Padarthas (पदार्थाः)

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Padarthas (Samskrit : पदार्थाः) or entities (substances) are those whose true knowledge of leads to attainment of the Nihshreyasa. Nyaya Darshana begins with Gautama's exposition of the nature of an entity or substance which belongs to the one of the sixteen categories. Vaiseshika also propounds the similar concept of Padarthas but vary in the number of categories accepted viz., six.

परिचयः॥ Introduction

The unique concept of Padarthas (पदार्थाः) is introduced in Nyaya and Vaiseshika darshanas which are two of the astika Shad Darshanas. Padarthas are entities of whose enumeration is essential for attainment of Nihshreyasa according to Nyaya.[1]

The very first sutra in Nyaya darshana given by Gautama expounds sixteen categories of things or substances whereas Vaiseshika expounded by Kanada divides all nameable things into six classes by a subtle process of analysis and synthesis.[2] Thus it many be noted that attainment of Nihshreyasa (Moksha) or the ultimate good is the goal of all darshana shastras.

List of Padarthas Defined By Nyaya and Vaiseshika Darshanas
Nyaya Darshana Vaiseshika Darshana
  1. Pramana (प्रमाणम्)
  2. Prameya (प्रमेयम्)
  3. Samsaya (संशयः)
  4. Prayojana (प्रयोजनम्)
  5. Drsthanta (दृष्टान्तः)
  6. Siddhanta (सिद्धान्तः)
  7. Avayava (अवयवः)
  8. Tarka (तर्कः)
  9. Nirnaya (निर्णयः)
  10. Vada (वादः)
  11. Jalpa (जल्पः)
  12. Vitanda (वितण्डा)
  13. Hetvabhasa (हेत्वाभासः)
  14. Chhala (छलः)
  15. Jati (जातिः)
  16. Nigrahasthana (निग्रहस्थानम्)
  1. Dravya (द्रव्यः)
  2. Guna (गुणः)
  3. Karma (कर्म)
  4. Samanya (सामान्यः)
  5. Visesha (विशेषः)
  6. Samavaya (समवायः)

षोडशपदार्थाः ॥ Sixteen Categories

Nyaya expounds the shodasha padarthas or sixteen entities, the knowledge of the real essence (or true character) of which leads one to the ultimate goal.

प्रमाणप्रमेयसंशयप्रयोजनदृष्टान्तसिद्धान्तावयवतर्कनिर्णयवादजल्पवितण्डाहेत्वाभासच्छलजातिनिग्रहस्थानानां तत्वज्ञानान्निःश्रेयसाधिगमः ॥१॥ {पदार्थोद्देशसूत्रम्} (Nyaya. Sutr. 1.1.1)[3]

pramāṇapramēyasaṁśayaprayōjanadr̥ṣṭāntasiddhāntāvayavatarkanirṇayavādajalpavitaṇḍāhētvābhāsacchalajātinigrahasthānānāṁ tatvajñānānniḥśrēyasādhigamaḥ ॥1॥ {padārthōddēśasūtram} (Nyaya. Sutr. 1.1.1)

They are as discussed as follows with reference to pages 22-30 of Mm. Sri. Ganganatha Jha's translation[1] and pages 294-296 of Dr. Surendranath Dasgupta's books on Indian Philosophy (Volume 1)[4].

1. प्रमाणम् ॥ Pramana (Perception) 
Pramana is defined as the instrument of right cognition. Four pramanas accepted by Nyaya are Pratyaksha, Anumana, Upamana and Shabda given by sutra

प्रत्यक्षानुमानोपमानशब्दाः प्रमाणानि ॥ ३ ॥ {प्रमाणौद्देशसूत्रम्} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.1.3)[3]

pratyakṣānumānōpamānaśabdāḥ pramāṇāni ॥ 3 ॥ {pramāṇauddēśasūtram} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.1.3)

2. प्रमेयम् ॥ Prameya (Object)
It is the object identified by right cognition. Nyaya enlists 12 kinds of prameya given in sutra

आत्मशरीरेन्द्रियार्थबुद्धिमनःप्रवृत्तिदोषप्रेत्यभावफलदुःखापवर्गाः तु प्रमेयम्॥ ९ ॥{प्रमेयौद्देशसूत्रम्} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.1.9)[3]

ātmaśarīrēndriyārthabuddhimanaḥpravr̥ttidōṣaprētyabhāvaphaladuḥkhāpavargāḥ tu pramēyam॥ 9 ॥{pramēyauddēśasūtram} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.1.9)

Both Pramana and Prameya have been extensively discussed under the heading Pramana.

