Taittriya Upanishad (तैत्तिरीय-उपनिषद्)

From Dharmawiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The Taittirīya Upanishad (Devanagari: तैत्तिरीय उपनिषद्) is a Vedic era Sanskrit text, and is one of the major Ten Principal Upanishads. It is a part of a whole branch of the Vedas called the Taittiriya Shaka of Yajurveda or Krsna Yajurveda. The Upanishads under Sukla Yajurveda shaka include Brihadaranyaka Upanishad and Isha Upanishad.

The focal areas in this Upaniṣhad are rules of conduct and nature of Brahma. Popular instructions like ‘Satyaṃ vada, dharmaṃ cara; mātṛdevo bhava, pitṛdevo bhava; etc. are contributions of this Upaniṣhad.

परिचय || Introduction

The Taittirīya Upanishad constitutes the seventh, eighth and ninth chapters of Taittirīya Āraṇyaka, which are also called, respectively, the Śikṣāvallī, the Ānandavallī and the Bhṛguvallī. Thus, the text of this Upaniṣad is divided into three chapters named as Valli and are again divided into passages (Anuvāka) and verses.

The Taittirīya Upanishad is is extensively used by South Indian Vaidikas in all auspicious ceremonies such as daily household worship, daily temple worship and other similar occasions that command Vedic recitals.[1] There are some often used recitations of this Upanishad such as "The Parting Instruction of the Vedic Tutor to His Disciples", "The Description of Five Fold Factorization of of the Human Personality", The Upward Journey of the Departed Soul After Release From Fleshly Bondage".

This Upanishad is extremely popular because it is still chanted with proper Swarams and intonations, all over India, in Hindu religious ceremonies.[2]

This Upanishad speaks of the rules of conduct beginning from the student life upto the fourth Ashrama i.e. Sanyasa. This explanation is in well ordered, graduated manner, revealing the depth of significance of each stage and its final culmination into the next, till a person reaches Brahmanandam.[2]


The word Upanishad is derived from Upa and ni and shad. The prefixes 'upa' and 'ni' denote 'nearness' and 'totality' respectively. The sad according to Siddhanta koumudi and Panineeya dhatu paatha has three meanings - 1. to loosen 2. to attain and 3. to destroy (Ref. 7 and 8)

But Sankaracharya interprets it in three ways. 'upa* means near, 'ni' means totality.

(1) with shad meaning 'to loosen', 'to disintegrate', the word 'upanisad' will mean a doctrine that disintegrates or looses the bond of ignorance from the very root of the disciple who approaches the teacher (i.e. upagatasya sisyasya niscayena visaranakrt).

(2) with shad meaning 'to move', it means a doctrine that certainly leads the disciple to the highest Brahman (i.e. Upagatah sisyam niscayena brahma samipam nayati).

(3) with shad meaning 'to destroy', it means that doctrine which puts end to the ignorance and its projections.

Finally it comes to mean "the works that teach the science of Brahman", which became metaphorically famous as Upanisad .

Connection with Yagnyavalkya

Sage Yagnyavalkya was also a disciple of Sage Vaisampayan, who mastered various tenets of this branch. He undertook a heterodox, rebellious experiment of separating the ritual ordaining, injuctory part of the Veda, from their explanatory, literary and explicitly philosophical parts, i.e. the Samhita and Brahmana parts.[1] On knowing the intended efforts of Yagnyavalkya to further segregate the Vedic portions, Vaisampayan ordered Yagnyavalkya to "return all he had received from him (Vaisampayana)". The learnings could not be passed on by Yagnyavalkya in letter or spirit further.[1] In response to this order, Yagnyavalkya "vomitted" - that is he emptied his "stomach" of all its Vedic content, earlier received from his Master.[1]

Thereafter Yagnyavalkya undertook a rigorous penance to recover what he had lost. Through the blessings of the Sungod all the lost knowledge was revealed to him in a totally different form, order and sound notation pattern. The new form that was revealed to Yagnyavalkya was through blessings of Sun came to be known as Sukla Yajurveda.[1]

The disciples of Vaisampayan refused to acknowledge the Sukla Yajurveda, and even to this day the followers of Krishna Yajus branch look down upon the two branches of Sukla Yajurveda, the Kanva and Madhyandina as heterodox.[1]

Connection with Tittiri

Rushi Vaisampayan did not want the wisdom taught to Yagnyavalkya to be wasted. It was "absorbed", "re-imbibed" by his pupils who took the form of Tittiri birds (Partridge) to consume this knowledge. Since this Veda was absorbed by Tittiri's this branch came to be known as Taittiriya shaka of Yajurveda.[1]

Differences between Krishna and Shukla Yaurveda

Primarily, the Krishna shaka focuses on the ritualistic part and the associated mantras and chief priest bear great importance. The Shukla shaka attibutes more importance to the philosophical part of the Veda the segregation of which was the main reason for two shakas to arise.

Fundamentally both the shakas have a common content matter but differ in their arrangement. The Krishna Yajurveda shaka contains verse or mantras part along with the prose part that deals with the presentation along with discussion of the yajnika rites belonging to them. The Shukla Yajurveda shaka contains only the verse or mantra portions along with prayers.

The chief priest Hotra has an important role in the conduct of the yajnika rites in Krishna shaka, while the Shukla shaka does not regard Hotra with much importance.

Structure of वल्ली ॥Valli

Each chapter of the Taittiriya Upanishad is called a वल्ली ॥Valli , which literally means a medicinal climber plant that grows independently yet is intertwined and attached to a main tree.

Advaitins consider that Taittiriya Upanishad has only three chapters:

शिक्षा ॥ Siksha Valli : Consists of 12 Anuvakas

Ananda Valli (also called Brahmanda Valli) : Consists of 9 Anuvakas

Bhrigu Valli : Consists of 10 Anuvakas

Visistadvaitins, consider that there is a fourth chapter also - Yajniki Chapter. This fourth chapter is designated by them as तैत्तिरीय नारायणीयं.[3].

Explanation of Yajniki

Yajniki comprises of hymns used in daily Sandhya, those used during meals, and during bath for purification purposes. There are two variations here. One is followed by Tamils - called Dravida Patha. Other is followed by Telugu speaking people and is called Andhra Patha.[4]

One of the Earliest Texts to have Index

The Upanishad is one of the earliest known texts where index was included at the end of each section, along with main text, as a structural layout of the book. At the end of each Vallĩ in Taittiriya Upanishad manuscripts, there is an index of the Anuvakas which it contains.

The index includes the initial words and final words of each Anuvaka, as well as the number of sections in that Anuvaka. For example, the first and second Anuvakas of Siksha Valli state in their indices that there are five sections each in them, the fourth Anuvaka asserts there are three sections and one paragraph in it, while the twelfth Anuvaka states it has one section and five paragraphs.

The Ananda Valli, according to the embedded index, state each chapter to be much larger than currently surviving texts. For example, the 1st Anuvaka lists pratika words in its index as brahmavid, idam, ayam, and states the number of sections to be twenty one. The 2nd Anuvaka asserts it has twenty six sections, the 3rd claims twenty two, the 4th has eighteen, the 5th has twenty two, and so forth. Similarly, the third Valli lists the pratika and anukramani in the index for each of the ten Anuvakas.

Dating of Taittiriya Upanishad

It is difficult to ascertain the date of Upanisads for want of sufficient proof. And yet attempts have been made to fix their possible date between 1000 B.C. to 300 B.C. which is agreed upon as the Upanishadic age by many scholars.


Siksha Valli

The Siksha Valli chapter of Taittiriya Upanishad derives its name from Siksha (Sanskrit: शिक्षा), which literally means "instruction, education".

