā havirguṇāḥ || 3.237 ||

yadveṣṭitaśirā bhuṅkte yadbhuṅkte dakṣiṇāmukhaḥ ।sopānatkaśca yadbhuṅkte tadvai rakṣāṁsi bhuñjate । । 3.238 । ।

श्राद्धभोजनाधिकारी ॥ Shraddha Bhojana Adhikari

  • Food in honour of the deities (havya । हव्यः) and the forefathers (kavya । कव्यः) must be given to a brahmana high in knowledge alone and not to a fool. Infact, it is said that, the fruit of ten lakh brahmanas, unacquainted with the vedas, dining at a funeral offering is obtained when a single brahmana learned in the veda is fed. Therefore, one is advised to feed well at a Shraddha, a Rigvedi brahmana (an adherent of the Rigveda), Yajurvedi brahmana (a follower of the Yajurveda) or a Samavedi brahmana (a singer of Samans). Because, even if one of these three brahmanas obtains food and honour at a shraddha, the seven generations of ancestors of that yajamana are satisfied (Manu Smrt. 3.132, 131, 145, 146).[1]

ज्ञानोत्कृष्टाय देयानि कव्यानि च हवींषि च ॥ ३.१३२ ॥

सहस्रं हि सहस्राणामनृचां यत्र भुञ्जते । एकस्तान्मन्त्रवित्प्रीतः सर्वानर्हति धर्मतः ॥ ३.१३१ ॥

यत्नेन भोजयेच्छ्राद्धे बह्वृचं वेदपारगम् । शाखान्तगमथाध्वर्युं छन्दोगं तु समाप्तिकम् ॥ ३.१४५ ॥

एषामन्यतमो यस्य भुञ्जीत श्राद्धमर्चितः । पितॄणां तस्य तृप्तिः स्याच्छाश्वती साप्तपौरुषी ॥ ३.१४६ ॥[2]

jñānotkr̥ṣṭāya deyāni kavyāni ca havīṁṣi ca ॥ 3.132 ॥

sahasraṁ hi sahasrāṇāmanr̥cāṁ yatra bhuñjate । ekastānmantravitprītaḥ sarvānarhati dharmataḥ ॥ 3.131 ॥

yatnena bhojayecchrāddhe bahvr̥caṁ vedapāragam । śākhāntagamathādhvaryuṁ chandogaṁ tu samāptikam ॥ 3.145 ॥

eṣāmanyatamo yasya bhuñjīta śrāddhamarcitaḥ । pitr̥̄ṇāṁ tasya tr̥ptiḥ syācchāśvatī sāptapauruṣī ॥ 3.146 ॥

This is the chief rule for the performance of havya and kavya. While, the subsidiary rule expected to be followed by virtuous men are as follows.(Manu Smrt. 3.147). [1]

  • If none of the brahmanas mentioned above are available, then one may feed one's maternal grandfather, a maternal uncle, a sister's son, a father-in-law, one's teacher, a son-in-law, an aunt's son, Rtvik and the performer of the yajna (Manu Smrt 3.148).[1]

मातामहं मातुलं च स्वस्रीयं श्वशुरं गुरुम् । दौहित्रं विट्पतिं बन्धुं ऋत्विग्याज्यौ च भोजयेत् ॥ ३.१४८ ॥[2]

mātāmahaṁ mātulaṁ ca svasrīyaṁ śvaśuraṁ gurum । dauhitraṁ viṭpatiṁ bandhuṁ r̥tvigyājyau ca bhojayet ॥ 3.148 ॥

  • Some brahmanas are devoted to Atmajnana (आत्मज्ञानम् । self-realisation), some are eager in the performance of tapa (तपस् । austerities); some devoted to tapa and svadhyaya (स्वाध्यायः । rigorous study of the vedas) while some are bound to karma. In oblations to the forefathers, the one focused on atmajnana is ought to be fed. While all four of them must dine in the offerings to the deities. Therefore, one is advised to have a brahmana from a lineage of knowers of the vedas. For, he is the medium of food offered to the deities or to the forefathers (Manu 3.134, 135 and 130).[1]

ज्ञाननिष्ठा द्विजाः के चित्तपोनिष्ठास्तथापरे । तपःस्वाध्यायनिष्ठाश्च कर्मनिष्ठास्तथापरे ॥ ३.१३४ ॥

ज्ञाननिष्ठेषु कव्यानि प्रतिष्ठाप्यानि यत्नतः । हव्यानि तु यथान्यायं सर्वेष्वेव चतुर्ष्वपि ॥ ३.१३५ ॥

