Shraddha (श्रद्धा)

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Shraddha (Samskrit: श्रद्धा) as a concept broadly refers to firm belief towards a deity, person or shastra.[1] As a quality, it is described as the rudimentary stage of Bhakti.[2] Shraddha is also a deity in the Rgveda.[3] And is seen personified across Vedic literature from the Brahmanas to the Itihasas and Puranas.[4] This article explores the different facets of Shraddha from the Vedas to the Puranas.

परिचयः ॥ Introduction

The term Shraddha is explained in Apte's Sanskrit dictionary with the following words:

"to believe, put faith in, trust, respect, revere or desire something"

It also refers to,

  • a state of calmness or composure of the mind
  • a firm belief in divine revelation[5][1]

Simply put, Shraddha is an emotion one has for a deity, person or shastra (any scriptural text or injunctions that guide human behaviour).[1] It is the ability or quality to believe in what one does not see and its reward is in seeing what was believed in.[6] It is infact, considered as one of the highest virtues; a gift of the Supreme Being that always bears fruits which carry over to the next life as well.

The highest quality of shraddha is said to be that of a devotee.[1] It reflects the firm conviction of a bhakta that all of one’s obligations will be fulfilled by adhering to the path of bhakti.[7] And by accumulating pious devotional activities over many births or by associating with a pure bhakta, one's Shraddha in the statements of Shastras is awakened. And hence, Shraddha is referred to as the first manifestation of the creeper of devotion.[8][9]

Also, it is said that Shraddha reflects the basic nature of people. And an absence of Shraddha causes all efforts to go in vain. The Bhagavad Gita, in Chapter 17 (Shraddha Traya Vibhaga Yoga), explains this indigenous concept of Shraddha with respect to the three gunas (quality or innate tendencies) of Samkhya darshana or philosophy namely, Sattva, rajas and tamas; an understanding of which enriches in general, the understanding of bharatiya adhyatmata.[1]

श्रद्धायाः महत्त्वम् ॥ Greatness of Shraddha

The Samskrit dictionary, Shabdakalpadruma[10], quotes the greatness of Shraddha as enumerated in the Adhyaya named 'Dhenu-dana Mahatmya' from the Agni Purana as follows,

तस्याः प्रशंसा यथा, -- ब्रह्मोवाच । “श्रद्धापूर्वा इमे धर्माः श्रद्धा मध्यान्त-संस्थिताः । श्रद्धा नित्या प्रतिष्ठाश्च धर्माः श्रंद्धैव कीर्त्तिताः ॥ श्रुतिमात्ररसाः सूक्ष्माः प्रधानपुरुषेश्वराः । श्रद्धामात्रेण गृह्यन्ते न करेण न चक्षुषा ॥ कायक्लेशैर्न बहुभिस्तथवार्थस्य राशिभिः । धर्मः संप्राप्यते सूक्ष्मः श्रद्धाहीनैः सुरैरपि ॥ श्रद्धा धर्मः परः सूक्ष्मः श्रद्धा ज्ञानं हुतं तपः । श्रद्धा स्वर्गश्च मोक्षश्च श्रद्धा सर्वमिदं जगत् ॥ सर्वस्वं जीवितं वापि दद्यादश्रद्धया यदि । नाप्नुयात्तत्फलं किञ्चित् श्रद्धादानं ततो भवेत् ॥ एवं श्रद्धान्वयाः सर्वे सर्वधर्माः प्रकीर्त्तिताः । केशवः श्रद्धया गम्यो ध्येयः पूज्यश्च सर्वदा ॥” इति वह्निपुराणे धेनुदानमाहात्म्याध्यायः ॥[11]

tasyāḥ praśaṁsā yathā, -- brahmovāca । "śraddhāpūrvā ime dharmāḥ śraddhā madhyānta-saṁsthitāḥ । śraddhā nityā pratiṣṭhāśca dharmāḥ śraṁddhaiva kīrttitāḥ ॥ śrutimātrarasāḥ sūkṣmāḥ pradhānapuruṣeśvarāḥ । śraddhāmātreṇa gr̥hyante na kareṇa na cakṣuṣā ॥ kāyakleśairna bahubhistathavārthasya rāśibhiḥ । dharmaḥ saṁprāpyate sūkṣmaḥ śraddhāhīnaiḥ surairapi ॥ śraddhā dharmaḥ paraḥ sūkṣmaḥ śraddhā jñānaṁ hutaṁ tapaḥ । śraddhā svargaśca mokṣaśca śraddhā sarvamidaṁ jagat ॥ sarvasvaṁ jīvitaṁ vāpi dadyādaśraddhayā yadi । nāpnuyāttatphalaṁ kiñcit śraddhādānaṁ tato bhavet ॥ evaṁ śraddhānvayāḥ sarve sarvadharmāḥ prakīrttitāḥ । keśavaḥ śraddhayā gamyo dhyeyaḥ pūjyaśca sarvadā ॥" iti vahnipurāṇe dhenudānamāhātmyādhyāyaḥ ॥

भगवद्गीतायां श्रद्धा ॥ Shraddha in Bhagavad Gita

The term Shraddha appears 17 times in 15 verses across eight chapters in the Bhagavad Gita. The verses being, 3.31, 4.39, 6.37, 6.47, 7.21 (twice), 7.22, 9.23, 12.2, 12.20, 17.1, 17.2, 17.3 (twice), 17.13, 17.17 and 18.71. While Ashraddha, the opposite of shraddha, occurs 4 times across 3 chapters which are, 4.40, 9.3, 17.13 (as a compound word) and 17.28. An analysis of these 19 verses from the Bhagavad Gita bring forth the different facets of the concept of Shraddha that highlights the importance of this construct in understanding Bharatiya worldview and psychology.[1]

श्रद्धाप्रकाराः ॥ Types of Shraddha

Shabdakalpadruma[11] quotes the verses 17.2, 17.3 and 17.4 from the Bhagavad Gita (Adhyaya 17) and states,

सा (श्रद्धा) त्रिविधा ।[10] sā (śraddhā) trividhā ।

ie. shraddha is of 3 types. Namely, Satviki, Rajasi and Tamasi.