3. संशयः ॥ Samshaya (Doubt)
It appears as "or" and "is this thing this or that". Doubt is the uncertain idea that we have of things and is a necessary factor, the very basis, of the process of Reasoning.

समानानेकधर्मोपपत्तेः विप्रतिपत्तेः उपलब्ध्यनुपलब्ध्यव्यवस्थातः च विशेषापेक्षः विमर्शः संशयः ॥२३॥ {संशयलक्षणम्} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.1.23)[3]

samānānēkadharmōpapattēḥ vipratipattēḥ upalabdhyanupalabdhyavyavasthātaḥ ca viśēṣāpēkṣaḥ vimarśaḥ saṁśayaḥ ॥23॥ {saṁśayalakṣaṇam} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.1.23)

4. प्रयोजनम् ॥ Prayojana (Motive) 
It is that, on being urged, by which a man has recourse to activity, i.e., with a desire either to obtain or reject a man is motivated into Action. Proyojana or motive is the basis of all reasoning or investigation according to Nyaya. Motive bears upon all living beings, all actions and all shastras.

यं अर्थं अधिकृत्य प्रवर्तते तत्प्रयोजनम् ॥२४॥{प्रयोजनलक्षणम्} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.1.24)[3]

yaṁ arthaṁ adhikr̥tya pravartatē tatprayōjanam ॥24॥{prayōjanalakṣaṇam} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.1.24)

5. दृष्टान्तः ॥ Drshtanta (Example)
It is something that is directly comprehended, without any need for proof and so is self-evident. It is something which cannot fail to be known or perceived. It can be called as object of cognition (Prameya) but is mentioned separately, because Anumana and Shabda pramanas are both dependent upon it for only through a Drsthanta can they explained. Thus Drshtanta forms the basis on which Reasoning proceeds and is required even to demolish an opponent's position and establish one's stand on a theory.

लौकिकपरीक्षकाणां यस्मिनर्थे बुद्धिसाम्यं सः दृष्टान्तः ॥२५॥ {दृष्टान्तलक्षणम्} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.1.25)[3]

laukikaparīkṣakāṇāṁ yasminarthē buddhisāmyaṁ saḥ dr̥ṣṭāntaḥ ॥25॥ {dr̥ṣṭāntalakṣaṇam} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.1.25)

6. सिद्धान्तः ॥ Siddhanta (Theory or Accepted Conclusions)
Siddhanta (सिद्धान्तः) A proposition or statement of fact asserted in the form "this is so" is called Theory. This also can be an object of cognition but yet is enunciated separately by itself because it is only when there are a number of different theories, and never otherwise, that the three forms of Debate - Discussion, Disagreement and Arguments.

तन्त्राधिकरणाभ्युपगमसंस्थितिः सिद्धान्तः ॥२६॥ {अभ्युपगमसिद्धान्तलक्षणम्} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.1.26)[3]

tantrādhikaraṇābhyupagamasaṁsthitiḥ siddhāntaḥ ॥26॥ {abhyupagamasiddhāntalakṣaṇam} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.1.26)

Doctrine or Theory is a final, well determined conviction (of people) with regard to the exact nature of any particular thing dealt with by Tantra (standing for the teachings in connection with things related with one another).
7. अवयवः ॥ Avayavas (Factors of Inference or Premises) 
When a conclusion has to be made, a number of words or sentences (Statements) have to be used. The Pancha Avayavas (अवयवाः) are the 5 types of Statements or Premises that are necessary to prove a certain conclusion. They are Pratijna, Hetu, Udaharana, Upanaya and Nigamana which when taken collectively are called as Factors of Inference.

