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Ramopakhyana (रामोपाख्यानम्)

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Markandeya starts to recite the anecdote with Maharaja Aja who belonged to the Ikshvaku lineage, who had a son Dasaratha. Dasaratha a pious and learned person, had four sons Rama by Kausalya, Bharata through Kaikeyi and by wife Sumitra he had Lakshmana and Shatrughna. Brahma himself created Sita, as the daughter of Janaka Maharaja of Videha, to be the dear wife of ShriRamachandra.
== Origin of = Ravana's Family ===
In Mahabharata we find the details of the lineage of Ravana, described by Markandeya as follows:
Brahma ---- Pulastya (पुलस्त्यः । One of the Manasaputras) ---- Vaishravana (वैश्रवणः। Son born of Gau) and Vishrava (विश्रवस् । Pulastya's form of himself associated with anger) ---- Dashagreeva (Ravana, son of Pushpotkata)
<blockquote>पितामहो रावणस्य साक्षाद्देवः प्रजापतिः। स्वयम्भूः सर्वलोकानां प्रभुः स्रष्टा महातपाः॥ 3-274-11 </blockquote>
<blockquote>पुलस्त्यो नाम तस्यासीन्मानसो दयितः सुतः। तस्य वैश्रवणो नाम गवि पुत्रोऽभवत्प्रभुः॥ 3-274-12 </blockquote>
=== Vaishravana or Kubera ===The story goes thus... Brahma, the Creator, himself is the grandfather of Ravana. Brahmadeva had a manasaputra called Pulastya. To Pulastya was born Vaishravana through his wife Gau. Vaishravana however, leaving his father Pulastya, was always in service of his grandfather Brahma. Angered by this action, Pulastya created another form of his from half his body, called as Vishravas. Vishravas held a deep resentment for Vaishravana and was always looking for an opportunity to attack him. Brahma was highly pleased with the services of Vaishravana and bestowed * अमरत्वम् ॥ Amaratva or immortality* धनेशत्वम् ॥ Rulership over wealth* लोकपालत्वम् ॥ one of the rulers of the lokas* लङ्काधिपत्यम् ॥ Ruler of Lanka, the capital of land of rakshasas* यक्षाणामाधिपत्यम् ॥ Rulership over the Yaksha ganas (semi-celestial beings)
Brahma encouraged the Vaishravana to seek support of Mahadeva and granted him Vishravas held a son, named Nalakubara. He also gave deep resentment for Vaishravana the title of "Rajaraja". He granted Pushpakavimana to travel anywhere as per his wish via the aerial route to Kubera. === Ravana and his siblings ===Vaishravana who was granted many boons by his grandfather, Brahma, was always viewed with resentment and anger by his father's form Vishravas (विश्रवस्). He made many attempts looking for an opportunity to please attack him. Vaishravana or Rajaraja Kubera always lived in LankaBrahma, enjoying all the wealthhowever, he engaged people to carry him on their shoulders in a vehicle (नरवाहनः). To please his father Vishravas, he engaged was highly pleased with the services of three rakshasis (परिचारिकाः) named Pushpotkata (पुष्पोत्कटा)Malini Vaishravana or [[Kubera (मालिनीकुबेरः) ]] and Raaka (राका) well versed in song bestowed him all the riches and dance rulership over ganas such as Yaksha, Kinneras, Kimpurushas and who served others. Making him competitively to gain his good graces. Pleased with their service, Vishravas granted them each the ruler of them sons according to their wishLanka, who are as mighty with immense strength equal to that of lokapalakashe grants him the Pushpaka vimana. <blockquote>पुष्पोत्कटायां जज्ञाते द्वौ पुत्रौ राक्षसेश्वरौ। कुम्भकर्णदशग्रीवौ बलेनाप्रतिमौ भुवि॥ 3-275-7</blockquote><blockquote>मालिनी जनयामास पुत्रमेकं विभीषणम्। राकायां मिथुनं जज्ञे खरः शूर्पणखा तथा॥ 3-275-8 </blockquote>Vishravas begets Ravana , Kumbhakarna, Visbhishana, Khara and Kumbhakarna of Surpanakha through rakshasis named Pushpotkata who were mighty rakshasas. , Malini gave birth to one son named Vibhishana. Raaka gave birth to a male child named Khara and a female child named SurpanakhaRaakha. == Ravana's Jealousy as Lankadhipati ==Vishravas and his family were living on the Gandhamadana mountain. Once when Kuberacame on his vehicle driven by men, in his pomp and splendour was in the company of to meet Vishravas. At On that time ocassion, seeing the wealth and pomp of Kubera, Ravana and others were moved by his brothers, overcame with jealousy over his wealth and grandeur. In their heart of hearts they all decided They decide to do severe tapas (perform penance) to please gain powers from Brahma. Ravana did penance for After a thousand years standing on one footor rigorous austerities, Brahma pleased with their tapas, living only on air grants Ravana invincibility from all beings and he excludes humans in deep meditation his wish as he considered them very low beings.गन्धर्वदेवासुरतो यक्षराक्षसतस्तथा। सर्पकिन्नरभूतेभ्यो न मे भूयात्पराभवः॥ 3-275-25Returning with Panchaagnis around the boons of Brahma, Ravana defeats Kubera and takes over Lanka and Pushpaka vimana from him. Kumbhakarna similarly limited Unable to challenge Ravana, Kubera leaves Lanka with his food ganas and slept only comes to live on the groundGandhamadhana mountain. Vibhishana sustained himself only on dry leaves during his penance. Clever Thus defeated by Ravana and generous hearted Vibhishana so continued his penance for years along with grabbed of all his brothers. Khara riches and Surpanakha engaged themselves in protecting and serving their brothers who were doing penancethe Pushpaka vimana, angered, Kubera lays a curse on Ravana. Brahmadeva was highly pleased with their tapas and asked them to wish for any boons other than Amaratva (immortality)विमानं पुष्पकं तस्य जहाराक्रम्य रावणः। शशाप तं वैश्रवणो न त्वामेतद्वहिष्यति॥ 3-275-34यस्तु त्वां समरे हन्ता तमेवैतद्वहिष्यति। अवमन्य गुरुं मां च क्षिप्रं त्वं न भविष्यसि॥ 3-275-35This vimana which you have forcefully taken from me will not carry you.It will
Courtesy: Samskrit Shlokas of Mahabharata from Rashtriya Vidyapeetha, Tirupati.<ref>Mahabharata Project - [ Main Page]</ref>

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