त्रिविधा भवति श्रद्धा देहिनां सा स्वभावजा । सात्त्विकी राजसी चैव तामसी चेति तां शृणु ॥१७.२॥[12]

trividhā bhavati śraddhā dehināṁ sā svabhāvajā । sāttvikī rājasī caiva tāmasī ceti tāṁ śr̥ṇu ॥17.2॥

Meaning: Shraddha of people, born of their individual natures, is of three kinds. It is characterized by sattva, rajas or tamas.[13] This is in response to Arjuna's question to Shri Krishna in verse 17.1 about the nature of people who do not follow the method given in the shastras but worship with Shraddha[1] that reads as,

ये शास्त्रविधिमुत्सृज्य यजन्ते श्रद्धयान्विताः । तेषां निष्ठा तु का कृष्ण सत्त्वमाहो रजस्तमः ॥१७.१॥[12]

ye śāstravidhimutsr̥jya yajante śraddhayānvitāḥ । teṣāṁ niṣṭhā tu kā kr̥ṣṇa sattvamāho rajastamaḥ ॥17.1॥

And having enumerated the typology of shraddha from the perspective of Samkhya philosophy[1], Shri Krishna emphasizes further that Shraddha of each person is in accordance with one's natural disposition. A person is made of his Shraddha; what his Shraddha is, that he verily is.[13]

सत्त्वानुरूपा सर्वस्य श्रद्धा भवति भारत । श्रद्धामयोऽयं पुरुषो यो यच्छ्रद्धः स एव सः ॥१७.३॥[12]

sattvānurūpā sarvasya śraddhā bhavati bhārata । śraddhāmayo'yaṁ puruṣo yo yacchraddhaḥ sa eva saḥ ॥17.3॥

In other words, people are the personification of their Shraddha.[1] In fact, it is so central and essential a thing that the Gita says, whatever is a man’s shraddha, that he is, yo yacchraddhaḥ sa eva saḥ. And commenting on this verse, Sri Aurobindo adds that whatever one has faith to see as possible in himself and strive for, that one can create and become.[14] Thus, Shraddha has the ability to shape a person.[1] And the nature of shraddha of a person, reflects in the choices one makes. Hence, it is said further,

यजन्ते सात्त्विका देवान्यक्षरक्षांसि राजसाः । प्रेतान्भूतगणांश्चान्ये यजन्ते तामसा जनाः ॥१७.४॥[12]

yajante sāttvikā devānyakṣarakṣāṁsi rājasāḥ । pretānbhūtagaṇāṁścānye yajante tāmasā janāḥ ॥17.4॥

Meaning: People in whom sattva prevails worship the deities; people in whom rajas prevails worship the lesser deities and people in whom tamas prevails worship ghosts and evil beings.[13][1]

Thus, Shraddha depends on the inner nature of a person and thereby, reflects the basic nature of people. And it is based on one’s shraddha and inherent qualities, that one chooses the kind of yajna, tapas and dana one performs.[1]

यज्ञदानतपकर्मसु श्रद्धा ॥ Shraddha in Yajna, Dana, Tapa and Karma

The Bhagavad Gita states that yajna, dana, tapa and karma are auspicious and must always be performed.[1]

यज्ञदानतपःकर्म न त्याज्यं कार्यमेव तत् । यज्ञो दानं तपश्चैव पावनानि मनीषिणाम् ॥१८.५॥[15]

yajñadānatapaḥkarma na tyājyaṁ kāryameva tat । yajño dānaṁ tapaścaiva pāvanāni manīṣiṇām ॥18.5॥

And as explained in the previous section of the article, one's choice of yajna, dana, tapa or karma depends on one's inherent qualities that are driven either by Sattva, Rajas or Tamas. Consequently, in verses 17.11, 17.12 and 17.13, the Bhagavad Gita points out to three types of yajnas viz. Sattvika, Rajasa and Tamasa. And it is mentioned therein that absence of shraddha makes a yajna tamasika in nature.[1]

श्रद्धाविरहितं यज्ञं तामसं परिचक्षते ॥१७.१३॥[12] śraddhāvirahitaṁ yajñaṁ tāmasaṁ paricakṣate ॥17.13॥

This verse acts as both, a prohibition against performing a yajna without shraddha and an instruction for performing yajna with shraddha.[1] Similarly, in case of tapa, which is threefold in nature (kayika, vachika and manasika), it is said that tapa practised with shraddha by people who desire no fruit and are devoted is called Sattvika tapa.[16]

श्रद्धया परया तप्तं तपस्तत्त्रिविधं नरैः । अफलाकाङ्क्षिभिर्युक्तैः सात्त्विकं परिचक्षते ॥१७.१७॥[12]

śraddhayā parayā taptaṁ tapastattrividhaṁ naraiḥ । aphalākāṅkṣibhiryuktaiḥ sāttvikaṁ paricakṣate ॥17.17॥

Infact, the Bhagavad Gita further emphasizes that when performed without shraddha, not only yajna but dana, tapa and karma also become asat (or inauspicious) and bear no fruit in this world or beyond.[1]

अश्रद्धया हुतं दत्तं तपस्तप्तं कृतं च यत् । असदित्युच्यते पार्थ न च तत्प्रेत्य नो इह ॥१७.२८॥[12]

aśraddhayā hutaṁ dattaṁ tapastaptaṁ kr̥taṁ ca yat । asadityucyate pārtha na ca tatpretya no iha ॥17.28॥

Thus, shraddha is the foundation of Yajna, Dana, Tapa and Karma as it is the presence of shraddha that makes them virtuous.

Infact, Prof. Dharm Bhawuk in his research explains that dana-tapas, karma-tapas, karma-yajna, dana-yajna and tapas-yajna are pairs of constructs that not only intercorrelate but also share common semantic spaces. And what is central to all the activities is that if yajna, dana, tapas and karma are performed with shraddha, it makes these four activities part of sat or truth. While, its absence makes them go futile as they lose their relationships. Thus, shraddha occupies a central position in the nomological network of yajna, dana, tapas and karma.[1]

भगवति श्रद्धा ॥ Shraddha in a Deity

Shri Krishna in the Bhagavad Gita tells Arjuna that any devotee who wants to worship with shraddha, whatever form of deity it may be, He bestows unflinching shraddha to that devotee so that he or she can worship that deity.[1]

यो यो यां यां तनुं भक्तः श्रद्धयार्चितुमिच्छति । तस्य तस्याचलां श्रद्धां तामेव विदधाम्यहम् ॥७.२१॥[17]

yo yo yāṁ yāṁ tanuṁ bhaktaḥ śraddhayārcitumicchati । tasya tasyācalāṁ śraddhāṁ tāmeva vidadhāmyaham ॥7.21॥

There are two points to be noted in this verse.

  • First, one can worship any form of deity one wishes to with Shraddha. Meaning, one is free to choose one's spiritual practice, and Shri Krishna endows the necessary shraddha. In other words, shraddha is needed in worshipping a deity or pursuing any spiritual practice. Thus, shraddha is an emotion one has for a deity.
  • Second, Shri Krishna blesses those who have shraddha. That is, shraddha shown by human beings begets divine shraddha or grace from Shri Krishna.

