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Like many branches of knowledge, the beginnings of astronomy in Bharatavarsha have been traced back to the Vedas. Vedanga Jyotisha text is found in two recensions - Rigveda Jyotisha (called Archa-jyotisha) and Yajurveda Jyotisha (called Yajusha-jyotisha).<ref name=":15">Kolachana, Aditya & Mahesh, Kaluva & Ramasubramanian, K.. (2019). Main characteristics and achievements of ancient Indian astronomy in historical perspective. 10.1007/978-981-13-7326-8_24.</ref> Though the contents of both the recensions are the same they differ in the number of verses contained in them. Rigveda version contains only 36 verses whereas the Yajurveda version contains 44 verses, the difference attributed to the addition of explanatory verses given by the adhvaryu who used them.
 
Like many branches of knowledge, the beginnings of astronomy in Bharatavarsha have been traced back to the Vedas. Vedanga Jyotisha text is found in two recensions - Rigveda Jyotisha (called Archa-jyotisha) and Yajurveda Jyotisha (called Yajusha-jyotisha).<ref name=":15">Kolachana, Aditya & Mahesh, Kaluva & Ramasubramanian, K.. (2019). Main characteristics and achievements of ancient Indian astronomy in historical perspective. 10.1007/978-981-13-7326-8_24.</ref> Though the contents of both the recensions are the same they differ in the number of verses contained in them. Rigveda version contains only 36 verses whereas the Yajurveda version contains 44 verses, the difference attributed to the addition of explanatory verses given by the adhvaryu who used them.
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Prof K. S. Shukla notes a third recension called the Atharva-jyotisha ascribed to Rshis Svayambhu and Bhrgu which belongs to a later date. This recension, consisting of 162 verses deals with both astronomy and astrology. It mentions the names of the seven planets and the weekdays. And in addition to tithi, nakshatra and yoga which were already known, it gives the names of the seven karanas of the Hindu calendar.<ref name=":13">K. S. Shukla, [https://www.insa.nic.in/writereaddata/UpLoadedFiles/IJHS/Vol04_1And2_11_KSShukla.pdf Astronomy in ancient and medieval India], Indian Journal of History of Science, Vol.4, Nos. 1-2 (1969), pp.99-106.</ref><blockquote>यथा शिखा मयूराणां नागानां मणयो यथा । तद्वद्वेदाङ्गशास्त्राणां ज्योतिषं (गणितं) मूर्धनि स्थितम् ॥ १९ ॥ (Veda. Jyot. 4)<ref>B.B. Datta and A. N. Singh (1962) ''History of Hindu Mathematics, A Source Book, Parts 1 and 2.'' Bombay: Asia Publishing House. (Page 7)</ref> </blockquote><blockquote>''yathā śikhā mayūrāṇāṁ nāgānāṁ maṇayo yathā । tadvadvedāṅgaśāsrāṇāṁ jyotiṣaṁ (gaṇitaṁ) mūrdhani sthitam ॥ 19 ॥''</blockquote>Like the crests on the heads of peacocks, like the gems on the hoods of the snakes (cobras), astronomy (mathematics) is at the highest position of vedanga shastras (the six ancillary branches of knowledge).
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Prof K. S. Shukla notes a third recension called the Atharva-jyotisha ascribed to Rshis Svayambhu and Bhrgu which belongs to a later date. This recension, consisting of 162 verses deals with both astronomy and astrology. It mentions the names of the seven grahas and the weekdays. And in addition to tithi, nakshatra and yoga which were already known, it gives the names of the seven karanas of the Hindu calendar.<ref name=":13">K. S. Shukla, [https://www.insa.nic.in/writereaddata/UpLoadedFiles/IJHS/Vol04_1And2_11_KSShukla.pdf Astronomy in ancient and medieval India], Indian Journal of History of Science, Vol.4, Nos. 1-2 (1969), pp.99-106.</ref><blockquote>यथा शिखा मयूराणां नागानां मणयो यथा । तद्वद्वेदाङ्गशास्त्राणां ज्योतिषं (गणितं) मूर्धनि स्थितम् ॥ १९ ॥ (Veda. Jyot. 4)<ref>B.B. Datta and A. N. Singh (1962) ''History of Hindu Mathematics, A Source Book, Parts 1 and 2.'' Bombay: Asia Publishing House. (Page 7)</ref> </blockquote><blockquote>''yathā śikhā mayūrāṇāṁ nāgānāṁ maṇayo yathā । tadvadvedāṅgaśāsrāṇāṁ jyotiṣaṁ (gaṇitaṁ) mūrdhani sthitam ॥ 19 ॥''</blockquote>Like the crests on the heads of peacocks, like the gems on the hoods of the snakes (cobras), astronomy (mathematics) is at the highest position of vedanga shastras (the six ancillary branches of knowledge).
    
== Contents of Vedanga Jyotisha ==
 
== Contents of Vedanga Jyotisha ==
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According to Prof. Balachandra Rao, the astronomical calculations described in Vedanga Jyotisha were in practical use for a long time. Around the beginning of the Christian era, a new class of Indian Astronomical literature emerged namely the Siddhantas. The word 'siddhanta' has the connotation of an established theory. These siddhanta texts contain much more material and topics than the Vedanga Jyotisha.   
 
According to Prof. Balachandra Rao, the astronomical calculations described in Vedanga Jyotisha were in practical use for a long time. Around the beginning of the Christian era, a new class of Indian Astronomical literature emerged namely the Siddhantas. The word 'siddhanta' has the connotation of an established theory. These siddhanta texts contain much more material and topics than the Vedanga Jyotisha.   
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While nakshatra system was existing, the twelve signs of the zodiac Mesha, Vrshabha etc were introduced. Computations for arriving at the precise values for different aspects such as the length of the solar year, motion of the planets, solar and lunar eclipses, determination of mean and true positions of planets formed the core content of these siddhantas. Mathematics was greatly developed to aid these calculations.   
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While nakshatra system was existing, the twelve signs of the zodiac Mesha, Vrshabha etc were introduced. Computations for arriving at the precise values for different aspects such as the length of the solar year, motion of the grahas, solar and lunar eclipses, determination of mean and true positions of grahas formed the core content of these siddhantas. Mathematics was greatly developed to aid these calculations.   
    
According to tradition there were principally 18 Siddhantas   
 
According to tradition there were principally 18 Siddhantas   
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|Ayananta : Solistice
 
|Ayananta : Solistice
|Masa : Conjunctions of planets; yuti, yoga
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|Masa : Conjunctions of grahas; yuti, yoga
 
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|Bhachakra : Zodiac (consisting of 27 nakshatras or twelve rashis)
 
|Bhachakra : Zodiac (consisting of 27 nakshatras or twelve rashis)
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