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== Etymology ==
 
== Etymology ==
 
The term 'Vipaka' is composed of 2 parts. वि + पच <ref>Shabdakalpadruma See [https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%B6%E0%A4%AC%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%B2%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%83/%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%A7 Vipaka] </ref>
 
The term 'Vipaka' is composed of 2 parts. वि + पच <ref>Shabdakalpadruma See [https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%B6%E0%A4%AC%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%B2%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%83/%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%A7 Vipaka] </ref>
# Vi : it stanads for Vishista
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# Vi (वि) : it stanads for Vishista
# Pa : paka means pachanam or digestion  
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# Pacha : pacha is the root term of word pachanam meaning digestion and transformation
 
Thus, The term vipaka indicates the specific transformation of a dravya after its metabolism inside the body. This specific quality generated after transformation is called as 'Vipaka' in Ayurveda. It is defined by Acharya Vagbhata as,<blockquote>जाठरेणाग्निना योगाद्यदुदेति रसान्तरम् | रसानां परिणामान्ते स विपाक इति स्मृतः ॥ (Asht. Hrud. 9.20)<ref name=":0">Ashtanga Hrudayam (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 9 Sutra 20)</ref></blockquote><blockquote>jāṭhareṇāgninā yogādyadudeti rasāntaram | rasānāṁ pariṇāmānte sa vipāka iti smr̥taḥ ॥ (Asht. Hrud. 9.20)<ref name=":0" /></blockquote>Meaning: The digestive fire or jatharagni when comes in contact with rasa of a certain dravya or ahara(food) it transforms into vipaka at the end. Thus the end effect of the rasa(taste) can be termed as vipaka.
 
Thus, The term vipaka indicates the specific transformation of a dravya after its metabolism inside the body. This specific quality generated after transformation is called as 'Vipaka' in Ayurveda. It is defined by Acharya Vagbhata as,<blockquote>जाठरेणाग्निना योगाद्यदुदेति रसान्तरम् | रसानां परिणामान्ते स विपाक इति स्मृतः ॥ (Asht. Hrud. 9.20)<ref name=":0">Ashtanga Hrudayam (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 9 Sutra 20)</ref></blockquote><blockquote>jāṭhareṇāgninā yogādyadudeti rasāntaram | rasānāṁ pariṇāmānte sa vipāka iti smr̥taḥ ॥ (Asht. Hrud. 9.20)<ref name=":0" /></blockquote>Meaning: The digestive fire or jatharagni when comes in contact with rasa of a certain dravya or ahara(food) it transforms into vipaka at the end. Thus the end effect of the rasa(taste) can be termed as vipaka.
    
== The concept of Avasthapaka and Nishthapaka ==
 
== The concept of Avasthapaka and Nishthapaka ==
Avasthapaka and nishthapaka are 2 distinct concepts in Ayurveda. Nishthapaka means vipaka while avasthapaka is the quality displayed during the transient state of food during the process of digestion. Vipaka is constant quality of a substance post digestion or transformation while, avasthapaka is temporary stage. Both of them have effect on body components and health. Avasthpaka is constant for any dravya whereas nishthapaka or vipaka is specific to the dravya and related to its rasa.  
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Avasthapaka and nishthapaka are 2 distinct concepts in Ayurveda. Nishthapaka means vipaka while avasthapaka is the substance's quality displayed during the transient phase of digestion. Vipaka is constant quality of a substance post digestion or transformation while, avasthapaka is temporary state. Both of them have effect on body components and health. Avasthapaka is constant irrespective of a dravya whereas nishthapaka or vipaka is specific to the dravya and related to its rasa. Both the terms include 'paka' as a part of their name since both these qualities are dependent on the process of paka i.e. pachanam (digestion and transformation of a substance)
 
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According to Ayurveda at a very basic level, Ahara or food is digested in two main stages, awasthapaak(initial stage) and nishthapaak or vipaka(end stage)
      
=== Awasthapaka (initial stage) ===
 
=== Awasthapaka (initial stage) ===
अन्नस्य भुक्तमात्रस्य षड्रसस्य प्रपाकतः|
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When the food is ingested, it undergoes various metabolic changes in our digestive tract, it does not remain in that same state. thus, the process in which the food changes, its state is known as awasthapaak. This occurs in three stages.<ref>Charaka Samhita (Chikitsasthanam Adhyaya 15 Sutra 9 -11)</ref>
 
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# Prathama awasthapaka (first level of initial stage of digestion) wherein the food gets digested and changes its form in aamashaya or stomach with the help if madura(sweet) Rasa. Here kapha is produces which is like froth.
मधुराद्यात् कफो भावात् फेनभूत उदीर्यते|
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# Dwitiya awasthapaak(second level of initial stage of digestion) wherein the semi digested food leaves the stomach and changes its form further with the help of amla(sour) rasa. Here pitta is produced.
 