भगवच्छ्रद्धा फलम् ॥ Fruit of Shraddha in a Deity

Continuing from verse 7.21 quoted above, Shri Krishna further states that when a devotee worships the deity of his or her choice with the divine shraddha provided by Him, their desires are fulfilled by Shri Krishna himself.[1]

स तया श्रद्धया युक्तस्तस्याराधनमीहते । लभते च ततः कामान्मयैव विहितान्हि तान् ॥७.२२॥[17]

sa tayā śraddhayā yuktastasyārādhanamīhate । labhate ca tataḥ kāmānmayaiva vihitānhi tān ॥7.22॥

Furthermore, he also states in verse 9.23 that even if shraddha is placed in other deities, and not in Shri Krishna, such shraddha is still placed in him.[1]

येऽप्यन्यदेवताभक्ता यजन्ते श्रद्धयान्विताः । तेऽपि मामेव कौन्तेय यजन्त्यविधिपूर्वकम् ॥९.२३॥[18]

ye'pyanyadevatābhaktā yajante śraddhayānvitāḥ । te'pi māmeva kaunteya yajantyavidhipūrvakam ॥9.23॥

Meaning: Those devotees who worship other devas with shraddha are still worshipping Shri Krishna, albeit not following proper procedure.

Therefore, shraddha never gets misplaced and always bears fruit. It is something that brings one to Shri Krishna and also continues to bring the blessings of Shri Krishna to the devotees, whoever and however they worship. It is indeed, a gift of the Supreme, a divine grace.[1]

आप्तेषु श्रद्धा ॥ Shraddha in a Person or Shastra

In Vivekachudamani, Shri Shankaracharya says,

शास्त्रस्य गुरवाक्यस्य सत्यबुद्ध्यवधारणम् । सा श्रद्धा कथिता सद्भिर्यया वस्तूपलभ्यते ॥ २५ ॥

śāstrasya guravākyasya satyabuddhyavadhāraṇam । sā śraddhā kathitā sadbhiryayā vastūpalabhyate ॥ 25 ॥

Meaning: Acceptance by firm judgment of the mind as true of what the scriptures and the Guru instruct, is called by the sages as Shraddha, by means of which the Reality is perceived.[19]

This emphasizes on the importance of cultivating shraddha for a person (Guru) or Shastra.[1]

गुरौ श्रद्धा ॥ Shraddha in a Guru

When Arjuna, confused about his duty, was inclined to act in a cowardly manner, he surrenders to Shri Krishna as a student and beseeches Shri Krishna to instruct him firmly to do what was best for him.[1] He says,

कार्पण्यदोषोपहतस्वभावः पृच्छामि त्वां धर्मसम्मूढचेताः । यच्छ्रेयः स्यान्निश्चितं ब्रूहि तन्मे शिष्यस्तेऽहं शाधि मां त्वां प्रपन्नम् ॥२.७॥[20]

kārpaṇyadoṣopahatasvabhāvaḥ pr̥cchāmi tvāṁ dharmasammūḍhacetāḥ ।

yacchreyaḥ syānniścitaṁ brūhi tanme śiṣyaste'haṁ śādhi māṁ tvāṁ prapannam ॥2.7॥

This reflects the shraddha one places in another person, especially a guru or teacher. Similarly, at the end of the Bhagavad Gita, Arjuna tells Shri Krishna that by Shri Krishna's grace his confusion was dispelled, he was free of doubts, had gained his discriminatory faculty and was now ready to follow Shri Krishna's instructions.[1]

नष्टो मोहः स्मृतिर्लब्धा त्वत्प्रसादान्मयाच्युत । स्थितोऽस्मि गतसन्देहः करिष्ये वचनं तव ॥१८.७३॥[15]

naṣṭo mohaḥ smr̥tirlabdhā tvatprasādānmayācyuta । sthito'smi gatasandehaḥ kariṣye vacanaṁ tava ॥18.73॥

This shows that a student not only surrenders to his or her teacher but also listens to and carries out the instructions of the teacher. This is nothing but showing shraddha to a person. Thus, shraddha is also an emotion that a student has for a teacher.[1]

शास्त्रेषु श्रद्धा ॥ Shraddha in Shastras

Adhyaya 12 (Bhakti Yoga) of the Bhagavad Gita (verses 12.13-12.19) presents characteristics of devotees who are dear to Shri Krishna like being in a balanced state, not having any negative feeling towards other beings, always being content with whatever comes one’s way, etc.[1] The concluding verse of this adhyaya reads as follows:

ये तु धर्म्यामृतमिदं यथोक्तं पर्युपासते । श्रद्दधाना मत्परमा भक्तास्तेऽतीव मे प्रियाः ॥१२.२०॥[21]

ye tu dharmyāmr̥tamidaṁ yathoktaṁ paryupāsate । śraddadhānā matparamā bhaktāste'tīva me priyāḥ ॥12.20॥

Meaning: Devotees who worship Shri Krishna by surrendering to Him with deep shraddha and follow the dharmika (pious) and nectar-like instructions meticulously are dearest to Him.

By instructions here, is meant what is stated in shastras or scriptures. Therefore, it is conveyed that it is not enough to have shraddha merely for a deity or person, rather an individual needs to have shraddha also in shastras (or scriptural texts) that guide human behaviour.[1]

शास्त्रश्रद्धाफलम् ॥ Fruit of Shraddha in Shastras

In verse 3.30 of the Bhagavad Gita, Shri Krishna says,

मयि सर्वाणि कर्माणि संन्यस्याध्यात्मचेतसा । निराशीर्निर्ममो भूत्वा युध्यस्व विगतज्वरः ॥३.३०॥[22]

mayi sarvāṇi karmāṇi saṁnyasyādhyātmacetasā । nirāśīrnirmamo bhūtvā yudhyasva vigatajvaraḥ ॥3.30॥

Meaning: Surrendering all your actions to Me, with a mind focussed on the self, free from desire and selfishness, fight having eased the heat of excitement.[23] This is nothing but a directive expounded by Shri Krishna Himself. And thereby, it is to be trusted as it is an apta-vachana or shastra-vachana (authoritative statement). Shri Krishna says, those who constantly follow this doctrine of Mine, with faith and without finding fault (in it), such people are freed from (the results of) all actions.[24]

ये मे मतमिदं नित्यमनुतिष्ठन्ति मानवाः । श्रद्धावन्तोऽनसूयन्तो मुच्यन्ते तेऽपि कर्मभिः ॥३.३१॥[22]

ye me matamidaṁ nityamanutiṣṭhanti mānavāḥ । śraddhāvanto'nasūyanto mucyante te'pi karmabhiḥ ॥3.31॥