The special feature of the Shiksha Valli is that it gives a straightforward direct address to young Brahmcharis, where the teacher tells the students about the virtues they should try to possess and cultivate, the ideals of life they should foster, and such other rules of conduct for the up-building of a noble character.[2]

The various lessons of this first chapter are related to education of students in ancient Vedic era of India, their initiation into a school and their responsibilities after graduation.[5] It mentions lifelong "pursuit of knowledge", includes hints of "Self-knowledge", but is largely independent of the second and third chapter of the Upanishad which discuss Atman and Self-knowledge.

The Siksha Valli (or the Samhiti Upanishad) views the entire cosmology as one grand flow of Five unbroken chains - अधिलोक, अधिज्योतिष,अधिविद्य, अधिप्रज, and अध्यात्म.[6]

The Siksha Valli includes promises by students entering the Vedic school, an outline of basic course content, the nature of advanced courses and creative work from human relationships, ethical and social responsibilities of the teacher and the students, the role of breathing and proper pronunciation of Vedic literature, the duties and ethical precepts that the graduate must live up to post-graduation.[7]

First Anuvāka (प्रथमोऽनुवाकः)

The first anuvaka (lesson) of Taittiriya Upanishad starts with slokas, wherein states Adi Shankara, major Vedic deities are proclaimed to be manifestations of Brahman (Cosmic Soul, the constant Universal Principle, Unchanging Reality).[8] The first anuvaka includes a prayer and promise that a student in Vedic age of India was supposed to recite.

"॥ शान्तिपाठः ॥"

"ॐ शं नो मित्रः शं वरुणः । शं नो भवत्वर्यमा ।"

"शं न इन्द्रो बृहस्पतिः । शं नो विष्णुरुरुक्रमः ।"

Literal Translation[2]:

शं: favourable / auspicious ; मित्रः Presiding deity of the day as well as prana; नो: to us; वरुणः Presiding deity of the night and water;

अर्यमा: Presiding deity of the sun as well as eyes. इन्द्र: Presiding deity of strength, of lightening and rain,as well as hands;

बृहस्पतिःPresiding deity of intellect as well as speech, विष्णु: Presiding deity of the highest heaven and the legs;

उरुक्रमः all-pervasive

May Mitra be favourable to us, and so also Varuna. May Aryaman be favourable to us. May Brihaspati and Indra be favourable to us and so also all pervasive Vishnu.

"नमो ब्रह्मणे । नमस्ते वायो । त्वमेव प्रत्यक्षं ब्रह्मासि । त्वमेव प्रत्यक्षं ब्रह्म वदिष्यामि । ऋतं वदिष्यामि ।"

"सत्यं वदिष्यामि । तन्मामवतु । तद्वक्तारमवतु । अवतु माम् । अवतु वक्तारम् ।"

"ॐ Shanti !!! Shanti!! Shanti!"

नम: salutation, ऋतं: The Right thing, अवतु: Protect, वक्तारम् The Speaker (teacher)

Salutation to Brahman, salutation to thee, O Vayu. You are the visible Brahman. I will declare you as the visible Brahman.

Right I will speak, I will speak the truth. May That (Brahman) protect me. May That (Brahman) protect the teacher.

Om! Peace, Peace Peace!!

Detailed Explanation of the Verse[2]

In this verse "Vayu" is actually meant as all pervasive universal life or Sutra-atman. In his macrocosmic aspect HE is the cosmic energy and universal mind and in HIS microcosmic aspect, he is the vitalizing force of body and mind. The other name for Sutra-atman is Hiranyagarbha. He is endowed with two fold energy viz. Gyana Shakti and Kriya Shakti i.e. the power of knowledge and power of action. He is called here as the visible Brahman because He is perceptible both by the mind and the senses.

Along with the peace chant, the supreme Brahman, has also been invoked by His sound symbol Om.

Explanation of uttering Shanti three times

Shanti Mantras always end with three utterances of word "Shanti" which means "Peace". The Reason for uttering three times is for calming and removing obstacles in three realms which are:

  • "Physical" or Adhi-Bhautika,
  • "Divine" or Adhi-Daivika and
  • "Internal" or Adhyaatmika

According to the scriptures of Hinduism sources of obstacles and troubles lie in these three realms.

  • Physical or Adhi-Bhautika realm can be source of troubles/obstacles coming from external world (nature or living beings). Attack by wild animals, natural calamities, troubles coming from bad persons, Rakchasa etc.
  • Divine or Adhi-Daivika realm can be source of troubles/obstacles coming from the realm that is not tangible (sudden accidents, fears, sudden disturbances in life).
  • Internal or Adhyaatmika realm is source of troubles/obstacles arising out of one's own body and mind, such as pain, diseases, laziness, absent-mindedness etc.

These are called "Tapa-Traya" or three classes of troubles. When Shanti mantras are recited, obstacles from these realms are believed to be pacified. We are able to lessen the disturbances from Adhibhautika through certain precautions, such as protective walls, padlocks, bolts, etc. However, these measures are ineffective against the forces of Adhidaivika and Adhyaatmika. We can only protect ourselves against these through prayer and mantras.

Example of Deliberate Mis-translation

I will speak what is right, I will speak what is true, May that protect me, may that protect the teacher!

May it protect me, may it protect the teacher! Om! Peace! Peace! Peace![9]

In above translation done by Paul Deuseen , there is a deliberate attempt to "secularize" and remove the sacred element. The "that" is no longer the Brahman, but it is the abstract "Truth" and not the sacred Brahman that is the embodiment of truth and what is right.

Second Anuvāka (द्वितीयोऽनुवाकः)

"ॐ शीक्षां व्याख्यास्यामः । वर्णः स्वरः । मात्रा बलम् । साम सन्तानः । इत्युक्तः शीक्षाध्यायः ॥ १ ॥"

शीक्षां: The principles of phonetics, व्याख्यास्यामः (we) shall explain, वर्णः letters स्वरः vowels / accent, मात्रा quantity or measure बलम् effort or strength, साम:modulation, सन्तानः conjunction, इति: Thus, उक्त: is told शीक्षाध्यायः the chapter on the study of phonetics.[2]

Literal Translation

Om!, we shall now explain the principles of phonetics, (which comprise) letters, accents, quantity, strength, modulation and conjunction. Thus has been spoken on the chapter on phonetics.[2]

सम्वाद || Discussion on Second Anuvaka

There is a brief section that follows the Shanti Paath. This section highlights the importance of pronunciation and the care that should be taken while reciting the text.[1]

With respect to the second Anuvaka, following may be noted:

Quantity: Length of tone: short, long or treble (Known as Hraswa, Deergha and Pluta)

Strength: The intensity of effort with which a particular letter is pronounced.

Modulation: Pronunciation of sound in middle tone.

Conjunction: Joining of two letter or sound, known as Sandhi

The whole efficacy of a mantra lies in its proper chanting. The mantrashakti or the power of the mantram is in the sound of the mantram. It is further believed that there is an inseparable connection between the shabda or a particular sound and its artha, the object for which the sound stands. So any mis-pronunciation of any mantra would rob away all its efficacy and thus fail to obtain the desired object. So the Siksha Valli begins with this important instruction to students that they are supposed to utter the mantrams properly.[2]

Taittirĩya Upanishad's emphasizes, in its later anuvakas, svādhyāya, a practice that served as the principal tool for the oral preservation of the Vedas in their original form for over two millennia. Svādhyāya as a part of student's instruction, involved understanding the linguistic principles coupled with recitation practice of Indian scriptures, which enabled the mastering of entire chapters and books with accurate pronunciation.[10] The ancient Indian studies of linguistics and recitation tradition, as mentioned in the second anuvaka of Taittiriya Upanishad, helped transmit and preserve the extensive Vedic literature from 2nd millennium BCE onwards, long before the methods of mass printing and book preservation were developed.

