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Bharatiya Sangita Shastra (भारतीयसङ्गीतशास्त्रम्)
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12:47, 22 January 2018
Added content - evolution of svara saptaka
Gramageyagana and Aranyagana are connected with purvarcika and are called Prakriti gana.<ref name=":0" />
==== Evolution of the Svara Saptaka ====
All standard musical works in Sanskrit mention that Brahma derived music from the samaveda. Hence, the original source for the art music of India is the Samaveda. The scale of the Samagana is the primordial scale of Indian music. However, the sama saptaka itself was arrived at after many centuries of experiments.
In the very early stages, the Rigveda was recited plainly (ie. using one svara), then with two svaras before three notes were standardised in the recitation of the Rigveda.We find statements such as
अर्चिनो गायन्ति । (एकस्वारिगायन or अर्चिक गायन)
गाथिनो गायन्ति । (reciting to two notes)
सामिनो गायन्ति । (reciting to three notes)
in this context.
Arciko gayana simply meant that the music substantially centred around one note. Likewise Gathika and Samika indicated that the compass of the music extended substantially over 2 and 3 notes. The Gathika gayana used udatta and anudatta svaras and samika included the third variety of svara, svarita. Thus, udatta, anudatta and svarita were the three notes used in the recitation of the Rigveda.
उदात्तश्चानुदात्तश्च स्वरितश्च स्वरास्त्रयः । (Panini and Narada Siksha)
Here, the middle note was the svarita (modern shadja – s), Udatta was the higher note (rishabha – r) and Anudatta was the lower note (modern Nishada – n)
उच्चैरुदात्तः नीचैरनुदात्तः ।
When later, the samika scale was repeated from Madhyama (g-m-p) and Panchama (m-p-d) as the fundamental notes, the way was paved for development of the svara saptaka.
However, the scale of three notes first developed into a pentatonic scale (g-rsn-d) and later into a heptatonic scale (m-g-rsn-d-p) with addition of one note above and below.
The scale of samagana was a downward scale and mgrs and sndp were perfectly symmetrical and balanced tetracords. When the phrase sndp was sung an octave higher, the idea of a complete octave was immediately perceived. The dawn of the concept of the octave constitutes an important land-mark in the history of Indian music. We have the real beginnings of classical music from this period.In the Rik Pratishakya, mention is made of three octaves and seven notes for each octave. It is also mentioned that the same seven notes of one octave are repeated in the other octaves.
The notes of the samagana were styled the suddha svaras and the other notes that gradually came into use in secular music were styled vikrta svaras (changed notes). Thus, the suddha svara saptaka of Ancient Music is the scale of Samagana.A single note prayoga was reffered to as Arcika, a scale of two notes as Gathika and a scale of three notes as Samika. Scales of four, five, six and seven notes were reffered to as svarantara, audava, shadava and sampoorna.
एकस्वरप्रयोगो हि आर्चिकस्त्वभिधीयते।
गाथिको द्विस्वरो ज्ञेयस्त्रिस्वरश्चैव सामिकः।
चतुस्वरप्रयोगो हि स्वरान्तक उच्यते ॥
औडवः पश्चभिश्चैव षाडवः षट् स्वरो भवेत् ।
संपूर्णः सप्तभिश्चैव विज्ञेयोगीतयोक्तृभिः ॥
== References ==
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