Text replacement - "Indian" to "Bharat's"
The roots of
Indian classical music are traced back to the Vedic literature.The [[सामवेद]], भरतमुनि's [[नाट्यशास्त्रम्]], and सारङ्गदेव’s [[सङ्गीतरत्नाकरम्]] are three very important texts in the purview of Indian Classical Music.
== सामवेद and Music ==
But the common and most important factor related to the Gāna tradition of Sāmaveda in general is invariably found in all these shakhas in all parts of India in all its stages of development and evolution. This is its close relationship with the music tradition of India, expecially classical music.
Gana is of 4 kinds – Gramageyagana, Aranyagana, Uhagana and Uhya or Rahasyagana.[[File:Flow chart-page-001.jpg|frameless|750x750px|centre|link=http://qassist.cse.iitb.ac.in/dharmawiki/index.php/File:Flow_chart-page-001.jpg]]Gramageyagana and Aranyagana are connected with purvarcika and are called Prakriti gana.<ref name=":0" />
=== Evolution of the Svara Saptaka ===
All standard musical works in Sanskrit mention that Brahma derived music from the samaveda. Hence, the original source for the art music of India is the Samaveda.<ref>Prof.P.Sambamoorthy, South
Indian Music, Book IV, The Indian Music Publishing House, Chennai, Eighth Edition, July 1998, Reprint May 2007, Pg no.80</ref>
The scale of the Samagana is the primordial scale of
Indian music. However, the sama saptaka itself was arrived at after many centuries of experiments. In the very early stages, the Rigveda was recited plainly (ie. using one svara), then with two svaras before three notes were standardised in the recitation of the Rigveda.<ref name=":1">Prof.P.Sambamoorthy, South Indian Music, Book IV, The Indian Music Publishing House, Chennai, Eighth
Edition, July 1998, Reprint May 2007, Pg.no.81</ref>
in this context.
Arciko gayana simply meant that the music substantially centred around one note. Likewise Gathika and Samika indicated that the compass of the music extended substantially over 2 and 3 notes.<ref name=":2">Prof.P.Sambamoorthy, South
Indian Music, Book IV, The Indian Music Publishing House, Chennai, Eighth Edition, July 1998, Reprint May 2007, Pg.no.82</ref> The Gathika gayana used udatta and anudatta svaras and samika included the third variety of svara, svarita. Thus, udatta, anudatta and svarita were the three notes used in the recitation of the Rigveda.
उदात्तश्चानुदात्तश्च स्वरितश्च स्वरास्त्रयः । (Panini and Narada Siksha)
However, the scale of three notes first developed into a pentatonic scale (g-rsn-d) and later into a heptatonic scale (m-g-rsn-d-p) with addition of one note above and below.
The scale of samagana was a downward scale and mgrs and sndp were perfectly symmetrical and balanced tetracords. When the phrase sndp was sung an octave higher, the idea of a complete octave was immediately perceived. The dawn of the concept of the octave constitutes an important land-mark in the history of
Indian music. We have the real beginnings of classical music from this period.<ref name=":2" />
In the Rik Pratishakya, mention is made of three octaves and seven notes for each octave. It is also mentioned that the same seven notes of one octave are repeated in the other octaves. The notes of the samagana were styled the suddha svaras and the other notes that gradually came into use in secular music were styled vikrta svaras (changed notes). Thus, the suddha svara saptaka of Ancient Music is the scale of Samagana.<ref>Prof.P.Sambamoorthy, South
Indian Music, Book IV, The Indian Music Publishing House, Chennai, Eighth Edition, July 1998, Reprint May 2007, Pg.no.83</ref>
A single note prayoga was reffered to as Arcika, a scale of two notes as Gathika and a scale of three notes as Samika. Scales of four, five, six and seven notes were reffered to as svarantara, audava, shadava and sampoorna.
औडवः पश्चभिश्चैव षाडवः षट् स्वरो भवेत् ।
संपूर्णः सप्तभिश्चैव विज्ञेयोगीतयोक्तृभिः ॥<ref>Prof.P.Sambamoorthy, South
Indian Music, Book IV, The Indian Music Publishing House, Chennai, Eighth Edition, July 1998, Reprint May 2007, Pg.no.84</ref>
=== Precursors of Sapta Svaras ===
All the seven Svaras of classical music are found and used in its primitive form in Sāma chanting. ''Krustha, Prathama, Dviteeya, Trteeya, Caturtha, Mandra and Atisvara are the seven Svaras used in Sāma chanting''. Krustha is the Svara in the highest pitch. Trteeyasvara is considered the basic Svara (Àdharasvara) and it is also known as Dhrutapracaya.
* Hollow Instruments
* Covered Instruments
While much of the discussion of music in the ‘‘Natya Shastra’’ focuses on musical instruments, it also emphasizes several theoretical aspects that remained fundamental to
== References ==