प्रतिज्ञाहेतूदाहरणोपनयनिगमनानि अवयवाः ॥३२॥ {अवयवौद्देशसूत्रम्} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.1.32)[3]

pratijñāhētūdāharaṇōpanayanigamanāni avayavāḥ ॥32॥ {avayavauddēśasūtram} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.1.32)

8. तर्कः ॥ Tarka (Argumentation)
It leads to the ascertainment of their validity or invalidity and thus helps in the attaining of true knowledge. Though a category of the Prameya it is enunciated separately because along with the Pramana it is of use in Debate, both in establishing one's own position and in demolishing the position of the opponent.[1] Tarka means the deliberation on an unknown thing to discern its real nature. (Page 360 of Reference [4]).

अविज्ञाततत्वे अर्थे कारणोपपत्तितः तत्त्वज्ञानार्थं उहः तर्कः॥४०॥{तर्कलक्षणम्} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.1.40)[3]

avijñātatatvē arthē kāraṇōpapattitaḥ tattvajñānārthaṁ uhaḥ tarkaḥ॥40॥{tarkalakṣaṇam} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.1.40)

9. निर्णयः ॥ Nirnaya (Ascertainment, Validated Truth)
It is the conclusion which consists of true knowledge obtained as the result of the Pramana. It is the final aim of all Debate or Vada which is ascertained after duly deliberating over the two sides of the question.

विमृश्य पक्षप्रतिपक्षाभ्यां अर्थावधारणं निर्णयः॥४१॥ {निर्णयलक्षणम्} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.1.41)[3]

vimr̥śya pakṣapratipakṣābhyāṁ arthāvadhāraṇaṁ nirṇayaḥ॥41॥ {nirṇayalakṣaṇam} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.1.41)

10. वादः ॥ Vada (Debate)
It consists of a number of statements (sentences, declarations) put forward by various speakers, purporting to be proofs and reasonings in support of and condemnation of several siddhantas. These two conceptions proceed hand in hand until one of them becomes rejected and leading ultimately to the acceptance of one of them as the validated truth or Nirnaya.

प्रमाणतर्कसाधनोपालम्भः सिद्धान्ताविरुद्धः पञ्चावयवोपपन्नः पक्षप्रतिपक्षपरिग्रहः वादः ॥१॥ {वादलक्षणम्} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.2.1)[5]

pramāṇatarkasādhanōpālambhaḥ siddhāntāviruddhaḥ pañcāvayavōpapannaḥ pakṣapratipakṣaparigrahaḥ vādaḥ ॥1॥ {vādalakṣaṇam} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.2.1)

11. जल्पः ॥ Jalpa (Disputations)
Jalpa is endowed with the following characteristics - a) it puts forward a conception and counter-conception b) consists in supporting and condemning by means of proofs and reasonings c) is not opposed to the main doctrine and d) is carried on in full accordance with the method of reasoning through five factors according to Vatsyayana bhashya. Jalpa differs from Vada in that it admits the use of deceptiveness (Casuistry) etc which is not allowed in vada. Jalpa is that which is endowed with the said characteristics and in which there is supporting and condemnation by means of Chhala, Jati and Nigrahastana.

यथोक्तोपपन्नः छलजातिनिग्रहस्थानसाधनोपालम्भः जल्पः ॥२॥ {जल्पलक्षणम्} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.2.2)[5]

yathōktōpapannaḥ chalajātinigrahasthānasādhanōpālambhaḥ jalpaḥ ॥2॥ {jalpalakṣaṇam} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.2.2)

12. वितण्डा ॥ Vitanda (Destructive Criticism)
Vitanda also differs from vada in that it does not tend to the establishment of any position which is not so in the case of Vada where a conclusion is arrived at. Disputation (Jalpa) becomes Vitanda when there is no establishment of the counter-conception.

सः प्रतिपक्षस्थापनाहीनः वितण्डा ॥३॥ {वितण्डालक्षणम्} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.2.3)[5]

saḥ pratipakṣasthāpanāhīnaḥ vitaṇḍā ॥3॥ {vitaṇḍālakṣaṇam} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.2.3)

13. हेत्वाभासः ॥ Hetvabhasa (Fallacy) 
Hetvabhasa (हेत्वाभासः) are so called because they do not possess all the characteristics of the true hetus discussed in 1.1.32, yet they are sufficiently similar to them to appear like them.