This verse illustrates that when we place shraddha on an entity, we do not find fault with it. Consequently, there is no question of harbouring feelings of envy or jealousy towards the entity we have shraddha for. Thus, shraddha is associated with anasuya (absence of envy/jealousy). Building on this, Shri Krishna, in the following verses, also emphasises the merit of studying the Bhagavad Gita and tells Arjuna that those who have shraddha and are also not envious (anasūyaḥ), they definitely become free and go to auspicious places (beyond earth) because of their meritorious karma or actions even by merely listening to the dialogue (in the Bhagavad Gita); thereby, enumerating the fruit of having shraddha for shastra granthas like the Bhagavad Gita.[1]

अध्येष्यते च य इमं धर्म्यं संवादमावयोः । ज्ञानयज्ञेन तेनाहमिष्टः स्यामिति मे मतिः ॥१८.७०॥

श्रद्धावाननसूयश्च शृणुयादपि यो नरः । सोऽपि मुक्तः शुभाँल्लोकान्प्राप्नुयात्पुण्यकर्मणाम् ॥१८.७१॥[15]

adhyeṣyate ca ya imaṁ dharmyaṁ saṁvādamāvayoḥ । jñānayajñena tenāhamiṣṭaḥ syāmiti me matiḥ ॥18.70॥

śraddhāvānanasūyaśca śr̥ṇuyādapi yo naraḥ । so'pi muktaḥ śubhām̐llokānprāpnuyātpuṇyakarmaṇām ॥18.71॥

On the other hand, in verse 9.3, Shri Krishna enumerates the fruit of not fostering shraddha in the teachings of Shri Krishna.[1] He says,

अश्रद्दधानाः पुरुषा धर्मस्यास्य परन्तप । अप्राप्य मां निवर्तन्ते मृत्युसंसारवर्त्मनि ॥९.३॥[18]

aśraddadhānāḥ puruṣā dharmasyāsya parantapa । aprāpya māṁ nivartante mr̥tyusaṁsāravartmani ॥9.3॥

Meaning: People without shraddha in the teachings of Shri Krishna go through the cycle of life and death without attaining moksha.

Moreover, the behavioural outcome of shraddha is not finding faults in others that has implications for spiritual practitioners. For, not harbouring asuya or jealousy for anyone breaks the boundaries between self and others. Therefore, shraddha is contrasted with asuya (envy, jealousy or indignation caused by happiness of others) and spiritual practitioners are directed to cultivate shraddha and anasuya.[1]

साधनाङ्गः ॥ Integral Part of Sadhana

It is said that in a spiritual journey, one has to be eagerly engaged in the practice one has selected and the effort must lead to control of the senses. And Shri Krishna in the Bhagavad Gita emphasizes that this is possible only for a person who is endowed with Shraddha.[1]

श्रद्धावाँल्लभते ज्ञानं तत्परः संयतेन्द्रियः । ४.३९ ।[25] śraddhāvām̐llabhate jñānaṁ tatparaḥ saṁyatendriyaḥ । 4.39 ।

Commenting on this verse Adi Shankaracharya says that practices like prostrations, etc. are external in nature and invariably, not fruitful as they can be performed even by fraudulent or deceitful people. However, it is not so in the case of those endowed with Shraddha.[1]

प्रणिपातादिस्तु बाह्योऽनैकान्तिकोऽपि भवति मायावित्वादिसंभवात् न तु तत् श्रद्धावत्त्वादौ...[26] praṇipātādistu bāhyo'naikāntiko'pi bhavati māyāvitvādisaṁbhavāt na tu tat śraddhāvattvādau...

This indicates that shraddha is an internal quality and a necessary condition for spiritual practices. For, without shraddha, all the efforts and control of senses go in vain.[1] Even in the yoga sutras, shraddha is mentioned as one of the key factors for attaining 'Samadhi', the final stage described in Ashtangayoga.

श्रद्धावीर्यस्मृतिसमाधिप्रज्ञापूर्वक इतरेषाम् ॥२०॥[27] śraddhāvīryasmr̥tisamādhiprajñāpūrvaka itareṣām ॥20॥

Meaning: To others (this Samadhi) comes through faith, energy, memory, concentration, and discrimination of the real.[28]Infact, Shri Krishna in the Bhagavad Gita eulogises shraddha as the highest virtue and emphasizes that even among yogis (practitioners of yoga) the best is one who chants the name of Shri Krishna surrendering with shraddha.[1]

योगिनामपि सर्वेषां मद्गतेनान्तरात्मना । श्रद्धावान् भजते यो मां स मे युक्ततमो मतः ॥६.४७॥[29]

yogināmapi sarveṣāṁ madgatenāntarātmanā । śraddhāvān bhajate yo māṁ sa me yuktatamo mataḥ ॥6.47॥

This clearly lays out the importance of shraddha in the practice of spirituality.[1]

Shraddha in Integral Yoga

Integral yoga, mentioned by Sri Aurobindo, refers to a sort of synthesis of all the different systems of yoga. In the practice of this system, there is one kind of faith demanded as indispensable which is faith in the divine and the Shakti, faith in the presence and power of the Divine in us and the world, a faith that all in the world is the working of one divine Shakti, that all the steps of Yoga, its strivings, sufferings and failures as well as its successes, satisfactions and victories are utilities and necessities of her workings and that by a firm and strong dependence on and a total self-surrender to the Divine and to his Shakti in us we can attain to oneness, freedom, victory and perfection.

Elaborationg further on perfection, Sri Aurobindo emphasizes that there are three parts of the perfection of our instrumental nature including perfection of intelligence, heart, vital consciousness and body, perfection of the surrender of our instruments and action to the divine Shakti, etc. And he says that they depend at every moment of their progression on a fourth power that is covertly and overtly the pivot of all endeavour and action ie. shraddha or faith. This perfect faith he describes as an assent of the whole being to the truth seen by it or offered to its acceptance. According to him, its central working is a faith of the atman in its own will to be, attain and become; its idea of self and things and its knowledge, of which the belief of the intellect, the heart’s consent and the desire of the life mind to possess and realise are the outward figures. This faith, he says, in some form of itself, is indispensable to the action of the being. Because, without it, man cannot move a single pace in life, much less take any step forward to a yet unrealised perfection.[14]

  • Character and the Need of Shraddha

The progress of Yoga is explained by Sri Aurobindo as a procession from the mental ignorance through imperfect formations to a perfect foundation and increasing of knowledge and in its more satisfyingly positive parts a movement from light to greater light, and it cannot cease till we have the greatest light of the supramental knowledge. Therefore, the motions of the mind in its progress must necessarily be mixed with a greater or lesser proportion of error and hence, he says that faith of the heart and the life mind, like that of the intelligence, must be capable of a constant correction, enlarging and transformation. So that it is prepared to change and enlarge its understanding of spiritual experiences, to correct mistaken or half-true ideas about them and receive more enlightening interpretations, to replace insufficient by more sufficient intuitions, and to merge experiences that seemed at the time to be final and satisfying in more satisfying combinations with new experience and greater largenesses and transcendences.

