Anadhyayana (अनध्ययनम्)

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Anadhyayana (Samskrit: अनध्ययनम्) refers to those conditions when vedic studies are to be paused.

परिचयः ॥ Introduction

Vedadhyayana (वेदाध्ययनम् | Vedic studies) is given utmost importance as a dharma in the life of an individual. It is a duty that one is expected to accomplish most diligently on a daily basis. As compared to Vedadhyayana, all other responsibilities are considered secondary (Manu. Smrt. 4.147).[1][2] At no cost is one allowed to deviate from the study of the Vedas.

This being the condition, tradition also makes an exception to this rule during certain exigencies.

अनध्ययननियमाः ॥ Anadhyayana Niyamas

The conditions when it is advised to pause both the learning as well as teaching of the vedas are of three types.

  1. नैसर्गिककारणानि ॥ Natural reasons
  2. यज्ञियकारणानि ॥ Ritual conditions
  3. कालदेशीयकारणानि ॥ Time and place conditions

नैसर्गिककारणानि ॥ Natural reasons

  • It is said that, in the rainy season, the Veda-study must be paused on two occasions - when the wind is audible at night, and when it whirls up the dust in the day-time. (Manu Smrt. 4.102).[2]

कर्णश्रवेऽनिले रात्रौ दिवा पांसुसमूहने । एतौ वर्षास्वनध्यायावध्यायज्ञाः प्रचक्षते || ४.१०२ ||[1]

karṇaśrave'nile rātrau divā pāṁsusamūhane । etau varṣāsvanadhyāyāvadhyāyajñāḥ pracakṣate || 4.102 ||

  • Manu has stated that when lightning, thunder, and rain are observed, or until there is large fiery meteors falling, the recitation of the Veda must be paused. Also, when one perceives these phenomena (ie. lightening, rains and thunder) in the morning and evening at the time of lighting the sacred fire (for performing Agnihotra), during the rainy season, or when clouds appear out of season, then one must know that the recitation of the Veda is to be paused. (Manu Smrt. 4.103 and 104)[2]

विद्युत्स्तनितवर्षेषु महोल्कानां च संप्लवे । आकालिकम् अनध्याम् एतेषु मनुरब्रवीत् || ४.१०३ ||

एतांस्त्वभ्युदितान्विद्याद्यदा प्रादुष्कृताग्निषु । तदा विद्यादनध्यायम् अनृतौ चाभ्रदर्शने || ४.१०४ ||

vidyutstanitavarṣeṣu maholkānāṁ ca saṁplave । ākālikaṁ anadhyāyaṁ eteṣu manurabravīt || 4.103 ||

etāṁstvabhyuditānvidyādyadā prāduṣkr̥tāgniṣu । tadā vidyādanadhyāyaṁ anr̥tau cābhradarśane || 4.104 ||

  • Also, on crashing sound from the sky, an earthquake and when there is eclipse of the sun or moon, then the Veda-study must be paused until the phenomena lasts; these same phenomena observed during rainy season calls for an indefinite pause in Veda Studies. However, after the sacred fire has been lit, if there is lightning and thunder in the morning then study shall be paused until evening and if the same happens in the evening, the pause shall last as long as the stars are visible in the sky (until morning); And if all above mentioned phenomena occurs together at once, then the reading shall cease both a day and a night. (Manu Smrti. 4.105 and 106).[2]

निर्घाते भूमिचलने ज्योतिषां चोपसर्जने । एतानाकालिकान्विद्यादनध्यायानृतावपि || ४.१०५ ||

प्रादुष्कृतेष्वग्निषु तु विद्युत्स्तनितनिःस्वने । सज्योतिः स्यादनध्यायः शेषे रात्रौ यथा दिवा || ४.१०६ ||[1]

nirghāte bhūmicalane jyotiṣāṁ copasarjane । etānākālikānvidyādanadhyāyānr̥tāvapi || 4.105 ||

prāduṣkr̥teṣvagniṣu tu vidyutstanitaniḥsvane । sajyotiḥ syādanadhyāyaḥ śeṣe rātrau yathā divā || 4.106 ||

