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Trigunas (त्रिगुणाः)

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त्रिगुणपरिणामः॥ Actions and effects of Trigunas
{{ToBeEdited}}{{NeedCitation}}The term Trigunas is made up of 2 parts. The first part is 'Tri' which means 3 in number and the second part is 'Gunas' which means qualities or properties of a substance. Thus the term points towards 3 qualities or properties of a substance.
== परिचयः॥ Introduction ==
Meaning: Sometimes sattva (goodness) prevails over rajas (passion) and tamas (ignorance). Sometimes rajas (passion) dominates sattva (goodness) and tamas (ignorance), and at other times tamas (ignorance) overcomes sattva (goodness) and rajas (passion).
== त्रिगुणपरिणामः॥ Actions and effects of Trigunas ==Sattva, rajas and tamas play hey key role in the way a persons mind, emotions, behaviour and social interaction happens. All these aspects of one's personality are responsible for that persons actions and their results which ultimately decide the health, well-being and success of that individual in this world. Learning the exclusive characteristics of each of the trigunas thus one can foresee the possible quality of life of an individual based upon the predominance of the trigunas in his mind. In Bhagvad Gita, lord Krinshna Krishna has explained the action and effect of trigunas on one's life as follows,
<blockquote>सत्त्वं सुखे सञ्जयति रज: कर्मणि भारत । ज्ञानमावृत्य तु तम: प्रमादे सञ्जयत्युत ॥ (Bhagvad Gita 14.9) </blockquote><blockquote>sattvaṁ sukhe sañjayati raja: karmaṇi bhārata । jñānamāvr̥tya tu tama: pramāde sañjayatyuta ॥ (Bhagvad Gita 14.9)</blockquote>Meaning: Sattva binds one to happiness; rajas conditions the soul toward actions; and tamas clouds wisdom and binds one to delusion.
the The effects of each of trigunas is a result of its property. Sattva is said to be the illuminating or enlightening quality that helps one to understand the truth or reality of the situation, gives clarity and thus helps one to understand real bliss or happiness. Rajas owing to its passionate nature, consistently forces one to initiate actions to achieve goals and thus that person gets engaged in the pursuit of various pleasures. On the other hand, Tamas by nature clouds the wisdom and incapacitates individual to know the truth or to understand the real nature of anything. Naturally, the person makes mistakes or [[Prajnaparadha (प्रज्ञापराधः)|prajnaparadhas]] leading to unrewarding, miserable life.
== मनोबलम् ॥ Effect of Trigunas on the strength of mind ==
Ayurveda identifies physical body and mind as 2 seats for development of diseases. Since mind or manas is said to be a seat of diseases it is obvious that certain factors or forces located in manas are responsible for disease development. It is known that trigunas have place in manas of a person and they control the strength, actions and functions of mind and emotions. Among 3 of them, Sattva is believed to be the strength or pure quality of a mind which brings happiness and knowledge and wisdom in an individual and thus it is regarded as defense of manas. Whereas the other 2, rajas and tamas influence the person in a negative manner making one prone to create mistakes or [[Prajnaparadha (प्रज्ञापराधः)|prajnaparadhas]] and susceptible to diseases. Thus, rajas and tamas among trigunas are identified as doshas (those which have capacity to vitiate body or mind and initiate the process of diseases development) of manas. <blockquote>रजस्तमश्च मनसो द्वौ च दोषावुदाहृतौ॥ (Asht Hrud 1.21)<ref name=":2">Ashtang Hrudayam ([http://vedotpatti.in/samhita/Vag/ehrudayam/?mod=read&h=rajas Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 1 Sutram 121])</ref></blockquote><blockquote>rajastamaśca manaso dvau ca doṣāvudāhr̥tau॥ (Asht Hrud 1.21)<ref name=":2" /></blockquote>Meaning: Rajas and Tamas are considered as 2 doshas of manas.