सव्यभिचारविरुद्धप्रकरणसमसाध्यसमकालातीताः हेत्वाभासाः ॥४॥ {हेत्वाभासौद्देशसूत्रम्} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.2.4)[5]

savyabhicāraviruddhaprakaraṇasamasādhyasamakālātītāḥ hētvābhāsāḥ ॥4॥ {hētvābhāsauddēśasūtram} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.2.4)

14. च्छलः ॥ Chhala (Minor deception)
Chhala (च्छलः) consists in opposing a proposition by assigning to it a meaning other than the one intended. It is of three kinds.

वचनविघातः अर्थविकल्पोपपत्त्या छलम् ॥१०॥{छललक्षणम्} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.2.10)[5]

vacanavighātaḥ arthavikalpōpapattyā chalam ॥10॥{chalalakṣaṇam} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.2.10)

15. जातिः ॥ Jati (Refutation)
Refutation is that objection which is taken on the basis of mere similarity and dissimilarity.

साधर्म्यवैधर्म्याभ्यां प्रत्यवस्थानं जातिः॥१८॥ {जातिलक्षणम्} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.2.18)[5]

sādharmyavaidharmyābhyāṁ pratyavasthānaṁ jātiḥ॥18॥ {jātilakṣaṇam} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.2.18)

16. निग्रहस्थानम् ॥ Nigrahasthana (Points of opponent's defeat) 
Nigrahastana is when there is Misapprehension and Incomprehension. Misapprehension is that comprehension which is either wrong or reprehensible. Incomprehension is when a person does not say anything in the instance where it is required of him to say so. Both these leads a man to defeat.

विप्रतिपत्तिः अप्रतिपत्तिः च निग्रहस्थानम् ॥१९॥ {निग्रहस्थानलक्षणम्} तद्विकल्पात्जातिनिग्रहस्थानबहुत्वम् ॥२०॥ {निग्रहस्थानबहुत्वसूत्रम्} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.2.19 and 20)[5]

vipratipattiḥ apratipattiḥ ca nigrahasthānam ॥19॥ {nigrahasthānalakṣaṇam} tadvikalpātjātinigrahasthānabahutvam ॥20॥ {nigrahasthānabahutvasūtram} (Nyay. Sutr. 1.2.19 and 20)

पदार्थज्ञानाप्रयोजनम् ॥ Padartha Jnana Prayojana

The Nyaya shastra explicitly dealing with the process of Reasoning, Means of right cognition and other Padarthas (categories) is the lamp for all tattva shastras; the Means (of Knowledge) of all things and is the very basis of all activities of the universe and hence expounded at the very outset of investigative procedures. The very first Nyaya sutra states that the attainment of Nihshreyasa is the goal of the knowledge of Padarthas. Now does Nihshreyasa or the Ultimate Good appear immediately after gaining "true knowledge" or padartha jnana? to which the following sutra answers, that after gaining padartha jnana

दुःखजन्मप्रवृत्तिदोषमिथ्याज्ञानानां उत्तरोत्तरापाये तदनन्तरापायातपवर्गः।।२।। {पदार्थोद्देशसूत्रम्} (Nyaya. Sutr. 1.1.2)[3]

duḥkhajanmapravr̥ttidōṣamithyājñānānāṁ uttarōttarāpāyē tadanantarāpāyātapavargaḥ।।2।। {padārthōddēśasūtram} (Nyaya. Sutr. 1.1.2)

There is cessation of each of the following series, the cessation of that which follows brings about the annihilation of that which precedes it and ultimately leads to Nihshreyasa or the Ultimate Good of any being (PDF Page number 31 of Reference [1])

  • मिथ्याज्ञानम् ॥ Wrong Notion
  • दोषः ॥ Defects (such as Envy, Jealousy, Deceit, Avarice and others)
  • प्रवृत्तिः ॥ Activity (Merits arising from Dharmika pravrtti and Demerits arising from Adharma)
  • जन्म ॥ Birth (Activity becomes the cause of mean and respectable birth)
  • दुःख ॥ Pain (When there is birth there is pain (दुःख) suffering (पीडा) and affliction (तापम्))

Of the मिथ्याज्ञानानि (Wrong Notions), that cease after the attainment of true knowledge, there are various kinds as follows