  • One is advised to consider Anadhyayana (अनध्ययनम्) during fog, while the sound of arrows is audible, during both the morning and evening twilight, on the new-moon day, fourteenth day, full-moon day and the eighth day of each half-month. Because study of the Vedas on new-moon day destroys the teacher and on the fourteenth day destroys the pupil. Reading the Veda on the eighth days makes one forget it and on these specific days, the study of the Vedas is forbid. (Manu Smrt. 4.113 and 114).[2]

नीहारे बाणशब्दे च संध्ययोरेव चोभयोः । अमावास्याचतुर्दश्योः पौर्णमास्यष्टकासु च || ४.११३ ||

अमावास्या गुरुं हन्ति शिष्यं हन्ति चतुर्दशी । ब्रह्माष्टकपौर्णमास्यौ तस्मात्ताः परिवर्जयेत् || ४.११४ ||[1]

nīhāre bāṇaśabde ca saṁdhyayoreva cobhayoḥ । amāvāsyācaturdaśyoḥ paurṇamāsyaṣṭakāsu ca || 4.113 ||

amāvāsyā guruṁ hanti śiṣyaṁ hanti caturdaśī । brahmāṣṭakapaurṇamāsyau tasmāttāḥ parivarjayet || 4.114 ||

  • One shall not recite the Veda during a dust-storm, nor while the sky is unnaturally red, nor while jackals howl, dogs bark, the donkeys bray or the camels grunt; nor while they are in each other's company. (Manu Smrt. 4.115)[2]

पांसुवर्षे दिशां दाहे गोमायुविरुते तथा । श्वखरोष्ट्रे च रुवति पङ्क्तौ च न पठेद्द्विजः || ४.११५ ||[1]

pāṁsuvarṣe diśāṁ dāhe gomāyuvirute tathā । śvakharoṣṭre ca ruvati paṅktau ca na paṭheddvijaḥ || 4.115 ||

यज्ञियकारणानि ॥ Ritual condition

  • One should not study the Veda for three days, if one has accepted an invitation to a funeral rite in honour of one ancestor (ekoddishta), or when the Raja has become impure through a birth or death in his family (sutaka), or when there is an eclipse of the Sun or the Moon. It is said that as long as the smell and the anointment of Sandalwood given in honour of one ancestor remain on the body, a learned Brahmana, for so long, must not recite the Veda. Be it living or inanimate, having accepted anything at a Shraddha, one should not recite the Veda; for the shastras consider the hand of a Brahmana as mouth. Therefore, accepting is considered as enjoying. (Manu Smrt. 4.110, 111 and 117).[2]

प्रतिगृह्य द्विजो विद्वानेकोद्दिष्टस्य केतनम् । त्र्यहं न कीर्तयेद्ब्रह्म राज्ञो राहोश्च सूतके || ४.११० ||

यावदेकानुदिष्टस्य गन्धो लेपश्च तिष्ठति । विप्रस्य विदुषो देहे तावद्ब्रह्म न कीर्तयेत् || ४.१११ ||

प्राणि वा यदि वाप्राणि यत्किं चिच्छ्राद्धिकं भवेत् । तदालभ्याप्यनध्यायः पाण्यास्यो हि द्विजः स्मृतः || ४.११७ ||[1]

pratigr̥hya dvijo vidvānekoddiṣṭasya ketanam । tryahaṁ na kīrtayedbrahma rājño rāhośca sūtake || 4.110 ||

yāvadekānudiṣṭasya gandho lepaśca tiṣṭhati । viprasya viduṣo dehe tāvadbrahma na kīrtayet || 4.111 ||

prāṇi vā yadi vāprāṇi yatkiṁ cicchrāddhikaṁ bhavet । tadālabhyāpyanadhyāyaḥ pāṇyāsyo hi dvijaḥ smr̥taḥ || 4.117 ||

कालदेशीयकारणानि ॥ Time and place conditions

  • When the place of Veda recitation is impure, and when oneself is impure, one should surely avoid Veda study. (Manu Smrt. 4.127).[2]

द्वावेव वर्जयेन्नित्यं अनध्यायौ प्रयत्नतः । स्वाध्यायभूमिं चाशुद्धं आत्मानं चाशुचिं द्विजः || ४.१२७ ||[1]

dvāveva varjayennityaṁ anadhyāyau prayatnataḥ । svādhyāyabhūmiṁ cāśuddhaṁ ātmānaṁ cāśuciṁ dvijaḥ || 4.127 ||