दूरादेव परीक्षेत ब्राह्मणं वेदपारगम् । तीर्थं तद्धव्यकव्यानां प्रदाने सोऽतिथिः स्मृतः ॥ ३.१३० ॥[2]

jñānaniṣṭhā dvijāḥ ke cittaponiṣṭhāstathāpare । tapaḥsvādhyāyaniṣṭhāśca karmaniṣṭhāstathāpare ॥ 3.134 ॥

jñānaniṣṭheṣu kavyāni pratiṣṭhāpyāni yatnataḥ । havyāni tu yathānyāyaṁ sarveṣveva caturṣvapi ॥ 3.135 ॥

dūrādeva parīkṣeta brāhmaṇaṁ vedapāragam । tīrthaṁ taddhavyakavyānāṁ pradāne so'tithiḥ smr̥taḥ ॥ 3.130 ॥

  • It is said that, for a rite sacred to the deities, one need not make detailed inquiries regarding an invited brahmana; however, in a ceremony in honour of the forefathers, one must carefully examine the invited guest. In case, the father is ignorant of the sacred texts but son has learnt vedas and similarly, when a son is ignorant of the vedas but the father is well versed in the same, know that, he whose father knows the veda, is venerable while the other is worthy of honour too (Manu 3.149, 136 and 137).[1]

न ब्राह्मणं परीक्षेत दैवे कर्मणि धर्मवित् । पित्र्ये कर्मणि तु प्राप्ते परीक्षेत प्रयत्नतः ॥ ३.१४९ ॥

अश्रोत्रियः पिता यस्य पुत्रः स्याद्वेदपारगः । अश्रोत्रियो वा पुत्रः स्यात्पिता स्याद्वेदपारगः ॥ ३.१३६ ॥

ज्यायांसमनयोर्विद्याद्यस्य स्याच्छ्रोत्रियः पिता । मन्त्रसंपूजनार्थं तु सत्कारम् इतरोऽर्हति ॥ ३.१३७ ॥[2]

na brāhmaṇaṁ parīkṣeta daive karmaṇi dharmavit । pitrye karmaṇi tu prāpte parīkṣeta prayatnataḥ ॥ 3.149 ॥

aśrotriyaḥ pitā yasya putraḥ syādvedapāragaḥ । aśrotriyo vā putraḥ syātpitā syādvedapāragaḥ ॥ 3.136 ॥

jyāyāṁsamanayorvidyādyasya syācchrotriyaḥ pitā । mantrasaṁpūjanārthaṁ tu satkāram itaro'rhati ॥ 3.137 ॥

  • One should not feed a friend at a funeral offering; one should feed a brahmana who is neither a foe nor a friend. For, the fruits of feeding only friends in funeral offerings and Yajnas (यज्ञ-s), is not rewarded in the other world. In fact, the ignorant one who builds friendships through a funeral offering, doesn't obtain heaven. And the shraddha food offered to friends is called as 'Paishachi Dakshina' (पैशाची-दक्षिणा) which like a alone blind cow staying in the same stable, remains in this world (Manu Smrt. 3.138, 139, 140 and 141).[1]

न श्राद्धे भोजयेन्मित्रं धनैः कार्योऽस्य संग्रहः । नारिं न मित्रं यं विद्यात्तं श्राद्धे भोजयेद्द्विजम् ॥ ३.१३८ ॥

यस्य मित्रप्रधानानि श्राद्धानि च हवींषि च । तस्य प्रेत्य फलं नास्ति श्राद्धेषु च हविःषु च ॥ ३.१३९ ॥

यः संगतानि कुरुते मोहाच्छ्राद्धेन मानवः । स स्वर्गाच्च्यवते लोकाच्छ्राद्धमित्रो द्विजाधमः ॥ ३.१४० ॥

संभोजानि साभिहिता पैशाची दक्षिणा द्विजैः । इहैवास्ते तु सा लोके गौरन्धेवैकवेश्मनि ॥ ३.१४१ ॥[2]

na śrāddhe bhojayenmitraṁ dhanaiḥ kāryo'sya saṁgrahaḥ । nāriṁ na mitraṁ yaṁ vidyāttaṁ śrāddhe bhojayeddvijam ॥ 3.138 ॥

yasya mitrapradhānāni śrāddhāni ca havīṁṣi ca । tasya pretya phalaṁ nāsti śrāddheṣu ca haviḥṣu ca ॥ 3.139 ॥

yaḥ saṁgatāni kurute mohācchrāddhena mānavaḥ । sa svargāccyavate lokācchrāddhamitro dvijādhamaḥ ॥ 3.140 ॥

saṁbhojāni sābhihitā paiśācī dakṣiṇā dvijaiḥ । ihaivāste tu sā loke gaurandhevaikaveśmani ॥ 3.141 ॥