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# Trutiya awasthpaak(third level of initial stage of digestion) wherein the food changes its form into solid mass in intestine with the help of katu rasa. Vata is produced in this process.
परं तु पच्यमानस्य विदग्धस्याम्लभावतः|
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आशयाच्च्यवमानस्य पित्तमच्छमुदीर्यते||
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पक्वाशयं तु प्राप्तस्य शोष्यमाणस्य वह्निना|
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परिपिण्डितपक्वस्य वायुः स्यात् कटुभावतः| (char. chik.15)
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  −
When the food is ingested, it undergoes various metabolic changes in our digestive tract, it does not remain in that same state. thus, the process in which the food changes, its state is known as awasthapaak. This occurs in three stages.
  −
 
  −
1) Prathama awasthapaka(first level of initial stage of digestion) wherein the food gets digested and changes its form in aamashaya or stomach with the help if madura(sweet) Rasa. Here kapha is produces which is like froth.
  −
 
  −
2) Dwitiya awasthapaak(second level of initial stage of digestion) wherein the semi digested food leaves the stomach and changes its form further with the help of amla(sour) rasa. Here pitta is produced.
  −
 
  −
3) Trutiya awasthpaak(third level of initial stage of digestion) wherein the food changes its form into solid mass in intestine with the help of katu rasa. Vata is produced in this process.
      
=== Nishthapaka or Vipaka (End stage) ===
 
=== Nishthapaka or Vipaka (End stage) ===
 
Nishthapaka is the term synonymously used with the term vipaka.<ref>Chakrapani commentary on Charaka Samhita (Chikitsasthanam Adhyaya 15 Sutram 9-11)</ref> Vipaka of a dravya is specific to its rasa. Ayurveda treatises clearly explain which rasa generates which vipaka. In general, it is described that, <blockquote>परं चातो विपाकानां लक्षणं सम्प्रवक्ष्यते ॥</blockquote><blockquote>कटुतिक्तकषायाणां विपाकः प्रायशः कटुः | अम्लोऽम्लं पच्यते स्वादुर्मधुरं लवणस्तथा ॥ (Char. Samh. 26.57-58)<ref>Charaka Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 26 Sutram 57-58)</ref></blockquote><blockquote>paraṁ cāto vipākānāṁ lakṣaṇaṁ sampravakṣyate ॥</blockquote><blockquote>kaṭutiktakaṣāyāṇāṁ vipākaḥ prāyaśaḥ kaṭuḥ | amlo'mlaṁ pacyate svādurmadhuraṁ lavaṇastathā ॥ (Char. Samh. 26.57-58)</blockquote>Meaning: It is the finally transformed state of food or dravya (substance) after digestion. After the initial digestion phase, the food is assimilated for the further nourishment of dhatus in this process. The metabolism of any dravya in this context is based on rasa(taste) since it can be perceived, but their end effect can only be inferred by their actions in our body. On this basis vipaka can be understood as follows.
 
Nishthapaka is the term synonymously used with the term vipaka.<ref>Chakrapani commentary on Charaka Samhita (Chikitsasthanam Adhyaya 15 Sutram 9-11)</ref> Vipaka of a dravya is specific to its rasa. Ayurveda treatises clearly explain which rasa generates which vipaka. In general, it is described that, <blockquote>परं चातो विपाकानां लक्षणं सम्प्रवक्ष्यते ॥</blockquote><blockquote>कटुतिक्तकषायाणां विपाकः प्रायशः कटुः | अम्लोऽम्लं पच्यते स्वादुर्मधुरं लवणस्तथा ॥ (Char. Samh. 26.57-58)<ref>Charaka Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 26 Sutram 57-58)</ref></blockquote><blockquote>paraṁ cāto vipākānāṁ lakṣaṇaṁ sampravakṣyate ॥</blockquote><blockquote>kaṭutiktakaṣāyāṇāṁ vipākaḥ prāyaśaḥ kaṭuḥ | amlo'mlaṁ pacyate svādurmadhuraṁ lavaṇastathā ॥ (Char. Samh. 26.57-58)</blockquote>Meaning: It is the finally transformed state of food or dravya (substance) after digestion. After the initial digestion phase, the food is assimilated for the further nourishment of dhatus in this process. The metabolism of any dravya in this context is based on rasa(taste) since it can be perceived, but their end effect can only be inferred by their actions in our body. On this basis vipaka can be understood as follows.
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Substances having katu, tikta, Kashaya rasa are transformed into katu vipaka.
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Substances having Katu (कटुः| Pungent), Tikta (तिक्त | Bitter), Kashaya (कषाय | Astringent) rasa are transformed into katu vipaka.
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Substances having amla rasa are transformed into amla vipaka and those having madhura and lavana rasa are transformed into madhura vipaka.
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Substances having Amla (अम्ल | Sour) rasa are transformed into Amla vipaka and those having Madhura (मधुर | Sweet) and Lavana (लवण | Salty) rasa are transformed into madhura vipaka.
    
