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# Vi : it stanads for Vishista
 
# Vi : it stanads for Vishista
 
# Pa : paka means pachanam or digestion  
 
# Pa : paka means pachanam or digestion  
Thus, The term vipaka indicates the specific transformation of a dravya after its metabolism inside the body. This specific quality generated after transformation is called as 'Vipaka' in Ayurveda. It is defined by Acharya Vagbhata as,<blockquote>जाठरेणाग्निना योगाद्यदुदेति रसान्तरम्|</blockquote><blockquote>रसानां परिणामान्ते स विपाक इति स्मृतः| (Asht. Hrud. 9.20)<ref>Ashtanga Hrudayam (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 9 Sutra 20)</ref></blockquote>Meaning: The digestive fire or jatharagni when comes in contact with rasa of a certain dravya or ahara(food) it transforms into vipaka at the end. Thus the end effect of the rasa(taste) can be termed as vipaka.
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Thus, The term vipaka indicates the specific transformation of a dravya after its metabolism inside the body. This specific quality generated after transformation is called as 'Vipaka' in Ayurveda. It is defined by Acharya Vagbhata as,<blockquote>जाठरेणाग्निना योगाद्यदुदेति रसान्तरम् | रसानां परिणामान्ते स विपाक इति स्मृतः (Asht. Hrud. 9.20)<ref name=":0">Ashtanga Hrudayam (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 9 Sutra 20)</ref></blockquote><blockquote>jāṭhareṇāgninā yogādyadudeti rasāntaram | rasānāṁ pariṇāmānte sa vipāka iti smr̥taḥ ॥ (Asht. Hrud. 9.20)<ref name=":0" /></blockquote>Meaning: The digestive fire or jatharagni when comes in contact with rasa of a certain dravya or ahara(food) it transforms into vipaka at the end. Thus the end effect of the rasa(taste) can be termed as vipaka.
    
== The concept of Avasthapaka and Nishthapaka ==
 
== The concept of Avasthapaka and Nishthapaka ==
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Avasthapaka and nishthapaka are 2 distinct concepts in Ayurveda. Nishthapaka means vipaka while avasthapaka is the quality displayed during the transient state of food during the process of digestion. Vipaka is constant quality of a substance post digestion or transformation while, avasthapaka is temporary stage. Both of them have effect on body components and health. Avasthpaka is constant for any dravya whereas nishthapaka or vipaka is specific to the dravya and related to its rasa.
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According to Ayurveda at a very basic level, Ahara or food is digested in two main stages, awasthapaak(initial stage) and nishthapaak or vipaka(end stage)
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=== Awasthapaka (initial stage) ===
 
अन्नस्य भुक्तमात्रस्य षड्रसस्य प्रपाकतः|
 
अन्नस्य भुक्तमात्रस्य षड्रसस्य प्रपाकतः|
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परिपिण्डितपक्वस्य वायुः स्यात् कटुभावतः| (char. chik.15)
 
परिपिण्डितपक्वस्य वायुः स्यात् कटुभावतः| (char. chik.15)
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To understand the importance of vipaka, it is essential to know the basic concept of digestive process. According to Ayurveda at a very basic level, Ahara or food is digested in two main stages, awasthapaak(initial stage) and nishthapaak or vipaka(end stage)
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=== Awasthapaka (initial stage) ===
   
When the food is ingested, it undergoes various metabolic changes in our digestive tract, it does not remain in that same state. thus, the process in which the food changes, its state is known as awasthapaak. This occurs in three stages.
 
When the food is ingested, it undergoes various metabolic changes in our digestive tract, it does not remain in that same state. thus, the process in which the food changes, its state is known as awasthapaak. This occurs in three stages.
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=== Nishthapaka or Vipaka (End stage) ===
 
=== Nishthapaka or Vipaka (End stage) ===
परं चातो विपाकानां लक्षणं सम्प्रवक्ष्यते||
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Nishthapaka is the term synonymously used with the term vipaka.<ref>Chakrapani commentary on Charaka Samhita (Chikitsasthanam Adhyaya 15 Sutram 9-11)</ref> Vipaka of a dravya is specific to its rasa. Ayurveda treatises clearly explain which rasa generates which vipaka. In general, it is described that, <blockquote>परं चातो विपाकानां लक्षणं सम्प्रवक्ष्यते ॥</blockquote><blockquote>कटुतिक्तकषायाणां विपाकः प्रायशः कटुः | अम्लोऽम्लं पच्यते स्वादुर्मधुरं लवणस्तथा ॥ (Char. Samh. 26.57-58)<ref>Charaka Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 26 Sutram 57-58)</ref></blockquote><blockquote>paraṁ cāto vipākānāṁ lakṣaṇaṁ sampravakṣyate ॥</blockquote><blockquote>kaṭutiktakaṣāyāṇāṁ vipākaḥ prāyaśaḥ kaṭuḥ | amlo'mlaṁ pacyate svādurmadhuraṁ lavaṇastathā ॥ (Char. Samh. 26.57-58)</blockquote>Meaning: It is the finally transformed state of food or dravya (substance) after digestion. After the initial digestion phase, the food is assimilated for the further nourishment of dhatus in this process. The metabolism of any dravya in this context is based on rasa(taste) since it can be perceived, but their end effect can only be inferred by their actions in our body. On this basis vipaka can be understood as follows.
 
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कटुतिक्तकषायाणां विपाकः प्रायशः कटुः| अम्लोऽम्लं पच्यते स्वादुर्मधुरं लवणस्तथा|| (char.su.26.57,58)
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It is the finally transformed state of food or dravya(substance) after digestion. After the initial digestion phase, the food is assimilated for the further nourishment of dhatus in this process. The metabolism of any dravya in this context is based on rasa(taste) since it can be perceived, but their end effect can only be inferred by their actions in our body. On this basis vipaka can be understood as follows.
      
Substances having katu, tikta, Kashaya rasa are transformed into katu vipaka.
 
Substances having katu, tikta, Kashaya rasa are transformed into katu vipaka.
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Substances having amla rasa are transformed into amla vipaka and those having madhura and lavana rasa are transformed into madhura vipaka.
 
Substances having amla rasa are transformed into amla vipaka and those having madhura and lavana rasa are transformed into madhura vipaka.
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But we need to rule out a set of certain drugs which have an unexpected end effect or vipaka in our body according to some ayurvedic scholars.
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But there exists a set of certain drugs which have an unexpected end effect or vipaka in our body according to some ayurvedic scholars.
    
== Types of Vipaka ==
 
== Types of Vipaka ==
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The concept of vipaka is important to Ayurveda because the guna and dosha of dravya is dependent on the end effect of metabolism that is vipaka. Which means if a certain drug is digested with the help of proper jatharagni(digestive fire) then the guna(property) of that drug is enhanced, whereas if there is no proper digestion of that drug then dosha imbalance can be seen.
 
The concept of vipaka is important to Ayurveda because the guna and dosha of dravya is dependent on the end effect of metabolism that is vipaka. Which means if a certain drug is digested with the help of proper jatharagni(digestive fire) then the guna(property) of that drug is enhanced, whereas if there is no proper digestion of that drug then dosha imbalance can be seen.
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== References ==
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<references />
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