Third Anuvāka ॥ तृतीयोऽनुवाकः ॥

The third anuvaka of Shiksha Valli explores various connectives. For example Knowledge is the connecting link between a teacher and a student; lectures are medium. Child is the connecting link between the father and the mother; process of procreation is the medium.

सह नौ यशः । सह नौ ब्रह्मवर्चसम् । अथातः संहिताया उपनिषदं व्याख्यास्यामः । पञ्चस्वधिकरणेषु ।

अधिलोकमधिज्यौतिषमधिविद्यमधिप्रजमध्यात्मम् । ता महासँहिता इत्याचक्षते । अथाधिलोकम् ।

पृथिवी पूर्वरूपम् । द्यौरुत्तररूपम् । आकाशः सन्धिः ॥ १ ॥

वायुः सन्धानम् । इत्यधिलोकम् ।

Literal Translation of first verse[2]

सह both, नौ to us, यशः fame (भवतु be), ब्रह्मवर्चसम् the brightness of appearance that is due to adhyatmik experience, अथ now, अतः: hereafter, संहिताया of the sacred teachings about conjunction, उपनिषदं sacred teachings, व्याख्यास्यामः we shall explain, पंचसु In five, अधिकरणेषु chapters अधिलोकम् with regard to the worlds, अधिज्यौतिषम् with regard to the light, अधिविद्यम् with regard to the knowledge, अधिप्रजम् with regard to the progeny, अध्यात्मम् with regard to the soul, ता: they, इति thus, चक्षते they call, अथ the following, अधिलोकम् with regard to the worlds, पृथिवी, the earth, पूर्वरूपम् the prior form, द्यौ the heaven उत्तररूपम् the posterior form, आकाशः the sky, सन्धिः the union, वायुः air, सन्धानम् the medium ।

May there be glory to us both (the teacher and the student), to us there be brightness of the adhyatmik knowledge. Now we shall explain the sacred teachings of Samhita in five parts:with regard to the worlds, with regard to the light, with regard to the knowledge, with regard to the progeny, with regard to the soul. They call it the great conjunctions.

With regard to the world - the earth is the prior form, the heaven the posterior form, and the sky is the conjunction. The air is the medium of that union. This was with regard to the worlds.

Literal Translation of second verse[2]

वायुः सन्धानम् । इत्यधिलोकम् । अथाधिज्यौतिषम् । अग्निः पूर्वरूपम् । आदित्य उत्तररूपम् ।

आपः सन्धिः । वैद्युतः सन्धानम् । इत्यधिज्यौतिषम् । अथाधिविद्यम् । आचार्यः पूर्वरूपम् ॥ २ ॥

अन्तेवास्युत्तररूपम् । विद्या सन्धिः । प्रवचनँसन्धानम् । इत्यधिविद्यम् ।

(Start from अथाधिज्यौतिषम्, continue till इत्यधिविद्यम्)

अथ: the following अधिज्यौतिषम् with regard to the light, आदित्य sun, आपः, water, वैद्युतः lightening, इति thus far / end, अन्तेवासी the disciple, प्रवचन teaching

Now as to the light: fire is the prior form, the sun the posterior form, water is the conjunction, lightening the medium. Thus far with regards to light. Now as to knowledge: teacher is the prior form, disciple the posterior, knowledge is the conjunction, teaching the medium. Thus far with regards to knowledge.

Literal Translation of third verse[2]

अन्तेवास्युत्तररूपम् । विद्या सन्धिः । प्रवचनँसन्धानम् । इत्यधिविद्यम् । अथाधिप्रजम् । माता पूर्वरूपम् ।

पितोत्तररूपम् । प्रजा सन्धिः । प्रजननँसन्धानम् । इत्यधिप्रजम् ॥ ३ ॥

अथाध्यात्मम् । अधरा हनुः पूर्वरूपम् । उत्तरा हनुरुत्तररूपम् । वाक्सन्धिः । जिह्वा सन्धानम् । इत्यध्यात्मम् ।

(Start from अथाधिप्रजम् continue till इत्यध्यात्मम्)

अधिप्रजम् as regards progeny प्रजा offspring, प्रजननम् the procreation, अधिप्रजम् as to progeny, अध्यात्मम् with regards to self, अधरा lower हनुः lip वाक् the speech जिह्वा tongue

Next as regards Progeny; mother the prior form, father the posterior, offspring the conjunction, procreation the medium. So far with regards to Progeny. Next as to self. lower lip the prior form, upper lip the posterior, speech the conjunction, tongue the medium. So far with regards to Self.

(Note: Self here means the body. Made of subtle and gross Bhutas)

Literal Translation of fourth verse[2]

अथाध्यात्मम् । अधरा हनुः पूर्वरूपम् । उत्तरा हनुरुत्तररूपम् । वाक्सन्धिः । जिह्वा सन्धानम् ।

इत्यध्यात्मम् । इतीमा महासँहिताः । य एवमेता महासँहिता व्याख्याता वेद । सन्धीयते प्रजया पशुभिः ब्रह्मवर्चसेनान्नाद्येन सुवर्गेण लोकेन ॥ ४ ॥

(Start from इतीमा महासँहिताः continue till end)

इमा these महासँहिताः great conjunctions, य: who एवम thus एता: these व्याख्याता describes वेद knows सन्धीयते possesses प्रजया with progeny, पशुभिः with animals, अन्नाद्येन with food etc सुवर्गेण with the heavenly लोकेन the world

So these are the great conjunctions. Who so ever meditates on these conjunctions is showered with progeny and cattle, with the effulgence of sacred knowledge, with food etc and with heavenly worlds.

Notes on Third Anuvaka

The meditation has to proceed in the same manner as specified. First meditation to be on अधिलोकम्, the gross surrounding of the pupil. Next to be on अधिज्यौतिषम्, light that illuminates the gross. Third meditation is on अधिविद्यम्, knowledge, light of all lights. The fourth is about अधिप्रजम्, the progeny or the living world and the fifth is about अध्यात्मम्, one's own self. Meditation begins with the most gross to the most subtle - the consciousness.[2]

The third anuvaka of Shiksha Valli asserts that everything in the universe is connected. In its theory of "connecting links", it states that letters are joined to form words and words are joined to express ideas, just like earth and heavens are forms causally joined by space through the medium of Vayu (air), and just like the fire and the sun are forms causally connected through lightning with the medium of clouds. It asserts that it is knowledge that connects the teacher and the student through the medium of exposition, while the child is the connecting link between the father and the mother through the medium of procreation.[11][12]

Third Anuvaka explains a continuous cycle of immortality. As the teacher passes his wisdom to the pupil, the Acharya survives beyond death in the form of his own pupil. Similarly when a child is born, the parents continue to live in the form of child even after their own death. Similarly when words of wisdom are passed (in the oral tradition) the upper and lower lip constitute the parental pair, yielding the full fledged word, through the instrumentality of tongue, there is a continuity and hence immortality of this sacred knowledge.[1]

Fourth Anuvāka ॥ चतुर्थोऽनुवाकः ॥

This Anuvaka has 3 verses. We will discuss the 2nd verse, which is a prayer of the teacher

आवहन्ती वितन्वाना कुर्वाणाऽचीरमात्मनः । वासाँसि मम गावश्च । अन्नपाने च सर्वदा ।

ततो मे श्रियमावह ।लोमशां पशुभिः सह स्वाहा ।

आमायन्तु ब्रह्मचारिणः स्वाहा । विमायन्तु ब्रह्मचारिणः स्वाहा । प्रमायन्तु ब्रह्मचारिणः स्वाहा ।

दमायन्तु ब्रह्मचारिणः स्वाहा । शमायन्तु ब्रह्मचारिणः स्वाहा ॥ २ ॥

Literal Translation[2]

आवहन्ती She who brings, वितन्वाना who increases, आत्मनः mine, अचीरम soon, वासाँसि clothes, मम mine, गावश्च cattle, अन्नपाने food and drink, सर्वदा always, कुर्वान:she who does, ततो therefore मे, to me, श्रियम fortune, आवह, bring, लोमशां wooly, पशुभिः सह with cattle, आयन्तु may come, मा to me, ब्रह्मचारिणः the Brahmachari students, विमायन्तु may come to me soon, प्र मा आयन्तु from all sides towards me, दम: self controlled शम: peaceful.

