Changes

Jump to navigation Jump to search
Added content and references
Line 1: Line 1: −
Therapeutic activity of herbs or food articles or any other medicinal substance is known as Karma in Ayurveda. The term Karma literally means action, work, deed. Thus activity carried out by substances is called as karma. The karma of any substance decides what kind of change it will bring out in the body when it is consumed. This change is also dependent of few other factors like rasa, guna, veeryam, vipaka and prabhava of that substance. However there exists a certain relationship between karma and other attributes of that substance. karma of any substance depends upon its rasa, veeryam, vipaka and prabhava. Substances with certain rasa or veerya have a specific type of karma or therapeutic activity. Thus many a times, karma of a substance is a gross product of its other attributes like rasa, veerya etc.  
+
Therapeutic activity of herbs or food articles or any other medicinal substance is known as Karma (Samskrit: कर्म) in Ayurveda. The term Karma literally means action, work, deed. Thus activity carried out by substances is called as karma. The karma of any substance decides what kind of change it will bring out in the body when it is consumed. This change is also dependent of few other factors like rasa, guna, veeryam, vipaka and prabhava of that substance. However there exists a certain relationship between karma and other attributes of that substance. karma of any substance depends upon its rasa, veeryam, vipaka and prabhava. Substances with certain rasa or veerya have a specific type of karma or therapeutic activity. Thus many a times, karma of a substance is a gross product of its other attributes like rasa, veerya etc.  
    
== Etymology ==
 
== Etymology ==
      Kriyate iti karma
+
     क्रियते इति कर्म |
    
That which is done is called as karma. karma here is the action of a dravya(drug).
 
That which is done is called as karma. karma here is the action of a dravya(drug).
   −
Karma is one of the important elements amongst the concept of shat padarthas (dravya,guna, karma, samanya vishesha and samavaya) explained in Ayurveda. Any mechanism or activity which yields a certain outcome is termed as karma.
+
Karma is one of the [[Padarthas (पदार्थाः)|padartha]] amongst the 6 [[Padarthas (पदार्थाः)|padarthas]] (dravya, guna, karma, samanya, vishesha and samavaya) explained in [[Vaiseshika Darshana (वैशेषिकदर्शनम्)|Vaisheshika darshana]] and [[Ayurveda and Darshanas (आयुर्वेदः दर्शनानि च)|Ayurveda]]. Any mechanism or activity which yields a certain outcome is termed as karma.
    
== Definition ==
 
== Definition ==
Tarkasamgraha, a treatise based of nyaya and vaisheshika [[Ayurveda and Darshanas (आयुर्वेदः दर्शनानि च)|darshanas]], has defined karma as belows,<blockquote>चलनात्मकं कर्म। (Tarkasamgraha)<ref>Tarkasamgraha by Annambhatta [https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%B8%E0%A4%99%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%97%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%B9%E0%A4%83/%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%B2%E0%A4%95%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B7%E0%A4%A3%E0%A4%AA%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%A3%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8D Karmadilakshana-prakaranam]</ref></blockquote>Any kind of movement is identified as karma. Fundamentally it is believed to be of 5 types.
+
Tarkasamgraha, a treatise based of nyaya and vaisheshika [[Ayurveda and Darshanas (आयुर्वेदः दर्शनानि च)|darshanas]], has defined karma as belows,<blockquote>चलनात्मकं कर्म। (Tarkasamgraha)<ref name=":0">Tarkasamgraha by Annambhatta [https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%B8%E0%A4%99%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%97%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%B9%E0%A4%83/%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%B2%E0%A4%95%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B7%E0%A4%A3%E0%A4%AA%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%A3%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8D Karmadilakshana-prakaranam]</ref></blockquote>Any kind of movement is identified as karma. Fundamentally it is believed to be of 5 types.
    