श्राद्धभोजनानधिकारी ॥ Shraddha Bhojana Anadhikari

Just as there are rules determining who is a worthy receipient of Shraddha Bhojana, similarly, Manusmrti also enlists those who are not eligible to partake the food offering made in a Shraddha (Manu Smrt 3.150-166).[2][1] Some of them are as follows:

  • स्तेनाः ॥ Stena (Thieves)
  • पतिताः ॥ Patita (Outcasts)
  • क्लीबाः ॥ Kliba (Eunuchs)
  • नास्तिकवृत्तयः ॥ Nastika Vrtti (Atheists)
  • जटिलः ॥ Jatila (One who wears his hair in braids - a student)
  • अनधीयानः ॥ Anadhiyana (One who has not studied the Veda)
  • दुर्बालः ॥ Durbala (One afflicted with a skin-disease)
  • कितवः ॥ Kitava (A gambler)
  • ये पुगान् याजयन्ति ॥ Those who sacrifice for a multitude (of sacrificers)
  • चिकित्सकाः ॥ Chikitsaka (Physicians)
  • देवलकाः ॥ Devalaka (Temple-priests)
  • मांसविक्रयिणाः ॥ Mamsa Vikrayina (Sellers of meat)
  • विपणेन जीवन्तः ॥ Vipanena Jivanta (Those who subsist by shop-keeping)
  • प्रेष्याः ग्रामस्य राज्ञश्च ॥ Preshya (A paid servant of a village or of a king)
  • कुनखी || kunakhi (Man with deformed nails)
  • श्यावदन्तकः ॥ Shyava dantaka (Man with black teeth)
  • गुरोः प्रतिरोद्धा ॥ One who opposes his teacher
  • त्यक्ताग्निः ॥ Tyakta agni (One who has forsaken the sacred fire)
  • वाधुषिः ॥ Vadhushi (A usurer)
  • यक्ष्मी ॥ Yakshmi (One suffering from consumption)
  • पशुपालः ॥ Pashupala (One who subsists by tending cattle)
  • परिवेत्ता ॥ Parivetta (A younger brother who marries or kindles the sacred fire before the elder)
  • निराकृतिः ॥ Nirakrti (One who neglects the five great sacrifices)
  • ब्रह्मद्विष् ॥ Brahmadvish (An enemy of the Brahmana race)
  • परिवित्तिः ॥ Parivitti (An elder brother who marries or kindles the sacred fire after the younger)
  • गणाभ्यन्तरः ॥ Ganabhyantara (One who belongs to a company or corporation)
  • कुशीलवो ॥ Kushilava (An actor or singer)
  • अवकीर्णी ॥ Avakirni (One who has broken the vow of studentship)
  • काणः ॥ Kana (A one-eyed man)
  • भृतकाध्यापकः ॥ Bhrtakadhyapaka (He who teaches for a stipulated fee)
  • भृतकाध्यापितः ॥ Bhrtakadhyapita (He who is taught on that condition)
  • वाग्दुष्टः ॥ Vagdushta (He who speaks rudely)
  • अकारणे परित्यक्ता मातापिरोर्गुरोः ॥ He who forsakes his mother, his father, or a teacher without a (sufficient) reason
  • अगारदाही ॥ Agaradahi (An incendiary)
  • गरदः ॥ Garada (A prisoner)
  • सोमविक्रयी ॥ Somavikrayi (A seller of Soma)
  • समुद्रयायी ॥ Samudrayayi (He who undertakes voyages by sea)
  • बन्दी ॥ Bandi (A bard)
  • तैलिकः ॥ Tailaka (An oil-man)
  • कूटकारकः ॥ Kutakaraka (A suborner to perjury)
  • पित्रा विवादमानः ॥ Pitra Vivadamana (He who wrangles or goes to law with his father)
  • कितवः ॥ Kitava (The keeper of a gambling-house)
  • मद्यपः ॥ Madyapa (A drunkard)
  • पापरोगी ॥ Paparogi (He who is afflicted with a disease in punishment of former crimes)
  • अभिशस्तः ॥ Abhishasta (He who is accused of a mortal sin)
  • दाम्भिकः ॥ Dambhika (A hypocrite)
  • रसविक्रयी ॥ Rasavikrayi (A seller of substances used for flavouring food)
  • धनुःशराणां कर्ता ॥ Dhanu Sharanam karta (A maker of bows and of arrows)
  • मित्रधुक् ॥ Mitradhuk (Betrayer of a friend)
  • द्यूतवृत्तिः ॥ Dyutavrtti (One who subsists by gambling)
  • पुत्राचार्यः ॥ Putracharya (He who learns the Veda from his son)
  • भ्रामरी ॥ Bhramari (An epileptic man)
  • गण्डमाली ॥ Gandamali (Who suffers from scrofulous swellings of the glands)
  • श्वित्र्यः ॥ Shvitrya (One afflicted with white leprosy)
  • पिशुनः ॥ Pishuna (An informer)
  • उन्मत्तः ॥ Unmatta (A madman)
  • अन्धः ॥ Andha (A blind man)
  • वेदनिन्दकाः ॥ Veda Nindaka (He who cavils at the Veda)
  • हस्तिगोऽश्वोष्ट्रदमकाः ॥ Hasti, go, ashva, ushtra damaka (A trainer of elephants, oxen, horses, or camels)
  • यः नक्षत्रैः जीवति ॥ He who subsists by astrology
  • पक्षिणां पोषकः ॥ Pakshinam Poshaka (A bird-fancier)
  • युद्धाचार्यः ॥ Yuddhacharya (He who teaches the use of arms)
  • स्रोतसां भेदकः ॥ Srotasam Bhedaka (He who diverts water-courses)
  • यः स्रोतसां आवरणे रतः ॥ He who delights in obstructing them
  • गृहसंवेशकः ॥ Grhasamveshaka (An architect)
  • दूतः ॥ Duta (A messenger)
  • वृक्षारोपकः ॥ Vrksharopaka (He who plants trees for money)
  • श्वक्रीडी ॥ Shvakridi (A breeder of sporting-dogs)
  • श्येनजीवी ॥ Shyena Jivi (A falconer)
  • कन्यादूषकः ॥ Kanya dushaka (One who defiles maidens)
  • हिंस्रः ॥ Himsra (He who delights in injuring living creatures)
  • आचारहीनः ॥ Achara hina (He who does not follow the rule of conduct)
  • क्लीबः ॥ Kliba (A man destitute of energy like a eunuch)
  • नित्यं याचनकः ॥ Nityam Yachanaka (One who constantly asks for favours)
  • कृषिजीवी ॥ Krshi Jivi (He who lives by agriculture)
  • श्लीपदी ॥ Shlipadi (A club-footed man)
  • सद्भिर्निन्दितः ॥ Sadbhirnindita (He who is censured by virtuous men)
  • औरभ्रिकः ॥ Aurabhrika (A shepherd)
  • माहिषिकः ॥ Mahishika (A keeper of buffaloes)
  • प्रेतनिर्यापकः ॥ Preta Niryapaka (A carrier of dead bodies)