She who brings and increases my clothes and cattle, food and drink and does this quickly and on all times - such goddess of fortune Sree may come to me, along with wooly (sheep) and cattle ! Swaha!

May Brahmacharis come to me. Swaha May Brahmacharis come to me quickly. Swaha May the self controlled Brahmacharis come to me. Swaha May the peaceful Brahmacharis come to me. Swaha

(These are the mantrams to be uttered by a teacher, while doing Yagna.)

Other aspects of Fourth Anuvaka

The structure of the fourth anuvaka is unusual because it starts as a metered verse but slowly metamorphoses into a rhythmic Sanskrit prose. Additionally, the construction of the verse has creative elements that permits multiple translations.

The fourth Anuvaka highlights that ideal teachers too need ideal pupils to carry on their traditions, and this is highlighted to show the rarity of deserving pupils in all ages at all times. Those ideal pupils are to be blessed with thirst for knowledge, self control etc.[1]

Fifth Anuvaka ॥ पञ्चमोऽनुवाकः ॥

This Anuvaka explains three famous utterances: भू:, भुव:, सुव: along with a fourth one मह:.

These are called Vyahritis (व्याहृति). These are short sacred utterances, by virtue of which one can realize supreme Brahman. The four Vyahritis (भू:, भुव:, सुव:, मह:) have been explained in four different ways. So altogether there are four times four: sixteen interpretations of the Vyahritis in line with sixteen kalas or parts of Purusha.[13].

Literal Translation of first verse[2]

भूर्भुवः सुवरिति वा एतास्तिस्रो व्याहृतयः । तासामुह स्मैतां चतुर्थीं माहाचमस्यः प्रवेदयते । मह इति ।

तत् ब्रह्म । स आत्मा । अङ्गान्यन्या देवताः । भूरिति वा अयं लोकः । भुव इत्यन्तरिक्षम् । सुवरित्यसौ लोकः ॥ १ ॥

मह इत्यादित्यः । आदित्येन वाव सर्वे लोका महीयन्ते भू: earth, भुव sky, सुव: heaven, इति thus, एता: these, तिस्रो the three, व्याहृतयः sacred utterances or short mantra, तासाम besides, माहाचमस्यः the son of Mahachamas, मह Maha, चतुर्थीं the fourth, प्रवेदयते taught, तत्, अंगानी the limbs, लोकः world, अन्तरिक्षम the interspace, असौ that, आदित्य: sun, आदित्येन by the sun, वाव behold, महीयन्ते are fostered.

Bhu, Bhuvah and Suvah are the three sacred utterances. Besides these the fourth, Maha, has been taught by the son of Mahachamas. That is Brahman (ब्रह्म), that is Atman, all other gods are other limbs.

Or Bhu is the world, Bhuva is the sky, Suva is the other world, Maha is the sun, it is because of sun that all the worlds are nourished.

Literal Translation of second and third verse[2]

(मह इत्यादित्यः । आदित्येन वाव सर्वे लोका महीयन्ते) भूरिति वा अग्निः । भुव इति वायुः । सुवरित्यादित्यः ।

मह इति चन्द्रमाः । चन्द्रमसा वाव सर्वाणि ज्योतीँषि महीयन्ते । भूरिति वा ऋचः । भुव इति सामानि । सुवरिति यजूँषि ॥ २ ॥

मह इति ब्रह्म । ब्रह्मणा वाव सर्वे वेदा महीयन्ते । भूरिति वै प्राणः । भुव इत्यपानः । सुवरिति व्यानः । मह इत्यन्नम् ।

अन्नेन वाव सर्वे प्राणा महीयन्ते । ता वा एताश्चतस्रश्चतुर्धा । चतस्रश्चतस्रो व्याहृतयः । ता यो वेद । स वेद ब्रह्म ।

सर्वेऽस्मै देवा बलिमावहन्ति ॥ ३ ॥

चन्द्रमसा by the moon, सर्वाणि all, ज्योतीँषि the luminaries, महीयन्ते (meaning in सर्वाणि ज्योतीँषि महीयन्ते) are augmented, ऋचः The Rik Mantras, सामानि The Sama Mantra, यजूँषि The Yajus Mantra, महीयन्ते (meaning in सर्वे वेदा महीयन्ते) are glorified, प्राणः Prana Vayu, अपानः Apana Vayu, व्यानः Vyaba Vayu, अन्नम् food, महीयन्ते (meaning in सर्वे प्राणा महीयन्ते:) are nourished, ता: they, वा again, चतस्र: four, चतुर्धा four fold, व्याहृतयः the Vyahritis (sacred utterances) यो who वेद knows, स वेद ब्रह्म बलिम offerings, आवहन्ति carry

or Bhu is the fire, Bhuva the air, Suva the sun and Maha the moon. Verily by the moon are all luminaries maintained.

or Bhu is the Rik Mantra, Bhuva the Sama Mantra, Suva the Yajus Mantras, and Maha is the Brahman. Verily by Brahman are all Vedas glorified.

or Bhu is the Prana, Bhuva the Apana, Suva the Vyana, and Maha is the food. By food, all Pranas are fostered.

These four are four-fold and known as Vyahritis. One who knows them knows Brahman. To him all gods carry offerings.

Detailed Explanation of Fifth Anuvaka

This Anuvaka explains three famous utterances: भू:, भुव:, सुव: and also explains a fourth one called मह:. These utterances are symbolic ways to grasp areas or levels of consciousness, when a Vedic student pursues the Yogic paths. भू: (Bhuh) refers to the earthly plane. भुव: (Bhuvah) refers to a higher plane - that of skies or space. सुव: (Suvah) refers to a further higher world of light, symbolised by sun (savita). Now beyond these three there is मह: (maha), which denotes God - The Greatest or Biggest - it is nothing but the Brahman.[1]

"Maha is Brahman" : By Brahman, shabd Om is meant here. Om is also known as Pranava.[2]

Maha is Brahman (ब्रह्म) and Atman: Om should be meditated upon as Brahman, the all pervasive, and also as the Atman, the principle of consciousness in all. This kind of symbolic meditation of the Pranava is caled Prateek Upasana.[2]

A detailed study of Prana, Apana and Vayu can be made here.

Sixth Anuvaka ॥ षष्ठोऽनुवाकः॥

This Anuvaka is important because we find a description where Brahman (ब्रह्म) is actually shown to be located within the physical body.

Literal Translation of first verse[2]

स य एषोऽन्तरहृदय आकाशः । तस्मिन्नयं पुरुषो मनोमयः । अमृतो हिरण्मयः । अन्तरेण तालुके ।

य एष स्तन इवावलम्बते सेन्द्रयोनिः । यत्रासौ केशान्तो विवर्तते । व्यपोह्य शीर्षकपाले भूरित्यग्नौ प्रतितिष्ठति ।

भुव इति वायौ ॥ १ ॥

स: he, य: who, एष: this, अन्तरहृदय within the heart, आकाशः the space, तस्मिन् in that, अयं this, मनोमयः endued with mind, अमृत: immortal हिरण्मयः golden effulgence, अन्तरेण in the mid region, तालुकेthe two palates, अवलम्बते hangs, इन्द्रयोनिः the path to Indra, यत्र where, असौ that, केशान्त: the root of hair, विवर्तते is divided, शीर्षकपाले the two sides of the skulls of head, व्यपोह्य dividing into two parts प्रतितिष्ठति enters

Here in this space of the heart resides the Purusha, who is endued with mind, is immortal and has golden effulgence (प्रभा). Between the two palates, where the root of the hair is divided, dividing the skull into two parts, is the path to Indra.