In Charaka Samhita, karma is defined as below,<blockquote>संयोगे च विभागे च कारणं द्रव्यमाश्रितम्| कर्तव्यस्य क्रिया कर्म कर्म नान्यदपेक्षते|| (Char.sutr 1.52)</blockquote>Meaning: That which is responsible for amalgamation and seperation of a dravya(drug) composition. That transformation which happens in dravya is due to karma, that specific activity is termed as karma.
 
In Charaka Samhita, karma is defined as below,<blockquote>संयोगे च विभागे च कारणं द्रव्यमाश्रितम्| कर्तव्यस्य क्रिया कर्म कर्म नान्यदपेक्षते|| (Char.sutr 1.52)</blockquote>Meaning: That which is responsible for amalgamation and seperation of a dravya(drug) composition. That transformation which happens in dravya is due to karma, that specific activity is termed as karma.
Line 15: Line 15:  
The movement which is initiated by any effort is called as karma(action)
 
The movement which is initiated by any effort is called as karma(action)
   −
In simple words Acharya Charaka at other place defines karma as 'the activity that is carried out'.<blockquote>यत् कुर्वन्ति, तत् कर्म (char. sutr. 26.13)</blockquote>Meaning: The end product of any mechanism or activity is karma(action).
+
 
 +
 
 +
In simple words Acharya Charaka at other place defines karma as 'the activity that is carried out'.<blockquote>यत् कुर्वन्ति, तत् कर्म (char. sutr. 26.13)<ref>Charaka Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 26 Sutra 13)</ref></blockquote>Meaning: The end product of any mechanism or activity is karma(action).
    
When the term karma is mentioned in our Ayurvedic treatises, it mainly refers to the action of the dravya in our body.
 
When the term karma is mentioned in our Ayurvedic treatises, it mainly refers to the action of the dravya in our body.
 +
 +
== The concept of Karma according to Darshana Shastras ==
 +
Karma is mentioned as one of the shad padhartha (dravya,guna, karma, samanya vishesha and samavaya)
 +
 +
According to vaisheshika darshana,
 +
 +
Karma is described as “ekadravyam” that which exists in a single dravya(substance).
 +
 +
Karma is also “aguna” which means it is devoid of guna, here there is a difference drawn between guna and karma.
 +
 +
Karma exists wherever there is samyog (union) or vibhaga (separation) in a dravya. The activity which occurs because of sanyoga and vibhaga inside a dravya is known as karma.
 +
 +
As per the Vaisheshika darshana, the karma is of 5 types. These 5 types are based on the direction or flow of movement of the object within the space.  <blockquote>उत्क्षेपणापक्षेपणाकुञ्चनप्रसारणगमनानि पञ्च कर्माणि॥ <ref name=":0" /></blockquote>
 +
 +
=== Utkshepana ===
 +
ऊर्ध्वदेशसंयोगहेतुरुत्क्षेपणम् | <ref name=":0" />
 +
 +
Meaning, upward or ascendent movement as an action is termed as utkshepana.
 +
 +
=== Apakshepana ===
 +
अधोदेशसंयोगहेतुरपक्षेपणम्। <ref name=":0" />
 +
 +
Meaning downward or descendent movement as an action is known as apakshepana.
 +
 +
=== Akunchana ===
 +
शरीरसंनिकृष्टसंयोगहेतुराकुञ्चनम् <ref name=":0" />
 +
 +
Meaning, that which causes contraction or action of bringing together or closeness is termed as akunchana.
 +
 +
=== Prasarana ===
 +
विप्रकृष्टसंयोगहेतुः प्रसारणम्। <ref name=":0" />
 +
 +
Meaning, that which moves away or expands is termed as prasarana.
 +
 +
=== Gamana ===
 +
अन्यत् सर्वं गमनम्। <ref name=":0" />
 +
 +
Meaning, that which includes all the random movements or actions apart from the utkshepana etc are termed as gamana.
    
