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Bharatiya Sangita Shastra (भारतीयसङ्गीतशास्त्रम्)
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08:33, 11 January 2018
Added sub topic and content - सामगानम्
इन्द्राय बृहत् साम गायत। (8.87.1)
अङ्गिरसो न सामभिः। (10.78.5)<ref>http://ignca.nic.in/vedic_heritage/Jaiminiyasamagana_origin_Prof_CMNeelakandan.pdf Pg.no.1-2</ref>
==== सामगानम् ====
The oral Gāna tradition of Sāmaveda is very unique, elaborate and musical.
The oral chanting methods slightly changes with each of the existing shakhas ie. the Jaimineeya, Kauthuma and Ranayaneeya. Again, the chanting tradition and the Svaras and the peculiarities of accents change according to each region. Kerala Namboothiris have a particular way of chanting of Sāmaveda which is not found in other places. Similarly Jaimineeya of Tamil Nadu tradition is again different in the style of chanting. The same Jaimineeya tradition of Tamil Brahmins settled in Kerala at Koduntirappully village near Palakkad has minor differences from that of the Jaimineeya tradition of Tamil Brahmins settled in Tamil Nadu. Regional cultures, social environments, historical aspects, accentuation, food habits and the like surely influence the method of articulation of letters and words which is invariably found in the chanting tradition of Sāmaveda also. The Prāceenakauthuma retaining its original tradition in its prestine purity in the Puthukkode village near Palakkad and the same subjected to change in Maharashtra and other regions, as noted above, are the best examples for these tendencies.
But the common and most important factor related to the Gāna tradition of Sāmaveda in general is invariably found in all these shakhas in all parts of India in all its stages of development and evolution. This is its close relationship with the music tradition of India, expecially classical music. All the seven Svaras of classical music are found and used in its primitive form in Sāma chanting. ''Krustha, Prathama, Dviteeya, Trteeya, Caturtha, Mandra and Atisvara are the seven Svaras used in Sāma chanting''. Krustha is the Svara in the highest pitch. Trteeyasvara is considered the basic Svara (Àdharasvara) and it is also known as Dhrutapracaya.
Naradeeyashiksha states that the seven Svaras of Sāma are respectively the seven Svaras of classical music.
'''प्रथमश्च द्वितीयश्चतृतीयोऽथ चतुर्थकः।'''
'''मन्द्रः क्रुष्टो ह्यतिस्वारः एतान् कुर्वन्ति
(Prapathaka I, Khanda 1, shloka 12)
'''यः सामगानां प्रथमः स वेणोर्मध्यमः स्वरः।'''
'''यो द्वितीयः स गान्धारः तृतीयस्त्वृषभः स्मृतः॥'''
'''चतुर्थः षड्ज इत्याहुः पञ्चमो धैवतो भवेत्।'''
'''षष्ठो निषादो विज्ञेयः सप्तमः पञ्चमः स्मृतः॥'''
(Prapathaka I, Khanda 5, shloka 1, 2)
!Svaras of Classical music
Thus the oral Gāna tradition of Sāma chanting is related to classical music in many ways.
Close relationship of Sāma chanting with music is highlighted by many earlier scholars in their authoritative statements. Some examples are given here.
'''सामभ्यो गीतमेव च।''' (Natyashastram)
'''सामवेदात् स्वरो जातः स्वरेभ्यो ग्रामसम्भवः।''' (Brhaddeshi of Matanga)
'''सामवेदादिदं गीतं संजग्राह पितामहः।''' (Sangeetaratnakara of Sarngadeva)
'''सप्तस्वरास्तु गीयन्ते सामभिस्सामगैर्बुधैः।''' (Mandukyashiksha)
It is taking into consideration this musical importance of Sāmaveda that in Bhagavadgeetā Lord Krshna identifies himself with Sāmaveda among the four Vedas.
('''वेदानां सामवेदोऽस्मि।''').<ref>http://ignca.nic.in/vedic_heritage/Jaiminiyasamagana_origin_Prof_CMNeelakandan.pdf Pg.no.9-11</ref>
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