Different forms of मिथ्याज्ञानाम् ॥ Wrong Notion and Comparison with Right Notion
Reference मिथ्याज्ञानाम् ॥ Wrong Notion सत्यज्ञानम् ॥ Truth
आत्मन् (Atman or Self) There is no such thing as Atma Atma exists
अनात्मा Non-Self (such as body etc) is regarded as Self What is Non-Self is non-self
दुःख (Pain) and others Pain is regarded as pleasure Pain is distinct from pleasure, so also real characteristics of others Eternal, Safety, Fearful, disgusting, and unworthy are known.
Non-eternal is regarded as Eternal
Non-safety is regarded as Safety
Fearful is regarded as free from fear
Disgusting is regarded as agreeable
Unworthy is regarded as worthy
प्रवृत्तिः (Activity) There is no such thing as Karma Karma exists and is effective in bring about results
There is no result of Karma
दोषः (Defects) Punarjanma (transmigration) is not due to 'defects' Punarjanma (transmigration) is due to Doshas
जन्म (Birth) No living being, an animal, Atma having died could be reborn again An animal, a living being, an Atma after death (physical) is reborn
The birth of living beings is without a cause Birth has a definite cause
The cessation of birth is without cause Cessation of birth has a definite cause namely Death
Punarjanma (Transmigration) has beginning, but no end Punarjanma is without beginning but ends in Jivanmukti or Moksha
Even though it has a cause, Punarjanma cannot be due to Karma Death and Punarjanma having a cause, is caused by Activity (meritorious or with demerit)
Punarjanma consists only in disruption (at death) and restoration (at rebirth) of the chain of such things as the body, the sense-organs, the Consciousness and sensation. Death and Birth is connected with the Atman and operates through disruption and restoration of the continuous connection of such things as the sense-organs, the consciousness and sensation.
Nihshreyasa (Ultimate Good) Moksha It is something terrible, involving cessation of all activity Jivanmukti - Cessation and dissociation from all things and from all activity is extremely peaceful. All that is painful, frightful and wrongful disappears on mukti.
Involves dissociation from all things, including that which is desirable
A longing for such Ultimate Good in which there is neither pleasure nor pain, nor any consciousness is undesirable What is peaceful is always longed for and desired by any sane person. Mukti involves freedom from pain and pleasure also because all pleasure is invariably connected with some pain and should be avoided.

When true knowledge of the Padarthas is attained, the Mithyajnana (मिथ्याज्ञानम् । wrong notions) disappear; on whose disappearance the Doshas (।) disappear; followed by the disappearance of Prvrtti (।). When activity ceases, there is no Punarjanma, when there is no birth there is no pain. Cessation of pain leads to Jivanmukti which itself is Nihshreyasa (Moksha). (PDF Page number 34 of Reference [1])

The process of Reasoning proceeds by three steps, Enunciation, Definition and Examination.

Vaiseshika Padarthas

6 Padarthas definition and translation

धर्मविशेष प्रसूतात् द्रव्यगुणकर्मसामान्य विशेषसमवायानां पदार्थानां साधर्म्यवैधर्म्याभ्यां तत्त्वज्ञानान्निःश्रेयसम् । वैशेषिक-१,१.४ ।

Dravya : पृथिव्यापस्तेजो वायुराकाशं कालो दिगात्मा मन इति द्रव्याणि । वैशेषिक-१,१.५ ।

Gunas : रुपरसगन्धस्पर्शाः संख्याः परिमाणानि पृथक्त्वं संयोगविभागौ परत्वापरत्वे बुद्धयः सुखदुःखे इच्छाद्वेषौ प्रयत्नाश्च गुणाः । वैशेषिक-१,१.६ ।

Karma : उत्क्षेपणमवक्षेपणं आकुञ्चनं प्रसारणं गमनमिति कर्माणि । वैशेषिक-१,१.७ ।

Samanya : सामान्यविशेष इति बुद्ध्यपेक्षम् । वैशेषिक-१,२.३ । भावो ऽनुवृत्तेरेव हेतुत्वात् सामान्यमेव । वैशेषिक-१,२.४ ।