== Dravya and Karma relatioship ==
 
== Dravya and Karma relatioship ==
Line 25: Line 65:     
== Various types of karmas (therapeutic activities) described in Ayurveda ==
 
== Various types of karmas (therapeutic activities) described in Ayurveda ==
Even though there are various categories based on the location where the dravya acts or dosha or dhatu karma etc, mainly there remains six karma which are classified as follows
+
Even though there are various categories based on the location where the dravya acts or dosha or dhatu karma etc, mainly there remains six karma <ref>Charaka Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 22 Sutra 9)</ref> which are classified as follows  
 
  −
(Char.sutr. 22.9)
      
1.langhana (therapeutic Fasting)     2. Bhrimhana(Nourishing therapy)
 
1.langhana (therapeutic Fasting)     2. Bhrimhana(Nourishing therapy)
Line 66: Line 104:     
There is not a single heading under which karma can be categorised, but for the better understanding of the concept few ayurvedic scholars have classified it by an organ specific approach or systemic approach
 
There is not a single heading under which karma can be categorised, but for the better understanding of the concept few ayurvedic scholars have classified it by an organ specific approach or systemic approach
  −
=== chakshushya (beneficial for eyes) ===
  −
The dravya which act by keeping the vision and overall health of eyes in a good state. There is set of specific  dravya(drugs) which are called chakshusya dravya mentioned in our classical treatises. One very basic example here is anjan (medicated collyrium) which is mentioned as chakshushya.
      
=== Nasya (Errhine therapy) (sush.chik.40.21) ===
 
=== Nasya (Errhine therapy) (sush.chik.40.21) ===
 
A therapeutic measure where the medicated oil etc is used to administer in the nostrils for elimination of certain dosha, in various disease aspects.
 
A therapeutic measure where the medicated oil etc is used to administer in the nostrils for elimination of certain dosha, in various disease aspects.
   −
=== Swedana (fomentation) ===
+
=== chakshushya (beneficial for eyes) ===
               स्तम्भगौरवशीतघ्नं स्वेदनं स्वेदकारकम्||(char.sutr.22.11)
+
The dravya which act by keeping the vision and overall health of eyes in a good state. There is set of specific  dravya(drugs) which are called chakshusya dravya mentioned in our classical treatises. One very basic example here is anjan (medicated collyrium) which is mentioned as chakshushya.  
 
  −
Swedana is a process or therapy by which sweat is produced in our body using various methods. This procedure reduces stiffness, heaviness of the body. The set of dravya which carry out this action are called svedopaga gana dravya. Charaka acharya has mentioned further types of sweda( char. Sutr 14.39 and 64)
  −
 
  −
=== Snehana (Emollient) ===
  −
         स्नेहनं स्नेहविष्यन्दमार्दवक्लेदकारकम् (char.sutr.22.10)
  −
 
  −
Snehana is the therapy which provides snighdata(unctuousness) to the skin. Here snehana is done not just externally but internally as well. This procedure is done with the help of ghruta, taila etc.
      
=== Keshya (promoting hair health) ===
 
=== Keshya (promoting hair health) ===
Line 89: Line 117:  
Dravyas which act to promote healthy complexion and lusture are varnya dravya.
 
Dravyas which act to promote healthy complexion and lusture are varnya dravya.
   −
=== Deepan (shar.purv. 4.1) ===
+
=== Deepan ===
The dravya which act by kindling the jatharagni(digestive fire) are known as deepan dravya and that process by which it acts is termed as deepana karma.
+
The dravya which act by kindling the jatharagni(digestive fire) are known as deepan dravya and that process by which it acts is termed as deepana karma. <ref name=":1">Sharangadhara Samhita (Purvakhanda Adhyaya 4)</ref>
    
=== Pachana (Digestive) ===
 
=== Pachana (Digestive) ===
Pachana means digestive process. The dravya which digests the ama(..) are known as pachana dravya and the process is termed as pachana karma. (shar.purv.4.2)
+
Pachana means digestive process. The dravya which digests the ama(..) are known as pachana dravya and the process is termed as pachana karma. <ref name=":1" />
    