Literal Translation of second verse[2]

भुव इति वायौ ॥

सुवरित्यादित्ये । मह इति ब्रह्मणि । आप्नोति स्वाराज्यम् । आप्नोति मनसस्पतिम् । वाक्पतिश्चक्षुष्पतिः ।

श्रोत्रपतिर्विज्ञानपतिः । एतत्ततो भवति । आकाशशरीरं ब्रह्म । सत्यात्म प्राणारामं मन आनन्दम् । शान्तिसमृद्धममृतम् ।

इति प्राचीनयोग्योपास्स्व ॥ २ ॥

भुव इति the Bhuvah, वायौ into air, सुव:,the Suvas, आदित्ये into the sun, आप्नोति attains, स्वाराज्यम् the mastering (over all the gods), मनसस्पति: lord of the mind, वाक्पति: lord of the speech, चक्षुष्पतिः lord of the eyes, श्रोत्रपति: lord of the ears, विज्ञानपतिः lord of the intellect, आकाशशरीरं one whose body is like the sky, सत्यात्म whose soul is the truth, प्राणारामं the solace of life, मन आनन्दम् blissful to the mind, शान्तिसमृद्धम exuberant with wealth of peace, अमृतम् immortal, उपास्स्व: (this is the way) you meditate

He resides in Agni as Bhuh, in air as Bhuvah, in the sub as Suvah, in Brahman as Maha. He himself becomes the Lord (of all gods). He becomes lord of the mind, lord of the speech, lord of the eyes, lord of the ears, lord of intellect. More than this he becomes the Brahman whose body is like ether (sky), whose self is truth, who is the solace of life and blissful to the mind, exuberant with wealth of peace, and is immortal. O Prachinyogya, this is the way you meditate upon Him.

Detailed Description

Explaining "In the space of heart": Though Chaitanya exists pervading the whole of the physical body, yet the heart is considered as the chief center of animation and hence it is considered as the fit place of meditation on the soul.[2]

"having rent the skull": This refers to highest chakra called Shahasrar. It is said that for a true Yogi, the Aatman leaves the body through the skull at a Chakra called Sahasrar.[2]

"Is the path to Indra" A Yogi who thus leaves the body becomes one with Hiranyagarbha (Paramatma). He becomes the Brahman.[2]

More discussion on the Seven Main Chakras can be seen here.

This Anuvaka describes Pracina yogya (प्राचीन योग्य, ancient yoga) in the second verse. This is one of the earliest mentions of the practice of meditative Yoga as existent in ancient India.[14]

Seventh Anuvaka ॥ सप्तमोऽनुवाकः ॥

This is another extremely important Anuvaka. Five aspects have been described within and without the human body.

Literal Translation[2]

पृथिव्यन्तरिक्षं द्यौर्दिशोऽवान्तरदिशाः । अग्निर्वायुरादित्यश्चन्द्रमा नक्षत्राणि । आप ओषधयो वनस्पतय आकाश आत्मा । इत्यधिभूतम् । अथाध्यात्मम् । प्राणो व्यानोऽपान उदानः समानः । चक्षुः श्रोत्रं मनो वाक् त्वक् । चर्म माँसँस्नावास्थिमज्जा । एतदधि विधाय ऋषिरवोचत् । पाङ्क्तं वा इदँ सर्वम् । पाङ्क्तेनैव पाङ्क्तँ स्पृणोतीति ॥ १ ॥

पृथ्वी earth, अन्तरिक्ष the sky, द्यौ the heaven, दिशाः directions, अन्तरदिशाः intermediate directions, अग्नि fire, वायु: air, आदित्य sun, चन्द्रमा moon, नक्षत्राणि, the stars, आप: water, ओषधयो: medicine वनस्पतय: forest trees, आकाश space, अधिभूतम् regarding all living beings, अध्यात्मम् regarding the soul, मन: mind, वाक् speech, त्वक् touch, चर्म skin, माँस flesh, स्नाव the muscle अस्थि bone, मज्जा the marrow, अधि विधाय having analyzed, ऋषि: the seer, अवोचत् said, पाङ्क्तं five fold, स्पृणोति sustains

The earth, the sky, the heaven, the directions and intermediate directions, the fire, the air, sun, moon, and the stars, the water, the herbs, the forest trees, space and Atman - this is with regards to all living beings.

Now as regards the soul: The Prana, the Vyana, the Apana, the Udana, and the Samana; the eyes, the ears, the mind, the speech, and the touch; the skin, the flesh, the muscle, the bone, and the marrow.

After analysis the seer declared, that all is Five-fold. He sustains the five-fold.

Detailed Explanation

The earth, the sky, the heaven, the directions and intermediate directions: These are the five lokas

The fire, the air, sun, moon, and the stars: These are the five Devatas

The water, the herbs, the forest trees, space and Atman: These are the five Bhutas

Above are external elements.

The Prana, the Vyana, the Apana, the Udana, and the Samana: These are five Vayus

The eyes, the ears, the mind, the speech, and the touch: These are the five senses

The skin, the flesh, the muscle, the bone, and the marrow: These are the five primary fluids of the body (Dhatus)

Eighth Anuvaka ॥ अष्टमोऽनुवाकः ॥

ओमिति ब्रह्म । ओमितीदँसर्वम् । ओमित्येतदनुकृतिर्हस्म वा अप्यो श्रावयेत्याश्रावयन्ति ।

ओमिति सामानि गायन्ति ।ओँशोमिति शस्त्राणि शँसन्ति । ओमित्यध्वर्युः प्रतिगरं प्रतिगृणाति ।

ओमिति ब्रह्मा प्रसौति । ओमित्यग्निहोत्रमनुजानाति ।

ओमिति ब्राह्मणः प्रवक्ष्यन्नाह ब्रह्मोपाप्नवानीति ब्रह्मैवोपाप्नोति ॥ १ ॥

Literal Translation[2]

ओम इति The ॐ, इदम this, सर्वम् all, एतद this, अनुकृति indicates consent, अपि and also ह: स्म: वा (it is) well known, आवयेत्य with the chant of Om, श्रावयन्ति (they) begin chanting Om, सामानि The Sama songs, गायन्ति sing, शँसन्ति recite, अध्वर्युः the officiating priest, प्रतिगरं answer, प्रतिगृणाति says, प्रसौति makes assent, अग्निहोत्रं the oblation to fire, अनुजानाति assents प्रवक्ष्यन् about to touch, आह says, अपाप्नवान may I obtain, आप्नोति attains

Om is Brahman, All this (the vast expense of universe) is Om. This Om is uttered to indicate consent. And also it is well known that by uttering Om, they begin chanting. With Om they sing Sama songs. They say Om Shom and recite the Shastras. Om - thus the officiating priest says (his) answer. With Om, the Brahma makes his assent. With Om the Brahmana (teacher), begins to teach and says "May I obtain Brahman (The Parama tatva)" and Brahman he attains.