According to Manusmrti, a knowledgeable brahmana should shun at yajnas to the deities and to the forefathers the above mentioned lowly brahmanas of spoilt conduct and those who are unworthy of sitting in the company of shraddha bhojana. Because, a brahmana who has not read the vedas is as lifeless as an extinguished fire of dry grass; And an offering is never made in ashes (Manu Smrt. 3.167 and 168).[1]

एतान्विगर्हिताचारानपाङ्क्तेयान्द्विजाधमान् । द्विजातिप्रवरो विद्वानुभयत्र विवर्जयेत् || ३.१६७ ||

ब्राह्मणो त्वनधीयानस्तृणाग्निरिव शाम्यति । तस्मै हव्यं न दातव्यं न हि भस्मनि हूयते || ३.१६८ ||[2]

etānvigarhitācārānapāṅkteyāndvijādhamān । dvijātipravaro vidvānubhayatra vivarjayet || 3.167 ||

brāhmaṇo tvanadhīyānastr̥ṇāgniriva śāmyati । tasmai havyaṁ na dātavyaṁ na hi bhasmani hūyate || 3.168 ||

अनधिकारीभोजनफलम् ॥ Results of giving food to the unworthy

Talking of the results of a Shraddha Bhojana given to the above mentioned unqualified brahmanas, Manusmrti says,

  • The food that is offered to Brahmanas who have not taken up the vow of studentship, a Parivetta and to other men not admissible into the company is termed as Rakshasa Bhojana (Manu Smrt. 3.170).[1]

अव्रतैर्यद्द्विजैर्भुक्तं परिवेत्रादिभिस्तथा । अपाङ्क्तेयैर्यदन्यैश्च तद्वै रक्षांसि भुञ्जते || ३.१७० ||[2]

avratairyaddvijairbhuktaṁ parivetrādibhistathā । apāṅkteyairyadanyaiśca tadvai rakṣāṁsi bhuñjate || 3.170 ||