Specifying the character of shraddha needed for the integral Yoga, Sri Aurobindo says, a great and wide, spiritual and intelligent faith, intelligent with the intelligence of that larger reason which assents to high possibilities, is the character of the shraddha needed for the integral Yoga. He says, this shraddha is in reality an influence from the supreme Spirit and its light a message from our supramental being which is calling the lower nature to rise out of its petty present to a great self-becoming and self-exceeding. And that which receives this influence and answers to the call is not so much the intellect, the heart or the life mind, but the inner atman which better knows the truth of its own destiny and mission.

Because the intellect, the heart, or the desires of the life mind may take a prominent place in the circumstances that provoke our first entry into the path; but if these are all, then there can be no surety of our fidelity to the call and our enduring perseverance in the Yoga. For, the intellect may abandon the idea that attracted it, the heart weary may fail us, the desire of the life mind may turn to other objectives. But if it is the spirit that has been touched, the inward atman that has received the call, shraddha will remain firm and resist all attempts to defeat or slay it.[14]

  • Importance of Shraddha in the Path of Integral Yoga

Describing the journey of a seeker in the path of integral yoga, Sri Aurobindo says that a seeker's progress is an ascent from level to level and each new height brings in other vistas and revelations of the much that has still to be done, bhurikartvam, till the divine Shakti has at last taken up all his endeavour and he has only to assent and participate gladly by a consenting oneness in her luminous workings. And that which will support him through these changes, struggles, transformations which might otherwise dishearten and baffle is a firm faith in the Shakti that is at work and reliance on the guidance of the Master of the Yoga whose wisdom is not in haste and whose steps through all the perplexities of the mind are assured, just and sound, because they are founded on a perfectly comprehending transaction with the necessities of our nature.

In short, one's faith must be an assent that receives all spiritual experience, but with a wide openness and readiness for always more light and truth, an absence of limiting attachment and no such clinging to forms as would interfere with the forward movement of the Shakti towards the integrality of the spiritual being, consciousness, knowledge, power, action and the wholeness of the one and the multiple Ananda.

Moreover, he emphasizes that faith in the Shakti must necessarily be preceded or at least accompanied by a firm and virile faith in our own spiritual will and energy and our power to move successfully towards unity and freedom and perfection. At the same time, this faith in oneself must be purified from all touch of rajasic egoism and spiritual pride. The faith in the divine Shakti must be always at the back of our strength and when she becomes manifest, it must be or grow implicit and complete. The intimate feeling of her presence and her powers and the satisfied assent of all our being to her workings in and around it is the last perfection of faith in the Shakti. And behind her is the Ishwara and faith in him is the most central thing in the shraddha of the integral Yoga.[14]

  • Foundation of Divine Strength

Sri Aurobindo says that once faith is developed to perfection, as higher knowledge opens, it becomes more and more justified as we begin to see the great and small significances that escaped our limited mentality. And faith will pass into knowledge.

According to him, the highest state of assent, the shraddha of the being will be when we feel the presence of the Ishwara and feel all our existence and consciousness and thought and will and action in his hand and consent in all things and with every part of our self and nature to the direct and immanent and occupying will of the Spirit. And that highest perfection of the shraddha will also be the opportunity and perfect foundation of a divine strength: it will base, when complete, the development and manifestation and the works of the luminous supramental Shakti.

This exposition on Shraddha, especially within the context of integral yoga, also exemplifies why, as agreed by Sri Aurobindo, the English word faith is inadequate to express the connotations of the concept of shraddha.[14]

साधकगुणः ॥ Quality of a Sadhaka

In verse 12.1 of the Bhagavad Gita, Arjuna asks Shri Krishna as to who is a better spiritual practitioner, one who follows bhaktiyoga (the path of devotion) or one who follows jnanayoga (the path of knowledge).[1]

एवं सततयुक्ता ये भक्तास्त्वां पर्युपासते । ये चाप्यक्षरमव्यक्तं तेषां के योगवित्तमाः ॥१२.१॥[21]

evaṁ satatayuktā ye bhaktāstvāṁ paryupāsate । ye cāpyakṣaramavyaktaṁ teṣāṁ ke yogavittamāḥ ॥12.1॥

In response to this, Shri Krishna replies that

मय्यावेश्य मनो ये मां नित्ययुक्ता उपासते । श्रद्धया परयोपेतास्ते मे युक्ततमा मताः ॥१२.२॥[21]

mayyāveśya mano ye māṁ nityayuktā upāsate । śraddhayā parayopetāste me yuktatamā matāḥ ॥12.2॥

Meaning: The best spiritual practitioner is one who fixes his or her mind on Shri Krishna and is always engaged in worshipping Shri Krishna with deep shraddha. In this context, it is noted that an earlier verse of the Bhagavad Gita mentions that only those who have shraddha obtain knowledge.[1]

श्रद्धावाँल्लभते ज्ञानं ... ॥४.३९॥[25] śraddhāvām̐llabhate jñānaṁ ... ॥4.39॥

Thus, shraddha is what describes a spiritual practitioner, both who practices bhaktiyoga (the path of devotion) and jnanayoga (the path of knowledge); thereby, establishing the unequivocal relevance of shraddha to both the paths ie. the path of knowledge and that of devotion. Moreover, in verse 12.2, Shri Krishna firmly states that the path of devotion is superior to the path of knowledge and uses shraddha to define devotion. And emphasizes in the concluding verse of the same adhyaya that enumerates on bhaktiyoga that those endowed with shraddha are dearest to Him.[1]

ये तु धर्म्यामृतमिदं यथोक्तं पर्युपासते । श्रद्दधाना मत्परमा भक्तास्तेऽतीव मे प्रियाः ॥१२.२०॥[21]

ye tu dharmyāmr̥tamidaṁ yathoktaṁ paryupāsate । śraddadhānā matparamā bhaktāste'tīva me priyāḥ ॥12.20॥

Thus, shraddha is a bhava (emotion) that one has for another person; in this case, Shri Krishna who is none other than the Supreme being personified. And the shraddha of a devotee is considered the highest of virtues.[1]

मोक्षसाधनत्वम् ॥ Shraddha as Moksha Sadhana

In the Bhagavad Gita, Shri Krishna says,

श्रद्धावाँल्लभते ज्ञानं तत्परः संयतेन्द्रियः । ज्ञानं लब्ध्वा परां शान्तिमचिरेणाधिगच्छति ॥४.३९॥[25]

śraddhāvām̐llabhate jñānaṁ tatparaḥ saṁyatendriyaḥ । jñānaṁ labdhvā parāṁ śāntimacireṇādhigacchati ॥4.39॥