  • One should not recite the Veda when on horseback, tree, elephant, or in a boat, on a donkey, camel, nor on a barren ground, or riding in a carriage. While lying on a bed, while one's feet are raised on a bench, while sitting folding the knee, having eaten meat or food given by a person impure on account of a birth or death in the family, one should not study the Veda. (Manu Smrt. 4.120 and 112).[2]

नाधीयीताश्वं आरूढो न वृक्षं न च हस्तिनम् । न नावं न खरं नोष्ट्रं नेरिणस्थो न यानगः || ४.१२० ||

शयानः प्रौढपादश्च कृत्वा चैवावसक्थिकाम् । नाधीयीतामिषं जग्ध्वा सूतकान्नाद्यं एव च || ४.११२ ||[1]

nādhīyītāśvaṁ ārūḍho na vr̥kṣaṁ na ca hastinam । na nāvaṁ na kharaṁ noṣṭraṁ neriṇastho na yānagaḥ || 4.120 ||

śayānaḥ prauḍhapādaśca kr̥tvā caivāvasakthikām । nādhīyītāmiṣaṁ jagdhvā sūtakānnādyaṁ eva ca || 4.112 ||

  • In a village troubled by robbers, during fire accident, or at the time of a wondrous event on the earth or sky, one should avoid the Veda-study until the time the situation lasts. (Manu Smrt. 4.118).[2]

चोरैरुपद्रुते ग्रामे संभ्रमे चाग्निकारिते । आकालिकं अनध्यायं विद्यात्सर्वाद्भुतेषु च || ४.११८ ||[1]

corairupadrute grāme saṁbhrame cāgnikārite । ākālikaṁ anadhyāyaṁ vidyātsarvādbhuteṣu ca || 4.118 ||

  • On the occasion of the Upakarma and of the Vedotsarga, an omission of the Veda-study for three days has been prescribed, while on the Ashtakas and the end of the seasons, Anadhyaya is prescribed for a day and a night. (Manu Smrt. 4.119).[2]

उपाकर्मणि चोत्सर्गे त्रिरात्रं क्षेपणं स्मृतम् । अष्टकासु त्वहोरात्रं ऋत्वन्तासु च रात्रिषु || ४.११९ ||[1]

upākarmaṇi cotsarge trirātraṁ kṣepaṇaṁ smr̥tam । aṣṭakāsu tvahorātraṁ r̥tvantāsu ca rātriṣu || 4.119 ||

  • Where there is a quarrel, fight, in an army or in a war, while having food, at times of indigestion, having vomited or during the time of birth or death impurities, one should not recite the Veda. Nor should it be done without the permission of a guest, while the winds blow strongly, while blood flows out of one's body, or when hurt by a weapon. (Manu Smrt. 4.121 and 122).[2]

न विवादे न कलहे न सेनायां न संगरे । न भुक्तमात्रे नाजीर्णे न वमित्वा न शुक्तके || ४.१२१ ||

अतिथिं चाननुज्ञाप्य मारुते वाति वा भृशम् । रुधिरे च स्रुते गात्राच्छस्त्रेण च परिक्षते || ४.१२२ ||[1]

na vivāde na kalahe na senāyāṁ na saṁgare । na bhuktamātre nājīrṇe na vamitvā na śuktake || 4.121 ||

atithiṁ cānanujñāpya mārute vāti vā bhr̥śam । rudhire ca srute gātrācchastreṇa ca parikṣate || 4.122 ||

  • One should not recite the Rigveda or the Yajurveda while the Samaveda is being recited; Having completed the Veda and reciting the Aranyaka, one is advised to not read other Vedas for a day and a night. (Manu Smrt. 4.123).[2]

सामध्वनावृग्यजुषी नाधीयीत कदा चन । वेदस्याधीत्य वाप्यन्तं आरण्यकं अधीत्य च || ४.१२३ ||[1]

sāmadhvanāvr̥gyajuṣī nādhīyīta kadā cana । vedasyādhītya vāpyantaṁ āraṇyakaṁ adhītya ca || 4.123 ||

References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 Manusmrti, Adhyaya 4.
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 Pt. Girija Prasad Dvivedi (1917), The Manusmriti, Lucknow: Naval Kishore Press.