  • The food offered to a seller of Soma becomes dung, that given to a physician turns into pus and blood, that given to a temple-priest is destroyed and that given to a moneylender becomes fruitless (Manu Smrt. 3.180).[1]

सोमविक्रयिणे विष्ठा भिषजे पूयशोणितम् । नष्टं देवलके दत्तमप्रतिष्ठं तु वार्धुषौ || ३.१८० ||

somavikrayiṇe viṣṭhā bhiṣaje pūyaśoṇitam । naṣṭaṁ devalake dattamapratiṣṭhaṁ tu vārdhuṣau || 3.180 ||

  • Whatever is given to a trader in a shraddha becomes fruitless in this world and the other (Manu Smrt. 3.181).[1]

यत्तु वाणिजके दत्तं नेह नामुत्र तद्भवेत् ।[2] yattu vāṇijake dattaṁ neha nāmutra tadbhavet ।

श्राद्धफलम् ॥ The fruit of Shraddha

  • The one who performs rite for the dead, called Pitru karma (the rite sacred to the forefathers) on the new-moon day, always obtains fruits of this world (Manu Smrt 3.127).[1]

प्रथिता प्रेतकृत्यैषा पित्र्यं नाम विधुक्षये । तस्मिन्युक्तस्यैति नित्यं प्रेतकृत्यैव लौकिकी ॥ ३.१२७ ॥[2]

prathitā pretakr̥tyaiṣā pitryaṁ nāma vidhukṣaye । tasminyuktasyaiti nityaṁ pretakr̥tyaiva laukikī ॥ 3.127 ॥

  • Food and other things in the rites to deities and the forefathers must be presented to brahmanas who are vedapathis (recitators of Veda) and virtuous alone; for, such is the gift that yields the greatest reward. Hence, it is said, feeding even one learned brahmana at the offering to the deities and forefathers yields great reward which cannot be obtained even by feeding many ignorant ones. Just as one reaps no harvest by sowing the seed in barren soil, similarly, the giver of food offering gains no reward if he presented it to an ignorant unacquainted with the Vedas. However, a present made in accordance with the rules to a learned man, makes the giver and the recipient partakers of rewards in both this world and the other. (Manu Smrt 3.128, 129, 142 and 143).[1]

श्रोत्रियायैव देयानि हव्यकव्यानि दातृभिः । अर्हत्तमाय विप्राय तस्मै दत्तं महाफलम् ॥ ३.१२८ ॥

एकैकमपि विद्वांसं दैवे पित्र्ये च भोजयेत् । पुष्कलं फलमप्नोति नामन्त्रज्ञान्बहूनपि ॥ ३.१२९ ॥

यथेरिणे बीजमुप्त्वा न वप्ता लभते फलम् । तथानृचे हविर्दत्त्वा न दाता लभते फलम् ॥ ३.१४२ ॥

दातॄन्प्रतिग्रहीतॄंश्च कुरुते फलभागिनः । विदुषे दक्षिणां दत्त्वा विधिवत्प्रेत्य चेह च ॥ ३.१४३ ॥[2]

śrotriyāyaiva deyāni havyakavyāni dātr̥bhiḥ । arhattamāya viprāya tasmai dattaṁ mahāphalam ॥ 3.128 ॥

ekaikamapi vidvāṁsaṁ daive pitrye ca bhojayet । puṣkalaṁ phalamapnoti nāmantrajñānbahūnapi ॥ 3.129 ॥

yatheriṇe bījamuptvā na vaptā labhate phalam । tathānr̥ce havirdattvā na dātā labhate phalam ॥ 3.142 ॥व्

dātr̥̄npratigrahītr̥̄ṁśca kurute phalabhāginaḥ । viduṣe dakṣiṇāṁ dattvā vidhivatpretya ceha ca ॥ 3.143 ॥

  • However, if no learned Brahmana is available, one may rather honour a friend than a learned enemy, for that bears no reward. (Manu Smrt. 3.144).[1]

कामं श्राद्धेऽर्चयेन्मित्रं नाभिरूपमपि त्वरिम् । द्विषता हि हविर्भुक्तं भवति प्रेत्य निष्फलम् ॥ ३.१४४ ॥[2]

kāmaṁ śrāddhe'rcayenmitraṁ nābhirūpamapi tvarim । dviṣatā hi havirbhuktaṁ bhavati pretya niṣphalam ॥ 3.144 ॥

References