=== Vaman(emetic) ===
 
=== Vaman(emetic) ===
Line 108: Line 136:     
=== Anuloman ===
 
=== Anuloman ===
The dravya which removes the morbid dosha through anal route, relieves constipation are known as anulonama dravyas and the process or the karma is termed as anuloman karma
+
The dravya which removes the morbid dosha through anal route, relieves constipation are known as anulonama dravyas and the process or the karma is termed as anuloman karma. <ref name=":1" />
    
=== Sramsana ===
 
=== Sramsana ===
The dravya which eliminates the digested or undigested food and the adhered doshas through the anal route are sramsana dravyas, and the karma is termed as sramsana karma.
+
The dravya which eliminates the digested or undigested food and the adhered doshas through the anal route are sramsana dravyas, and the karma is termed as sramsana karma.<ref name=":1" />
    
=== Bhedana ===
 
=== Bhedana ===
The dravyas which causes the breakdown of grathit(hardened) mala and removes it through anal route are bhedana dravyas and the process or karma is termed as bhedana karma.
+
The dravyas which causes the breakdown of grathit(hardened) mala and removes it through anal route are bhedana dravyas and the process or karma is termed as bhedana karma.<ref name=":1" />
    
=== Chhedana ===
 
=== Chhedana ===
The dravya which detangles the morbid doshas within themselves are chhedana dravya and that particular action is termed as chedana karma.
+
The dravya which detangles the morbid doshas within themselves are chhedana dravya and that particular action is termed as chedana karma.<ref name=":1" />
    
=== Lekhana ===
 
=== Lekhana ===
The dravya which causes shoshana(drying up) of dosha and dhatus are lekhana dravya and the action is termed as lekhana karma.
+
The dravya which causes shoshana(drying up) of dosha and dhatus are lekhana dravya and the action is termed as lekhana karma.<ref name=":1" />
 +
 
 +
=== Shastra Karmas ===
 +
Shastras are sharp instruments which are used in various surgical procedures.<blockquote>उत्पाट्यपाट्यसीव्यैष्यलेख्यप्रच्छानकुट्टनम्
 +
 
 +
छेद्यं भेद्यं व्यधो मन्थो ग्रहो दाहश्च तत्क्रियाः|| (Asht. Hrud. 26.28)<ref>Ashtanga Hrudayam (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 26 Sutra 28)</ref></blockquote>
 +
 
 +
==== Utpatana (to extract) ====
 +
Removal of foreign body or extraction procedure is known as utpatana karma
 +
 
 +
==== Patana (to tear) ====
 +
The karma which involves cutting or tearing with the help of appropriate shastra is termed as patina.
 +
 
 +
==== Seevana (suturing) ====
 +
The process of suturing or sealing of a for example wound is termed as seevana karma.<ref>Sushruta Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 25 Sutra 16)</ref>
 +
 
 +
==== Eshana (probing) ====
 +
The process of penetrating or probing with the help of a sharp instrument or shastra is termed as eshana karma. (for example, in sinuses, wounds etc)<ref>Sushruta Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 25 Sutra 10)</ref>
 +
 
 +
==== Lekhana in surgery (to scrape) ====
 +
The process which involves scraping
 +
 
 +
==== Prachhan ====
 +
Scratching, incising, minute puncturing
 +
 
 +
==== Kuttana ====
 +
beating, hitting, pounding
 +
 
 +
==== Chedana ====
 +
excising, cutting,
 +
 
 +
==== Bhedana ====
 +
breaking,
 +
 
 +
==== Vyadhana ====
 +
Puncturing,
 +
 
 +
==== Manthana ====
 +
Churning,
 +
 
 +
==== Grahana ====
 +
holding, grasping and
 +
 
 +
==== Dahana ====
 +
burning, cauterizing  are the functions of sharp instruments.
    
== References ==
 
== References ==
 
<references />
 
<references />
 
[[Category:Ayurveda]]
 
[[Category:Ayurveda]]
1,048

edits

Navigation menu