Meaning: A person who has shraddha, is eagerly engaged in the spiritual practice that one has chosen and is in control of his or her senses, achieves jnana or knowledge of the self. And having attained knowledge, one immediately achieves unparalleled or supreme peace. Thus, the first line of this verse presents shraddha as antecedent of jnana with tatparaḥ ie. eager engagement in a spiritual practice and saṁyatendriyaḥ ie. practice of self-restraint moderating this relationship between shraddha and Jnana. And the second line points out to the consequence of achieving jnana ie. attaining immediate and unparalleled peace; which is interpreted as moksa by Adi Shankaracharya in his commentary on this verse.[1] He says,

ज्ञानं लब्ध्वा परं मोक्षाख्यां शान्तिम् उपरतिम् अचिरेण क्षिप्रमेव अधिगच्छति।[26]

jñānaṁ labdhvā paraṁ mokṣākhyāṁ śāntim uparatim acireṇa kṣiprameva adhigacchati।

In short, shraddha is antecedent of jnana; while jnana (or knowledge) mediates between shraddha (reverence) and moksha. And since moksha is the highest pursuit of life in Bharata, the other three being dharma (duty), artha (wealth) and kama (pleasure), shraddha occupies an important place in the Bharatiya worldview.[1]

कालातीतं फलम् ॥ Everlasting Nature of the Fruit

The preceeding section elaborated on verse 4.39 that presented shraddha as a necessary condition for achieving jnana. Building on this, after the explanation of many other things, Arjuna asks Shri Krishna in verse 6.37[1],

अयतिः श्रद्धयोपेतो योगाच्चलितमानसः । अप्राप्य योगसंसिद्धिं कां गतिं कृष्ण गच्छति ॥६.३७॥[29]

ayatiḥ śraddhayopeto yogāccalitamānasaḥ । aprāpya yogasaṁsiddhiṁ kāṁ gatiṁ kr̥ṣṇa gacchati ॥6.37॥

Meaning: What happens ultimately to the person who has shraddha but fails to make the necessary effort or does not succeed in the path of spirituality because of unsteady manas or mind.

This is one of the many important questions Arjuna asks of Shri Krishna in the Bhagavad Gita. And in verses 6.40–6.47, Shri Krishna explains that nothing is lost for the person who has shraddha and who has made some effort. Such a person picks up in the next life from the same state that he or she has been in the present life. That is, no merit is lost even while transitioning to a new life. Thus, shraddha always bears fruits that are never lost; they do not diminish in value even with rebirth. It is highest of virtues with everlasting outcomes.[1]

श्रद्धाविहिनत्वम् ॥ Absence of Shraddha

It is already enumerated earlier in verse 4.39 that only those who have shraddha obtain knowledge.[1]

श्रद्धावाँल्लभते ज्ञानं ... ॥४.३९॥[25] śraddhāvām̐llabhate jñānaṁ ... ॥4.39॥

In continuity to this, Shri Krishna in the following verse says,

अज्ञश्चाश्रद्दधानश्च संशयात्मा विनश्यति । नायं लोकोऽस्ति न परो न सुखं संशयात्मनः ॥४.४०॥[25]

ajñaścāśraddadhānaśca saṁśayātmā vinaśyati । nāyaṁ loko'sti na paro na sukhaṁ saṁśayātmanaḥ ॥4.40॥

Meaning: Those who are ignorant, without shraddha and sceptical are ruined and completely lose out on achievements both in this world and beyond, and also do not find happiness.

Thus, absence of Shraddha is equated to lack of knowledge, to being sceptical and shraddha itself is presented herein as a precondition of happiness.[1]

परिभाषासंहृतिः ॥ Synopsis of Construct Analysis[1]

The terms shraddha and ashraddha feature across 19 verses in the Bhagavad Gita. An analysis of these occurances brings to fore 9 themes surrounding the concept of shraddha; 8 from the analysis of the term shraddha and 1 from the analysis of ashraddha. These themes in turn help in deriving the definition of the construct of shraddha. A brief understanding of the construct shraddha derived in this way, through the analysis of the Bhagavad Gita verses, is enumerated below:

  1. There are many behavioural outcomes of shraddha such as not finding faults in others.
  2. Shraddha occupies a central place in whatever path of spirituality is followed. In fact, shraddha is considered integral to the procedure that makes efforts bear fruit in the practice of spirituality. Also, the value of an individual’s effort who is on the path of spirituality is not lost. Thus, shraddha always bears fruits.
  3. Shraddha is the antecedent of jnana. And since jnana acts as a mediator between shraddha and moksa, shraddha becomes an instrument for achieving moksa which is highest of the four purusharthas (life pursuits) prescribed for humans in the Bharatiya worldview; thereby emphasizing the importance of shraddha in the Bharatiya worldview.
  4. Shraddha is also used to explicate other constructs like yajna, tapas (austerities), dana (charity) and karma (action); thereby highlighting the importance of this construct in understanding Bharatiya worldview and psychology.
  5. Shraddha can be of several types. While it is noted that people can have shraddha for texts like the Bhagavad Gita, according to the Bhagavad Gita, the shraddha of a devotee following the path of devotion is of the highest type.
  6. Shraddha reflects the basic nature of people and a person may be seen more or less as personification of shraddha that expresses itself in very different kinds of behaviours that people engage in. Infact, it is believed that the basic nature of the optimists or pessimists (as known in the west) reflects shraddha of the person in self, others, society and the Divine. Based on this, Prof. Bhawuk in his research proposes that shraddha may be used as a foundational construct for understanding both positive and negative psychologies.
  7. From interpersonal perspective it is found that shraddha is an emotion that one has for another person. For example, a śraddhāvan student, much like Arjuna did to Shri Krishna, follows the instructions of a teacher by surrendering to him or her. The teacher fulfils the student’s wish for knowledge and provides necessary instructions to guide him or her to perform his or her duty. These characteristics of shraddha based exchange between a teacher and a student will also apply to all superior–subordinate pairs like parent–child, older–brother–younger–brother and so forth. The same dynamics is likely to be at play between a person and his or her deity also. And as shastras or scriptural texts provide instructions in guiding human behaviour, they too are treated in the same manner by a śraddhāvan individual.
  8. It is also noted that though individual effort moderates the relation between shraddha and moksha, shraddha is also considered a gift of the Supreme Being or divine grace. Such grace of the divine that appears as shraddha can be seen reflected in the daily interactions of spiritual practitioners. For example, a spiritual practitioner’s harmonising behaviour is likely to emerge from his or her neutrality towards all, and not viewing people (or contexts) in terms of dichotomies like friend or enemy, good or bad, favourable or antagonistic, and so forth. Thus, the construct of shraddha can be employed to examine how social entrepreneurs can possibly effect social change.