Detailed Explanation

Om is also called as Pranava. The Pranava is the epitome of the Vedas. It is both philosophy in its essence as thought and practical Yoga as experience. The Pranava finds a detailed expression of mystical explanation, and corresponding eulogy at the beginning of Chandogya Upanishad, as Udgitha. It is a whole Vidya there, an entire and independent mode of intuiting the Divine through Holy sound or word. Above anuvaka says: Om comprehends all cosmic laws as well as ethical principles. In short it is the Chant, the Shastra, the Yajna, The Priest, the Exposition, the Wisdom, the Wish for immortality and the Means towards it.[3]

Ninth Anuvaka ॥ ॥ नवमोऽनुवाकः ॥

ऋतं च स्वाध्यायप्रवचने च । सत्यं च स्वाध्यायप्रवचने च । तपश्च स्वाध्यायप्रवचने च । दमश्च स्वाध्यायप्रवचने च । शमश्च स्वाध्यायप्रवचने च । अग्नयश्च स्वाध्यायप्रवचने च । अग्निहोत्रं च स्वाध्यायप्रवचने च । अतिथयश्च स्वाध्यायप्रवचने च । मानुषं च स्वाध्यायप्रवचने च । प्रजा च स्वाध्यायप्रवचने च । प्रजनश्च स्वाध्यायप्रवचने च । प्रजातिश्च स्वाध्यायप्रवचने च । सत्यमिति सत्यवचा राथीतरः । तप इति तपोनित्यः पौरुशिष्टिः । स्वाध्यायप्रवचने एवेति नाको मौद्गल्यः । तद्धि तपस्तद्धि तपः ॥ १ ॥

Literal Translation[2]

ऋतं the right (action), स्वाध्यायप्रवचने the learning of the Vedas and teaching of the same, तपः austerity / penance, दम: control of the senses, शम: the pacification of mind, अग्नय: the five fold fires, अग्निहोत्रं the Agnihotra yajna, अतिथय: the entertaining of the guests, मानुषं men (the duty of men), प्रजा children, प्रजन: propagation (marriage), प्रजाति the grand-children, सत्यवचा Satyavachas, राथीतरः The son of Rathitara, पौरुशिष्टिः the son of Purushishta मौद्गल्यः The son of Mudgalya.

(They should observe the following): right action and the study and teachings of the Vedas, penance and the study and teachings of the Vedas; control of the senses, and the study and teachings of the Vedas; pacification of the mind and the study and teachings of the Vedas; the (consecration of) fires and the study and teachings of the Vedas; the (performance of) Agnihotra yajna and the study and teachings of the Vedas; the (entertaining of) the guests and the study and teachings of the Vedas; the (performance of) human (duties) and the study and teachings of the Vedas; children and the study and teachings of the Vedas; procreation and the study and teachings of the Vedas; grand-children and the study and teachings of the Vedas; Satyavachas, the son of Rathitara (thinks that) truthfulness alone (is necessary). Penance (is only necessary) so (holds) Taponitya, the son of Purushishta. Naka the son of Mudgala (maintains that) the study and teachings of the Vedas only (are necessary); that verily is penance, yes! that is penance.

Detailed Explanation [2]

In this chapter the necessity of certain practices for a devotee is urged, hinting thereby that mere theoretical knowledge is not of much use, unless it is coupled with the practice of the enjoined duties (the Nitya karma and the Naimittika karma). A great emphasis has been laid on the study and teachings of the Vedas, enjoining thereby that the devotee should pay special attention to them. Also importance of teaching is emphasised; No knowledge becomes thorough and impressive in one's own mind unless it is taught to others. So study and teaching of Vedas has been called here as the highest Tapas.

The right: truthfulness in thought.

Teaching of the Veda: Pravachana may mean loud chanting of Vedas

Penance: Fasting and other kinds of bodily penance

Pacification of the mind: perfect calmness of the mind, borne out of self-control. It also imports the restraining of the mind from forbidden thoughts.

Consecration of Fires: Reference is to igniting and consecration of the five kinds of fire.

Agnihotra yajna: Offering of oblation to consecrated fires both morning and evening.

Human duties: Social duties

Children/ Grand-Children: Race should be propagated through children's children by getting them married

Satyavachas etc : Here the sruti indicates that of all the performances mentioned above, the most important for a devotee are Truthfulness, Tapas and the study and teachings of Vedas.

Tenth Anuvāka

The tenth anuvaka is obscure, unrelated lesson, likely a corrupted or incomplete surviving version of the original, according to Paul Deussen. It is rhythmic with Mahabrihati Yavamadhya meter, a mathematical "8+8+12+8+8" structure.[15]

Max Muller translates it as an affirmation of one's Self as a capable, empowered blissful being.[16] The tenth anuvaka asserts, "I am he who shakes the tree. I am glorious like the top of a mountain. I, whose pure light (of knowledge) has risen, am that which is truly immortal, as it resides in the sun. I (Soul, Self) am the treasure, wise, immortal, imperishable. This is the teaching of the Veda, by sage Trisanku."[16] Shankara states[17] that the tree is a metaphor for the empirical world, which is shaken by knowledge and realization of Atman-Brahman (Self, eternal reality and hidden invisible principles).

Convocation address to graduating students, living ethically - Eleventh Anuvāka

The eleventh anuvaka of Shiksha Valli is a list of golden rules which the Vedic era teacher imparted to the graduating students as the ethical way of life. The verses ask the graduate to take care of themselves and pursue Dharma, Artha and Kama to the best of their abilities. Parts of the verses in section 1.11.1, for example, state

<poem> Never err from Truth, Never err from Dharma, Never neglect your well-being, Never neglect your health, Never neglect your prosperity, Never neglect Svādhyāya (study of oneself) and Pravacana (exposition of Vedas). </poem>

— Taittirĩya Upanishad, I.11.1[18][19]

The eleventh anuvaka of Shiksha Valli list behavioral guidelines for the graduating students from a gurukul,

<poem> मातृदेवो भव । पितृदेवो भव । आचार्यदेवो भव । अतिथिदेवो भव । यान्यनवद्यानि कर्माणि तानि सेवितव्यानि । नो इतराणि । यान्यस्माकँ सुचरितानि तानि त्वयोपास्यानि । नो इतराणि ॥ २ ॥

Be one to whom a mother is as god, be one to whom a father is as god, Be one to whom an Acharya (adhyatmik guide, scholars you learn from) is as god, be one to whom a guest is as god.[20] Let your actions be uncensurable, none else. Those acts that you consider good when done to you, do those to others, none else. </poem>

— Taittirĩya Upanishad, I.11.2[18][19]

The third section of the eleventh anuvaka lists charity and giving, with faith, sympathy, modesty and cheerfulness, as ethical precept for the graduating students.

Scholars have debated whether the guidelines to morality in this Taittiriya Upanishad anuvaka are consistent with the "Know yourself" spirit of the Upanishads. Adi Shankara states that they are, because there is a difference between theory and practice, learning the need for Self-knowledge and the ethics that results from such Self-knowledge is not same as living practice of the same. Ethical living accelerates Self-knowledge in the graduate.

Graduating student's acknowledgment - Twelfth Anuvāka

The last anuvaka (lesson) of Taittiriya Upanishad, just like the first anuvaka, starts with benedictions, wherein Vedic deities are once again proclaimed to be manifestations of Brahman (Cosmic Soul, Unchanging Reality).[21][22] Along with the benedictions, the last anuvaka includes an acknowledgment that mirrors the promise in first anuvaka,

Ananda Valli

<poem>ॐ सह नाववतु । सह नौ भुनक्तु । सह वीर्यं करवावहै । तेजस्वि नावधीतमस्तु मा विद्विषावहै । ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥ Om! May it (Brahman) protect us both (teacher and student)! May we both enjoy knowledge! May we learn together! May our study be brilliant! May we never quarrel! Om! Peace! peace! peace! </poem>

—Taittiriya Upanishad, Anandavalli Invocation[23]

The special feature of the second chapter of Taittiriya Upanishad, namely Ananda Valli and sometimes called Brahmananda Valli, is that it proclaims that the Brahman is Anandmaya or Supreme Bliss. Where there is bliss or joy, know, it asserts, there is light of Brahman. This chapter also shows by beautiful similes, the place of human joys and pleasure in relation to the Supreme Bliss of the Universal. This chapter deals directly with the Brahmagyanam which is the sole purpose of all Upanishads.[2]