Diseases originating from Rajas are called Rajasa diseases while those originating from Tamas are called as Tamasa diseases. <blockquote>अतस्त्रिविधा व्याधयः प्रादुर्भवन्ति- आग्नेयाः, सौम्याः, वायव्याश्च; द्विविधाश्चापरे- राजसाः, तामसाश्च ॥ (Char Samh 1.4)<ref>Charaka Samhita (Nidanasthanam Adhyayam 1 Sutram 4)</ref> </blockquote><blockquote>atastrividhā vyādhayaḥ prādurbhavanti- āgneyāḥ, saumyāḥ, vāyavyāśca; dvividhāścāpare- rājasāḥ, tāmasāśca ॥ (Char Samh 1.4)</blockquote>Meaning: 3 types of diseases (of physical body) originate from Agni, Jalam or Vayu. The other 2 types of diseases (are of manas and) originate either from imbalance or excess of rajas or tamas.
== निद्रा त्रिगुण संबंधः॥ Nidra and Triguna ==
Nidra is said to occur due to [[Tamas (तमः)|Tamas]] guna abundance in body while [[Sattva (सत्त्वम्)|Sattva]] guna abundance helps one to wake-up from sleep.<ref name=":1">Sushruta Samhita ([https://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/esushruta/?mod=read&h=hetustama Sharirasthanam Adhyayam 4 Sutram 35])</ref> Therefore, abundance of these gunas in surroundings during day & night cycle naturally makes one feel sleepy or awakened.<blockquote>निद्राहेतुस्तमः, सत्त्वं बोधने हेतुरुच्यते । स्वभाव एव वा हेतुर्गरीयान् परिकीर्त्यते ॥ (Sush Samh 4.35)<ref name=":1" /></blockquote><blockquote>nidrāhetustamaḥ, sattvaṁ bodhane heturucyate । svabhāva eva vā heturgarīyān parikīrtyate ॥ (Sush Samh 4.35)</blockquote>[[Rajas (रजः)|Rajas]] guna is responsible for movements of [[Manas (मनः)|manas]]. Manas is the main component of sleep pathway and it should be detached from all the other activities to initiate the sleep process. Excess of rajas constantly involve manas in some sensory or motor activity and thus unregulated movement of manas disturbs the normal pattern of sleep.
== मोक्ष-त्रिगुणसंबंधः॥ Role of Trigunas in Moksha ==
[[Moksha (मोक्षः)|Moksha]] is considered to be liberation of soul from mortal body and its union with the supreme consciousness. It is believed that purusha or soul is trapped in the mortal body and suffers from karmas. This bond of [[Atman (आत्मन्)|atma]] and [[Sharira (शरीरम्)|sharira]] is because of [[Trigunas (त्रिगुणाः)|trigunas]] as per Bhagvad Gita.<blockquote>सत्त्वं रजस्तम इति गुणा: प्रकृतिसम्भवा: | निबध्नन्ति महाबाहो देहे देहिनमव्ययम् ॥ (Bhagvad Gita 14.5)</blockquote><blockquote>sattvaṁ rajastama iti guṇā: prakr̥tisambhavā: | nibadhnanti mahābāho dehe dehinamavyayam ॥ (Bhagvad Gita 14.5)</blockquote>Thus, when Ayurveda discusses about Atma, Karma and [[Moksha (मोक्षः)|Moksha]]; acharyas have described the process of Moksha at the level of mind and soul.<blockquote>मोक्षो रजस्तमोऽभावात् बलवत्कर्मसङ्क्षयात् | वियोगः सर्वसंयोगैरपुनर्भव उच्यते ॥ (Char. Samh. 1.142)<ref>Charaka Samhita ([http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/ecaraka/?mod=read Sharirsthanam Adhyaya 1 Sutram 142])</ref></blockquote><blockquote>mokṣo rajastamo'bhāvāt balavatkarmasaṅkṣayāt | viyogaḥ sarvasaṁyogairapunarbhava ucyate ॥ (Char. Samh. 1.142)</blockquote>Meaning: It is stated that Moksha is achieved only after annihilation of effects of potent past actions/deeds and when there is absence of rajas and tamas in the mind. At this stage there is detachment of [[Sharira (शरीरम्)|sharira]], [[Manas (मनः)|manas]], [[Indriyas (इन्द्रियाणि)|indriyas]] and [[Atman (आत्मन्)|atma]]. This is a state after which there is no more physical or mental contacts. Further there is no process of rebirth. Thus presence or absence of Tamas plays important role in the process of Moksha.

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