Visesha : Proved by inference from above sutra 1.2.4

Samavaya : इहेदमिति यतः कार्यकारणयोः स समवायः । वैशेषिक-७,२.२६ ।

Vastyayana Bhashya (Vats. Bhas. Nyay. Sutr. 1.1.1) (Page 14 of Reference [6])

आत्मादेः खलु प्रमेयस्य तत्वस्य ज्ञानान्निःश्रेयसाधिगमः। तच्चैतदुत्तरसूत्रेणानूद्यत इति । हेयं, तस्य निर्वर्त्तकं, हानमात्यन्तिकं, तस्योपायोऽधिगन्तव्य इत्येतानि चत्वार्य्यपदानि सम्यक्बुद्ध्वा निःश्रेयसमधिगच्छति ।

तत्त्र संशयादीनां पृथक्वचनमनर्थकम्। संशयादयो यथासंभवं प्रमाणेषु प्रमेयेषु चान्तर्भवन्तो न व्यतिरिच्यन्त इति। सत्यमेतत् । इमास्तु च तिस्रो विद्याः पृथक्प्रस्थानाः प्राणभृतामनुग्रहायोपदिश्यन्ते, यासां चतुर्थीयमान्विक्षिकी न्यायविद्या। तस्याः पृथक्प्रस्थानाः संशयादयः पदार्थाः। तेषां पृथग्वचनमन्तरेणाध्यात्मविद्यामात्रमियं स्यात्, यथोपनिषदः । तस्मात् संशयादिभिः पदार्थैः पृथक् प्रस्थाम्यते । तत्र नानुपलब्धे न निर्णीते अर्थे न्यायः प्रवर्तते, किन्तर्हि, संशयिते अर्थे । यथोक्तं - विमृश्य पक्षप्रतिपक्षाभ्यामर्थावधारणं निर्णयः इति। विमर्शः संशयः । पक्षप्रतिपक्षौ न्यायप्रवृत्तिः। अर्थावधारणं निर्णयः तत्वज्ञानमिति। स चायं किं स्विदिति वस्तुविमर्शमात्रमनवधारणं ज्ञानं संशयः प्रमेये अन्तर्भवन्नेवमर्थं पृथगुच्यते। अथ प्रयोजनम्। येन प्रयुक्तः प्रवर्त्तते, तत् प्रयोजनम्। यमर्थमभीप्सन् जिहासन् वा कर्माऽऽरभते, तेनानेन सर्व्वे प्रणिनः सर्वाणि कर्माणि सर्वाश्च विद्या व्याप्ताः, तदाश्रयश्च न्यायः प्रवर्तते। कः पुनरयं न्यायः - प्रमाणैरर्थपरीक्षणं न्यायः। प्रत्यक्षाऽऽगमाश्रितमनुमानं, साऽन्वीक्षा, प्रत्यक्षाऽऽगमाभ्यामीक्षितस्यान्वीक्षणमन्वीक्षा तया प्रवर्तत इत्यन्वीक्षिकी न्यायविद्या न्यायशास्त्रम्। यत्पुनरनुमानं प्रत्यक्षाऽऽगमविरुद्धं न्यायाभासः स इति। तत्र वादजल्पौ सप्रयोजनौ। वितण्डा तु परीक्ष्यते। वितण्डया प्रवर्तमानो वैतण्डिकः। स प्रयोजनमनुयुक्तो यदि प्रतिपद्यते, सोऽस्य पक्षः सोऽस्य सिद्धान्तः इति वैतण्डिकत्वं जहाति।

References

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  2. Sinha, Nandalal. (1923) The Vaiseshika Sutras of Kanada. Allahabad : The Panini Office
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 Nyaya Sutras (Adhyaya 1 Ahnika 1)
  4. 4.0 4.1 Dasgupta, Surendranath. (7th Reprint : 2012) A History of Indian Philosophy. Volume 1. New Delhi : Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 Nyaya Sutras (Adhyaya 1 Ahnika 2)
  6. Pt. Gangadhara Sastri Tailanga. (1896) The Nyayasutras with Vatsayana's Bhashya and Extracts from the Nyayavarttika and the Tatparyatika. (Page 48 of PDF) Benares : E. J. Lazarus & Co