Tvashtra (त्वष्ट्रा)

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In the historical Vedic religion, Tvashtra is the first-born creator of the universe. The Purusha Sukta refers to the Purusha as Tvastr, who is the visible form of creativity emerged from the navel of the invisible Vishvakarman.[1]

In the Yajurveda, Purusha Sukta and the tenth mandala of the Rigveda, his character and attributes are merged with the concept of Hiranyagharbha/Prajapathy or Brahma. The term, also transliterated as Tvastr, nominative, is the heavenly builder, the maker of divine implements, especially Indra's Vajra and the guardian of Soma. Tvaṣṭṛ is mentioned 65 times in the Rgveda[2] and is the former of the bodies of men and animals,' and invoked when desiring offspring, called garbha-pati or the lord of the womb.[2]

As per the Ṛgveda, Tvastr belongs to clan of the Bhrgus. Similarly, as mentioned in the epic Mahābhārata, Tvastr is Sukra's son.[3] Tvaṣṭṛ is sometimes associated or identified with similar deities, such as Savitṛ, Prajapati, Vishvakarman and Pusan.[2] He is the father of Saranyu, who twice bears twins to Surya (RV 10.17.1),[4] Yama and Yami. He is also the father of Visvarupa or Trisiras who was killed by Indra, and in revenge Tvaṣṭṛ created Vrtra a fearsome asura.[2] Surprisingly he is also referred to as Indra's father.[2]

Tvastr is a solar deity in the Mahabharata and the Harivamsa. He is mentioned as the son of Kasyapa and Aditi and is said to have made the three worlds with pieces of the Sun god, Surya.

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References

  1. अ॒द्भ्यः सम्भू॑तः पृथि॒व्यै रसा॓च्च । वि॒श्वक॑र्मणः॒ सम॑वर्त॒ताधि॑ । तस्य॒ त्वष्टा॑ वि॒दध॑द्रू॒पमे॑ति । तत्पुरु॑षस्य॒ विश्व॒माजा॑न॒मग्रे॓ ॥ Rigveda 10-82
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Macdonell, Arthur Anthony (1995). "Abstract Gods". Vedic mythology. Vedas. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 116–118. ISBN 9788120811133.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. "Anuśāsana parva". Mahābhārata (in Sanskrit).CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Wikisource:The Rig Veda/Mandala 10/Hymn 17