Such a complex understanding of the construct of shraddha cannot be captured by single word translation in English viz. faith. In fact, shraddha is a unique Indian indigenous construct that needs to be studied to help us understand not only the psychology of Indian people but also of people in societies which are similarly inclined. Moreover, understanding shraddha is also likely to help us understand other major constructs as well as understand interpersonal relationships, since shraddha itself is the foundation of many relationships.

श्रद्धायज्ञः ॥ Shraddha Yajna

Mahabharata states that everyone was entitled to take the vow of performing Manasika Yajnas (symbolic yajnas) in the depth of their conscious mind. And all the devatas as well as humans desired to be part of such a manasika yajna because these yajnas were endowed with shraddha that made them extremely pure. Therefore, according to the Mahabharata, all varnas were entitled to perform Shraddha based Yajnas.[30]

यज्ञो मनीषया तात सर्ववर्णेषु भारत ॥ ४७ ॥ नास्य यज्ञकृतो देवा ईहन्ते नेतरे जनाः । ततः सर्वेषु वर्णेषु श्रद्धायज्ञो विधीयते ॥ ४८ ॥[31]

yajño manīṣayā tāta sarvavarṇeṣu bhārata ॥ 47 ॥

nāsya yajñakr̥to devā īhante netare janāḥ । tataḥ sarveṣu varṇeṣu śraddhāyajño vidhīyate ॥ 48 ॥

The Mahabharata also emphasizes therein that of all forms of Yajnas, Shraddha Yajna is the foremost as Shraddha is the greatest deity who purifies those performing the Yajnas.[30]

अग्रे सर्वेषु यज्ञेषु श्रद्धायज्ञो विधीयते । दैवतं हि महच्छ्रद्धा पवित्रं यजतां च यत् ॥४४॥[31]

agre sarveṣu yajñeṣu śraddhāyajño vidhīyate । daivataṁ hi mahacchraddhā pavitraṁ yajatāṁ ca yat ॥44॥

देवतास्वरूपम् ॥ Shraddha as a Deity

Shraddha is mentioned as the deity of the Rigvedic Sukta 10.151.[3] In the Devi Bhagavata, shraddha is one of the names attributed to Devi Mahamaya in the verses chanted in her praise by the Vedas in their incarnate form.[32]

वेदा ऊचुः | धीः श्रीः कान्तिः क्षमा शान्तिः श्रद्धा मेधा धृतिः स्मृतिः ॥ ५४ ॥[33]

vedā ūcuḥ | dhīḥ śrīḥ kāntiḥ kṣamā śāntiḥ śraddhā medhā dhr̥tiḥ smr̥tiḥ ॥ 54 ॥

ब्राह्मणेषु श्रद्धा ॥ Shraddha in the Brahmanas

The Shatapatha Brahmana describes shraddha as daughter of the Sun.

श्रद्धा वै सूर्यस्य दुहिता... ।१२.७.३.११।[34] śraddhā vai sūryasya duhitā... ।12.7.3.11।

This is reiterated in the Shanti parva of the Mahabharata that says,

श्रद्धा वै सात्विकी देवी सूर्यस्य दुहिता द्विज । १२.२७०.८[35] śraddhā vai sātvikī devī sūryasya duhitā dvija । 12.270.8

इतिहासपुराणेषु श्रद्धा ॥ Shraddha in the Itihasa and Puranas

Shraddha is personified at various instances across the Mahabharata and the Puranas. These instances are enumerated in brief below:

  • The Mahabharata, Bhagavata Purana, Vayu Purana, Vishnu Purana, Shiva Purana and Saura Purana describe shraddha as the daughter of Daksha and the wife of Dharma.

According to the Mahabharata, Daksha who was born off the right thumb of Brahma had 50 daughters from his wife. Shraddha was one among the 10 daughters he gave in marriage to Dharma. Others being Kirti, Lakshmi, Dhrti, Medha, Pushti, Kriya, Buddhi, Lajja and Mati. And it is interesting to note here that Brahma declares these 10 to be the doors of Dharma ie. that through which one may be initiated into Dharma.[36]

दक्षस्त्वजायताङ्गुष्ठाद्दक्षिणाद्भगवानृषिः ।... तस्यां पञ्चाशतं कन्याः स एवाजनयन्मुनिः ।। ददौ स दश धर्माय... १.६७.१०-१३

नामतो धर्मपत्न्यस्ताः कीर्त्यमाना निबोध मे। कीर्तिर्लक्ष्मीर्धृतिर्मेधा पुष्टिः श्रद्धा क्रिया तथा।। १.६७.१४

बुद्धिर्लज्जा मतिश्चैव पत्न्यो धर्मस्य ता दश। द्वाराण्येतानि धर्मस्य विहितानि स्वयंभुवा।। १.६७.१५[37]

dakṣastvajāyatāṅguṣṭhāddakṣiṇādbhagavānr̥ṣiḥ ।... tasyāṁ pañcāśataṁ kanyāḥ sa evājanayanmuniḥ ।।

dadau sa daśa dharmāya... 1.67.10-13

nāmato dharmapatnyastāḥ kīrtyamānā nibodha me। kīrtirlakṣmīrdhr̥tirmedhā puṣṭiḥ śraddhā kriyā tathā।। 1.67.14

buddhirlajjā matiścaiva patnyo dharmasya tā daśa। dvārāṇyetāni dharmasya vihitāni svayaṁbhuvā।। 1.67.15

The Bhagavata Purana mentions that Prasuti, daughter of Manu, married Daksha, the son of Brahma. They had 16 daughters. Shraddha was one of their 13 daughters given in marriage to Dharma. The others being Maitri, Daya, Shanti, Tushti, Pushti, Kriya, Unnati, Buddhi, Medha, Titiksha, Hri and Murti.[38]

प्रसूतिं मानवीं दक्ष उपयेमे ह्यजात्मजः । तस्यां ससर्ज दुहितॄः षोडशामललोचनाः ॥ ४७ ॥ त्रयोदशादाद्धर्माय ...

श्रद्धा मैत्री दया शान्तिः तुष्टिः पुष्टिः क्रियोन्नतिः । बुद्धिर्मेधा तितिक्षा ह्रीः मूर्तिर्धर्मस्य पत्‍नयः ॥ ४९ ॥[39]

prasūtiṁ mānavīṁ dakṣa upayeme hyajātmajaḥ । tasyāṁ sasarja duhitr̥̄ḥ ṣoḍaśāmalalocanāḥ ॥ 47 ॥ trayodaśādāddharmāya ...

