Bhuta Yajna (भूतयज्ञः)

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Bhuta Yajna (Samskrit: भूतयज्ञः) is one of the Panchamahayajnas (पञ्चमहायज्ञ-s | five great sacrifices) prescribed to the गृहस्थाश्रमी-s (Grhasthashramis | householders) by the great sages. They are expected to be performed everyday.

परिचयः ॥ Introduction

Also called as Prahuta - प्रहुतो भौतिको बलिः । prahuto bhautiko baliḥ ।, Bhuta Yajna refers to the Bali offering given to the Bhutas - भूतानि बलिकर्मणा | bhūtāni balikarmaṇā । (Manu 3.74 and 3.81 ) [1][2]

बलिविधिक्रमः ॥ The Order of Bali Offering

According to Manusmrti, a Brahmana should perform a homa (give oblation of cooked rice) according to the rules, in the sacred domestic fire destined for the Vaisvadeva for the following deities (Manu 3.84)[1][2]

  • First to Agni, next to Soma, then to both these gods conjointly, further to all the gods (Vishvedeva), and then to Dhanvantari (Manu 3.85)
  • Further to Kuhu (the goddess of the new-moon day), to Anumati (the goddess of the full-moon day), to Prajapati, to Dyava and Prthivi (heaven and earth) conjointly, and finally to Svishtakrit (Manu 3.86)[1][2]
Bali krama 1-page-001.jpg
  • In this manner, having duly offered the sacrificial food, one is adviced to perform 'pradakshina' (प्रदक्षिणा) in all directions and offer Bali offerings to Indra, Yama, Varuna, Chandra and their followers (Manu 3.87)
  • Then bali is to be offered to the Maruts at the door of the house, then to water, the pestle and the mortar and the trees.(Manu 3.88)[1][2]
  • The text then describes the place of offering for the following deities:
Deity Place of Offering
Sri Near the head of Vastu Purusha (Ishana direction)
Bhadrakali Near the foot of the Vastu Purusha (वास्तुपुरुषः)
Brahman and Vastoshpati In the centre of the house
  • One should throw a bali upwards towards the sky for all the gods (Vishvedeva), then to the deities wandering by the day and those by the night. (Manu 3.90)
  • In the upper most story of the house, a bali should be offered to Sarvatmabhuti; and remaining bali (from these offerings) should be offered to the pitrus in the southern direction. (Manu 3.91)
  • And finally, one is adviced to gently place on the ground (some food) for dogs, outcasts, Chandalas, sinners, diseased, crows, and insects (Manu 3.92)[1][2]

भूतयज्ञफलम् ॥ The Fruit of Bhuta Yajna

According to Manusmrti, that Brahmana who honours all beings by observing the Bhuta bali everyday, reaches by a straight road, the most resplendent highest dwelling-place. (Manu 3.93)[2]

एवं यः सर्वभूतानि ब्राह्मणो नित्यं अर्चति । स गच्छति परं स्थानं तेजोमूर्तिः पथा र्जुना । । ३.९३ । ।[1]

evaṁ yaḥ sarvabhūtāni brāhmaṇo nityaṁ arcati । sa gacchati paraṁ sthānaṁ tejomūrtiḥ pathā rjunā । । 3.93 । ।

श्लोकाः ॥ Verses

वैश्वदेवस्य सिद्धस्य गृह्येऽग्नौ विधिपूर्वकम् । आभ्यः कुर्याद्देवताभ्यो ब्राह्मणो होमं अन्वहम् । । ३.८४ । ।

अग्नेः सोमस्य चैवादौ तयोश्चैव समस्तयोः । विश्वेभ्यश्चैव देवेभ्यो धन्वन्तरय एव च । । ३.८५ । ।

कुह्वै चैवानुमत्यै च प्रजापतय एव च । सह द्यावापृथिव्योश्च तथा स्विष्टकृतेऽन्ततः । । ३.८६ । ।

एवं सम्यग्घविर्हुत्वा सर्वदिक्षु प्रदक्षिणम् । इन्द्रान्तकाप्पतीन्दुभ्यः सानुगेभ्यो बलिं हरेत् । । ३.८७ । ।

मरुद्भ्य इति तु द्वारि क्षिपेदप्स्वद्भ्य इत्यपि । वनस्पतिभ्य इत्येवं मुसलोलूखले हरेत् । । ३.८८ । ।

उच्छीर्षके श्रियै कुर्याद्भद्रकाल्यै च पादतः । ब्रह्मवास्तोष्पतिभ्यां तु वास्तुमध्ये बलिं हरेत् । । ३.८९ । ।

विश्वेभ्यश्चैव देवेभ्यो बलिं आकाश उत्क्षिपेत् । दिवाचरेभ्यो भूतेभ्यो नक्तंचारिभ्य एव च । । ३.९० । ।

पृष्ठवास्तुनि कुर्वीत बलिं सर्वात्मभूतये । पितृभ्यो बलिशेषं तु सर्वं दक्षिणतो हरेत् । । ३.९१ । ।

शूनां च पतितानां च श्वपचां पापरोगिणाम् । वयसानां कृमीणां च शनकैर्निर्वपेद्भुवि । । ३.९२ । ।

Transliteration:

vaiśvadevasya siddhasya gr̥hye'gnau vidhipūrvakam । ābhyaḥ kuryāddevatābhyo brāhmaṇo homaṁ anvaham । । 3.84 । ।

agneḥ somasya caivādau tayoścaiva samastayoḥ । viśvebhyaścaiva devebhyo dhanvantaraya eva ca । । 3.85 । ।

kuhvai caivānumatyai ca prajāpataya eva ca । saha dyāvāpr̥thivyośca tathā sviṣṭakr̥te'ntataḥ । । 3.86 । ।

evaṁ samyagghavirhutvā sarvadikṣu pradakṣiṇam । indrāntakāppatīndubhyaḥ sānugebhyo baliṁ haret । । 3.87 । ।

marudbhya iti tu dvāri kṣipedapsvadbhya ityapi । vanaspatibhya ityevaṁ musalolūkhale haret । । 3.88 । ।

ucchīrṣake śriyai kuryādbhadrakālyai ca pādataḥ । brahmavāstoṣpatibhyāṁ tu vāstumadhye baliṁ haret । । 3.89 । ।

viśvebhyaścaiva devebhyo baliṁ ākāśa utkṣipet । divācarebhyo bhūtebhyo naktaṁcāribhya eva ca । । 3.90 । ।

pr̥ṣṭhavāstuni kurvīta baliṁ sarvātmabhūtaye । pitr̥bhyo baliśeṣaṁ tu sarvaṁ dakṣiṇato haret । । 3.91 । ।

śūnāṁ ca patitānāṁ ca śvapacāṁ pāparogiṇām । vayasānāṁ kr̥mīṇāṁ ca śanakairnirvapedbhuvi । । 3.92 । ।

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Manusmrti, Adhyaya 3
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Pt. Girija Prasad Dvivedi (1917), The Manusmriti, Lucknow: Naval Kishore Press