This chapter focuses like other ancient Upanishads on the theme of Atman (Self, Soul). It asserts that "Atman exists", it is Brahman, and realizing it is the highest, empowering, liberating knowledge.[24] The Ananda Valli asserts that knowing one's Self is the path to freedom from all concerns, fears and to a positive state of blissful living.[24]

Ananda Valli is remarkable for its Kosha (Sanskrit: कोष) theory (or Layered Maya theory), expressing that man reaches his highest potential and understands the deepest knowledge by a process of learning the right and unlearning the wrong. Real deeper knowledge is hidden in layers of superficial knowledge, but superficial knowledge is easier and simplistic. The Ananda Valli classifies these as concentric layers (sheaths) of knowledge-seeking.[25] The outermost layer it calls Annamaya which envelops and hides Pranamaya, which in turn envelops Manomaya, inside which is Vijnanamaya, and finally the Anandamaya which the Upanishad states is the innermost, deepest layer.[24][26][27]

The Ananda Valli asserts that Self-knowledge is "not" attainable by cultic worship of God or gods motivated by egoistic cravings and desires (Manomaya).[24] Vijnanamaya or one with segregated knowledge experiences the deeper state of existence but it too is insufficient. The complete, unified and blissful state of Self-knowledge is, states Ananda Valli, that where one becomes one with all reality, there is no separation between object and subject, I and we, Atman and Brahman. Realization of Atman is a deep state of absorption, oneness, communion.[24]

The Ananda valli is one of the earliest known theories in history on the nature of man and knowledge, and resembles but pre-dates the Hellenistic Hermetic and Neoplatonic theories recorded in different forms about a millennium later, such as those expressed in the Corpus Hermetica.[27][28]

Annamaya - First and Second Anuvāka

The first anuvaka commences by stating the premise and a summary of the entire Ananda Valli.[24]

ब्रह्मविदाप्नोति परम् । तदेषाऽभ्युक्ता । सत्यं ज्ञानमनन्तं ब्रह्म ।

One who knows Brahman, reaches the highest. Satya (reality, truth) is Brahman, Jnana (knowledge) is Brahman, Ananta (infinite) is Brahman.

— Taittiriya Upanishad, 2.1.1[29][30]

Paul Deussen notes that the word Ananta in verse 1 may be vulgate, and a related term Ananda, similarly pronounced, is more consistent with the teachings of other Upanishads of Hinduism, particularly one of its central premise of Atman being sat-chit-ananda. In Deussen's review and translation, instead of "Brahman is infinite", an alternate expression would read "Brahman is bliss".[24]

The second anuvaka of Ananda Valli then proceeds to explain the first layer of man's nature and knowledge-seeking to be about "material man and material nature", with the metaphor of food.[31] The Taittiriya Upanishad asserts that both "material man and material nature" are caused by Brahman, are manifestations of Brahman, are Brahman, but only the outermost shell or sheath of existence.[31] The verse offers relational connection between natural elements, asserting that everything is food to something else in universe at the empirical level of existence, either at a given time, or over time.[31] All creatures are born out of this "food provided by nature and food provided by life with time". All creatures grow due to food, and thus are interdependent. All creatures, upon their death, become food in this food-chain, states Ananda Valli's second verse. Learning, knowing and understanding this "food chain" material nature of existence and the interdependence is the first essential, yet outermost incomplete knowledge.[31][32]

Pranamaya - Third Anuvāka

The second inner level of nature and knowledge-seeking is about life-force, asserts Ananda Valli's third anuvaka.[31] This life-force is identified by and dependent on breathing. Gods breathe, human beings breathe, animals breathe, as do all beings that exist. Life-force is more than material universe, it includes animating processes inside the being, particularly breathing, and this layer of nature and knowledge is Pranamaya kosha.[31]

Manomaya - Fourth Anuvāka

The next inner, deeper layer of nature and knowledge-seeking relates to Manas (mind, thought, will, wish), or Manomaya kosha.[31] Manas, asserts the fourth anuvaka of Ananda Valli, exists only in individual forms of beings. It is characterized by the power to will, the ability to wish, and the striving for prosperity through actions on the empirical nature, knowledge and beings.[33] The verse of fourth anuvaka add that this knowledge is essential yet incomplete, that it the knowledge of Brahman that truly liberates, and one who knows Atman-Brahman "dreads nothing, now and never" and "lives contently, in bliss".[33]

Vijñãnamaya - Fifth Anuvāka

The fifth anuvaka of Ananda Valli states that the "manomaya kosha" (thought, will, wish) envelops a deeper more profound layer of existence, which is the "vijnana-maya kosha" (knowledge, ethics, reason). This is the realm of knowledge observed in all human beings. The vijnana-maya is characterized by faith, justice, truth, yoga and mahas (power to perceive and reason). The individual who is aware of vijnana-maya, asserts the verses of Ananda Valli, offers knowledge as the work to others.[34]

Anandamaya - Sixth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth Anuvāka

The sixth, seventh and eighth anuvaka of Ananda Valli states that the "vijnanamaya kosha" (knowledge, ethics, reason) envelops the deepest, hidden layer of existence, which is the "ananda-maya kosha" (bliss, tranquility, contentness). This is the inner most is the realm of Atman-Brahman (Soul, Self, adhyatmikity).[35] The ananda-maya is characterized by love, joy, cheerfulness, bliss and Brahman. The individuals who are aware of ananda-maya, assert the sixth to eighth verses of Ananda Valli, are those who simultaneously realize the empirical and the adhyatmik, the conscious and unconscious, the changing and the eternal, the time and the timeless.[35]

These last anuvakas of the second Valli of Tattiriya Upanishad assert that he who has Self-knowledge is well constituted, he realizes the essence, he is full of bliss. He exists in peace within and without, his is a state of calm joy irrespective of circumstances, he is One with everything and everyone. He fears nothing, he fears no one, he lives his true nature, he is free from pride, he is free from guilt, he is beyond good and evil, he is free from craving desires and thus all the universe is in him and is his.[35] His blissful being is Atman-Brahman, and Atman-Brahman is the bliss that is he.

Bhṛigu Vallī

The special feature of this chapter is the mention of five sheaths, koshas of the Atman. This concept though dealt in Brihadaranyak and Chhandogya Upanishad in brief, is dealt in most complete form in this Upanishad. The Vedantic doctrine of three bodies viz. causal, subtle and gross and five Koshas i.e.: gross physical body, vital energy that energises the gross, the mind with the senses, the intellect and the primal nescience, are based on this Upanishad. It gives the most beautiful idea of leading the mind from the gross to the subtle, upto the subtlest of all, the Atman, which is encased within these Upadhis or super imposed adjuncts of life.[2]

The third Valli of Tattiriya Upanishad repeats the ideas of Ananda Valli, through a legend about sage Bhrigu. The chapter is also similar in its themes and focus to those found in chapter 3 of Kausitaki Upanishad and chapter 8 of Chandogya Upanishad.[36] The Bhrigu Valli's theme is the exposition of the concept of Atman-Brahman (self, soul) and what it means to be a self-realized, free, liberated human being.[37]

The first six anuvakas of Bhrigu Valli are called Bhargavi Varuni Vidya, which means "the knowledge Bhrigu got from (his father) Varuni". It is in these anuvakas that sage Varuni advises Bhrigu with one of the oft-cited definition of Brahman, as "that from which beings originate, through which they live, and in which they re-enter after death, explore that because that is Brahman".[36] This thematic, all encompassing, eternal nature of reality and existence develops as the basis for Bhrigu's emphasis on introspection and inwardization, to help peel off the outer husks of knowledge, in order to reach and realize the innermost kernel of adhyatmik Self-knowledge.[36]