But there exists a set of certain drugs which have an unexpected end effect or vipaka in our body according to some ayurvedic scholars.
 
But there exists a set of certain drugs which have an unexpected end effect or vipaka in our body according to some ayurvedic scholars.
    
== Types of Vipaka ==
 
== Types of Vipaka ==
According to ayurvedic acharyas(scholars) there is difference of opinion and theories when it comes to the classification of vipaka. But at the tip of iceberg the types are as follows.
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According to ayurvedic acharyas (scholars) there is difference of opinion and theories when it comes to the classification of vipaka. But at the tip of iceberg the types are as follows,
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# Shadvidha vipaka vada (concept of 6 vipaka) <ref name=":1">Sushruta Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 40 Sutra 10)</ref>
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# Panchavidha vipaka vada (concept of 5 vipaka) <ref>Sushruta Samhita (sutrasthanam Adhyaya 26 Sutra 524)</ref>
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# Trividha vipaka vada (concept of 3 vipaka) <ref>Charaka Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 26 Sutra 63)</ref> <ref>Ashtanga Hrudayam (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 1 Sutra 17)</ref>
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# Dvividha vipaka vada (concept of 2 vipaka) <ref name=":1" />
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Despite differences of opinions regarding types of vipakas, widely the theory of 3 types of vipakas is accepted and applied in to practice. According to this theory, MAdhura, Amla and Katu are 3 types of vipakas for various dravyas based on their rasa.  
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1. Shadvidha vipaka vada(concept of 6 vipaka) [sush.sutr.40.10]
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== Action and effect of Vipaka on body ==
 
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Vipaka is directly associated to the rasa of a dravya. Similar to rasa, vipaka also affects body components and their function. The effect of each of the 3 vipakas on [[Doshas (दोषाः)|doshas]] in body is given in table.
2. Panchavidha vipaka vada(concept of 5 vipaka)[sush.sutr.26.524]
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{| class="wikitable"
 
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|+Effect of Vipaka on doshas
3. Trividha vipaka vada(concept of 3 vipaka)[char.sutr.26.63],[ash.su.1.17]
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!Sr No
 
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!Vipaka type
4. Dvividha vipaka vada(concept of 2 vipaka)[sush.sutr.40.10]
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!Effect on Dosha
 
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|-
So, to summarize the basic types of vipaka and its effect on dosha;
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|1
 
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|Madhura
VIPAKA GUNA(PROPERTY) DOSHA
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|Increases Kapha
 
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|-
Madhura Snigdha,guru Increases kapha
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|2
 
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|Amla
Amla Snigdha,laghu Increases pitta
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|Increases Pitta and Kapha
 
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|-
Katu Ruksha,laghu Increases vata
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|3
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|Katu
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|Increases Vata
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|}
    
== Importance of Vipaka ==
 
== Importance of Vipaka ==
(According to sush.sutr.40.10)
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While selecting food and medicinal substances, vipaka of a certain food article or medicinal substance is taken in to consideration along with other factors like rasa, veerya, guna etc. Viapaka is one of those factors that decide action of a dravya inside body and its health effects. Moreover, the concept of vipaka is important to Ayurveda because the guna (benefits) and dosha (adverse effects) of dravya are dependent on the end effect of metabolism that is vipaka since vipaka can directly affect dosha equilibrium. Also, if a certain drug is digested with the help of proper jatharagni (digestive fire) then the guna (property) of that drug is enhanced, whereas if there is no proper digestion of that drug then dosha imbalance can be seen due to inappropriate vipaka.
 
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The concept of vipaka is important to Ayurveda because the guna and dosha of dravya is dependent on the end effect of metabolism that is vipaka. Which means if a certain drug is digested with the help of proper jatharagni(digestive fire) then the guna(property) of that drug is enhanced, whereas if there is no proper digestion of that drug then dosha imbalance can be seen.
      
== References ==
 
== References ==
 
<references />
 
<references />
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