śraddhā maitrī dayā śāntiḥ tuṣṭiḥ puṣṭiḥ kriyonnatiḥ । buddhirmedhā titikṣā hrīḥ mūrtirdharmasya pat‍nayaḥ ॥ 49 ॥

The Vayu Purana also mentions that Prasuti, daughter of Manu and Shatarupa, was given in marriage to Daksha. They begot 24 daughters who are known as mothers of the universe. 13 of them including Shraddha viz. Lakshmi, Dhrti, Tushti, Pushti, Medha, Kriya, Buddhi, Lajja, Vapu, Shasti, Siddhi and Kirti were given in marriage to Dharma. And as in the Mahabharata, these are stated as doors to Dharma.

... स्वायंभुवः प्रसूतिं तु दक्षाय व्यसृजत्प्रभुः ॥ १७ ॥ ... स्वायंभुवसुतायां तु प्रसूत्यां लोकमातरः ॥ २२ ॥ तस्यां कन्याश्चतुर्विंशद्दक्षस्त्वनयत्प्रभुः । ... २३ ।

श्रद्धा लक्ष्मीर्धृतिस्तुष्टिः पुष्टिर्मेधा क्रिया तथा । बुद्धिर्लज्जा वपुःशान्तिः सिद्धिः कीर्तिस्त्रयोदशी ॥ २५ ॥

पत्न्यर्थे प्रतिजाग्रह धर्मो दाक्षायणीः प्रभुः । द्वाराण्येतानि चैवास्य विहितानि स्वयंभुवा ॥ २६ ॥[40]

... svāyaṁbhuvaḥ prasūtiṁ tu dakṣāya vyasr̥jatprabhuḥ ॥ 17 ॥ ... svāyaṁbhuvasutāyāṁ tu prasūtyāṁ lokamātaraḥ ॥ 22 ॥ tasyāṁ kanyāścaturviṁśaddakṣastvanayatprabhuḥ । ... 23 ।

śraddhā lakṣmīrdhr̥tistuṣṭiḥ puṣṭirmedhā kriyā tathā । buddhirlajjā vapuḥśāntiḥ siddhiḥ kīrtistrayodaśī ॥ 25 ॥

patnyarthe pratijāgraha dharmo dākṣāyaṇīḥ prabhuḥ । dvārāṇyetāni caivāsya vihitāni svayaṁbhuvā ॥ 26 ॥

These very details are enumerated also in,

  1. Vishnu Purana (Amsha 1, Adhyaya 7, verses 17-24)[41]
  2. Shiva Purana (Rudra Samhita, Srshti Khanda, Adhyaya 16, Verses 12-20)[42]
  3. Saura Purana[43]
  • Furthermore, the Vayu Purana (Adhyaya 10, verse 34)[40], Vishnu Purana (Amsha 1, Adhyaya 7, verse 28)[41] and Markandeya Purana (Adhyaya 50, verse 25)[44] mention that Shraddha is the mother of Kama. And the Bhagavata Purana (Skandha 4, Adhyaya 1, verse 50)[39] states that Shraddha gave birth to Shubha.
  • There are a couple of more occurances of Shraddha in the Bhagavata Purana as follows:

The Bhagavata Purana (in Skandhas 3[45] and 4[38]) describes Shraddha as one of the nine daughters of Kardama Muni and Devahuti (daughter of Svayambhuva Manu and Shatarupa) who was given in marrriage to Rshi Angiras. It also states that Shraddha and Rshi Angiras had 4 daughters viz. Sinivali, Kuhu, Raka and Anumati and 2 sons viz. Utatthya and Brhaspati.[4]

देवहूतिमदात् तात कर्दमायात्मजां मनुः । तत्संबन्धि श्रुतप्रायं भवता गदतो मम ॥ १० ॥

याः कर्दमसुताः प्रोक्ता नव ब्रह्मर्षिपत्‍नयः । तासां प्रसूतिप्रसवं प्रोच्यमानं निबोध मे ॥ १२ ॥

श्रद्धा त्वङ्‌गिरसः पत्‍नी चतस्रोऽसूत कन्यकाः । सिनीवाली कुहू राका चतुर्थ्यनुमतिस्तथा ॥ ३४ ॥

तत्पुत्रावपरावास्तां ख्यातौ स्वारोचिषेऽन्तरे । उतथ्यो भगवान् साक्षात् ब्रह्मिष्ठश्च बृहस्पतिः ॥ ३५ ॥[39]

devahūtimadāt tāta kardamāyātmajāṁ manuḥ । tatsaṁbandhi śrutaprāyaṁ bhavatā gadato mama ॥ 10 ॥

yāḥ kardamasutāḥ proktā nava brahmarṣipat‍nayaḥ । tāsāṁ prasūtiprasavaṁ procyamānaṁ nibodha me ॥ 12 ॥

śraddhā tvaṅ‌girasaḥ pat‍nī catasro'sūta kanyakāḥ । sinīvālī kuhū rākā caturthyanumatistathā ॥ 34 ॥

tatputrāvaparāvāstāṁ khyātau svārociṣe'ntare । utathyo bhagavān sākṣāt brahmiṣṭhaśca br̥haspatiḥ ॥ 35 ॥

In the 9th Skandha[46], while describing the lineage of Vaivasvata Manu, the Bhagavata Purana states that Shraddha was the wife of Shraddhadeva Manu (the son of Vivasvan and Samjna). They had 10 sons viz. Ikshvaku, Nrga, Sharyati, Dishta, Dhrshta, Karushaka, Narishyanta, Prshadhra, Nabhaga and Kavi. There is also mention of birth of a daughter Ila as result of observing Payovrata.[47]

मरीचिः मनसस्तस्य जज्ञे तस्यापि कश्यपः । दाक्षायण्यां ततोऽदित्यां विवस्वान् अभवत् सुतः ॥ १० ॥

ततो मनुः श्राद्धदेवः संज्ञायामास भारत । श्रद्धायां जनयामास दश पुत्रान् स आत्मवान् ॥ ११ ॥

इक्ष्वाकुनृगशर्याति दिष्टधृष्ट करूषकान् । नरिष्यन्तं पृषध्रं च नभगं च कविं विभुः ॥ १२ ॥[48]

marīciḥ manasastasya jajñe tasyāpi kaśyapaḥ । dākṣāyaṇyāṁ tato'dityāṁ vivasvān abhavat sutaḥ ॥ 10 ॥

tato manuḥ śrāddhadevaḥ saṁjñāyāmāsa bhārata । śraddhāyāṁ janayāmāsa daśa putrān sa ātmavān ॥ 11 ॥

ikṣvākunr̥gaśaryāti diṣṭadhr̥ṣṭa karūṣakān । nariṣyantaṁ pr̥ṣadhraṁ ca nabhagaṁ ca kaviṁ vibhuḥ ॥ 12 ॥

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