The last four of the ten anuvakas of Bhrigu Valli build on this foundation, but once again like Ananda Valli, use the metaphor of "food" as in Ananda Valli.[36] As with Ananda Valli, in Bhrigu Valli, everything and everyone is asserted to be connected and deeply inter-related to everything and everyone else, by being food (of energy, of material, of knowledge). "Food is founded on food", asserts verse 3.9 of Taittiriya Upanishad, which then illustrates the idea with the specific example "earth is founded on (food for) space, and space is founded on (food for) earth".[36]

<poem> Bliss is Brahman; from bliss beings are born; by bliss, when born, they live; into bliss they enter at their death. </poem>

— Sixth Anuvāka, Bhrigu Valli, Taittiriya Upanishad 3.6, Translated by Max Muller[38]

After discussing the nature of Brahman, the Bhrigu Valli chapter of Taittiriya Upanishad recommends the following maxims and vows:[21][36][39]

  • "Never scorn food", which metaphorically means "never scorn anything or anyone".
  • "Increase food", which metaphorically means "increase prosperity of everyone and everything".
  • "Refuse no guest to your house, and share food with everyone including strangers", which metaphorically means "compassionately help everyone, sharing plentiful prosperity and knowledge".

The Taittiriya Upanishad closes with the following declaration,[36][37]

<poem> O wonderful! O wonderful! O wonderful! I am food (object)! I am food! I am food! I am the eater of food (subject)! I am the eater of food! I am the eater of food! I am the poet (who joins the two together)! I am the poet! I am the poet!

The first-born of the Ṛta[40] I am, Prior to Gods I am, In the source point of the eternal I am, I am the one who distributes myself, refreshing myself therewith,

Because I am food (for others), and I eat the eater of food, I am elevated over this whole world, I am radiant as the sun. Whosoever understands this, attains liberation. </poem>

— Bhrigu Valli, Taittiriya Upanishad 3.10[38][41][42]


  1. The Taittiriya Upanishad with the commentaries of Śaṅkarāchārya, Sureśvarāchārya and Sāyaṇa (Vidyāraṇya) Translated by AM Sastry (also see the proofread edition with proper unicode diacritics and a glossary, The Taittiriya Upanishad)
  2. Taittiriya Upanishad, Multiple translations (Johnston, Nikhilānanda, Gambhirananda)
  3. Taittiriya Upanishad, Sanskrit manuscript
  4. Taittiriya Upanishad, Sanskrit manuscript with Vedic accents
  5. Taittiriya UpanishadVision of Advaita Vedanta in Taittiriya Upanishad
  6. http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in:8080/jspui/handle/10603/59334
  7. Siddhanta koumudi
  8. Panineeya dhatu pata (No 912, 1521 pp391 and 443)
  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 Insights Into the Taittiriya Upanishad, Dr. K. S. Narayanacharya, Published by Kautilya Institute of National Studies, Mysore
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 2.26 2.27 2.28 Taittiriya Upanishad, By Swami Sharvananda, Upanishad Series No. 7, Published by The Ramakrishna Math, Mylapore, Chennai, 1921
  3. 3.0 3.1 Insights Into the Taittiriya Upanishad, Dr. K. S. Narayanacharya, Published by Kautilya Institute of National Studies, Mysore, Page 20
  4. Insights Into the Taittiriya Upanishad, Dr. K. S. Narayanacharya, Published by Kautilya Institute of National Studies, Mysore , Page 22
  5. CP Bhatta (2009), Holistic Personality Development through Education: Ancient Indian Cultural Experiences, Journal of Human Values, vol. 15, no. 1, pages 49-59
  6. Insights Into the Taittiriya Upanishad, Dr. K. S. Narayanacharya, Published by Kautilya Institute of National Studies, Mysore, Page 21
  7. Aitareya and Taittiriya Upanishads with Shankara Bhashya SA Sastri (Translator), pages 56-192
  8. Aitareya and Taittiriya Upanishads with Shankara Bhashya SA Sastri (Translator), page 62
  9. Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, pages 217-219
  10. Flood, Gavin, ed. (2003). The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. pp. 68–70. ISBN 1-4051-3251-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, pages 222-223
  12. Taittiriya Upanishad SS Sastri (Translator), The Aitereya and Taittiriya Upanishad, pages 65-67
  13. From Prasna Upanishad, as conveyed by Swami Sharvananda. (Taittiriya Upanishad, By Swami Sharvananda, Upanishad Series No. 7, Published by The Ramakrishna Math, Mylapore, Chennai, 1921)
  14. Taittiriya Upanishad - Shiksha Valli, Chapter VI SS Sastri (Translator), The Aitereya and Taittiriya Upanishad, page 77
  15. Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, pages 228-229
  16. 16.0 16.1 Max Muller, The Sacred Books of the East, Volume 15, Oxford University Press, Chapter 3: Taittiriya Upanishad, see Siksha Valli - Tenth Anuvaka
  17. Taittiriya Upanishad SS Sastri (Translator), The Aitereya and Taittiriya Upanishad, pages 86-89
  18. 18.0 18.1 Taittiriya Upanishad SS Sastri (Translator), The Aitereya and Taittiriya Upanishad, pages 89-92
  19. 19.0 19.1 Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, pages 229-231
  20. Taittiriya Upanishad Thirteen Principle Upanishads, Robert Hume (Translator), pages 281-282
  21. 21.0 21.1 Max Muller, The Sacred Books of the East, Volume 15, Oxford University Press, Chapter 3: Taittiriya Upanishad, Archived Online
  22. Aitareya and Taittiriya Upanishads with Shankara Bhashya SA Sastri (Translator), pages 94-96
  23. *Original Sanskrit: Taittiriya Upanishad 2.1.1 Wikisource; *Translation 1: Taittiriya Upanishad SS Sastri (Translator), The Aitereya and Taittiriya Upanishad, pages 104-105 *Translation 2: Max Muller, The Sacred Books of the East, Volume 15, Oxford University Press, Chapter 3: Taittiriya Upanishad, see Ananda Valli Invocation
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.4 24.5 24.6 Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, page 232-235
  25. PT Raju, The Concept of the Spiritual in Indian Thought, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 4, No. 3, pages 195-213
  26. S Mukerjee (2011), Indian Management Philosophy, in The Palgrave Handbook of Spirituality and Business (Editors: Luk Bouckaert and Laszlo Zsolnai), Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 978-0230238312, pages 82-83
  27. 27.0 27.1 Eliot Deutsch (1980), Advaita Vedanta: A Philosophical Reconstruction, University of Hawaii Press, pages 56-60
  28. The Corpus Hermeticum and Hermetic Tradition GRS Mead (Translator); also see The Hymns of Hermes in the same source.
  29. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named pauldeussenavintro
  30. Taittiriya Upanishad Thirteen Principle Upanishads, Robert Hume (Translator), pages 283-284
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 31.3 31.4 31.5 31.6 Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, pages 234-236
  32. Taittiriya Upanishad SS Sastri (Translator), The Aitereya and Taittiriya Upanishad, pages 104-112
  33. 33.0 33.1 Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, pages 233-237
  34. Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, page 237
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, pages 237-240
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 36.3 36.4 36.5 36.6 Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, pages 241-246
  37. 37.0 37.1 Taittiriya Upanishad AM Sastri (Translator), GTA Printing Works, Mysore, pages 699-791
  38. 38.0 38.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named maxmullerbv
  39. Taittiriya Upanishad SS Sastri (Translator), The Aitereya and Taittiriya Upanishad, pages 170-192
  40. right, just, natural order, connecting principle
  41. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named pauldeussen311
  42. Swami Gambhirananda, Taittiriya Upanishad, in Eight Upanishads, Vedanta Press, ISBN 978-8175050167