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Aupasana (औपासनः)

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'''Aupasana''' (Samskrit : औपासनः) is one of the important Smarta [[Yajna (यज्ञः)|Yajnas ]] performed daily by grihasthas who have been initiated during marriage. Aupasana, which must be performed every day, is commenced in the Grhyagni (Aupasanagni) and it must be preserved throughout one's life. The seven pakayajnas, rites including upanayana and [[Shraddh Shraddha (श्राद्दःश्राद्धम्)|shraaddhashraddha]], must be conducted in the aupasana fire.<ref name=":0">Sri Sri Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi Swamiji, (2000) ''[http://www.kamakoti.org/hindudharma/part5/chap5.htm Hindu Dharma (Collection of Swamiji's Speeches between 1907 to 1994)]''Mumbai : Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan</ref>
== Smarta Karma ==
All rites in which the aupasana fire is used and pertain to an individual and his family are "Grhyakarmas". They are related exclusively to the family and are not very elaborate. Even so they are conducive to the good of the world outside also. Grhyasutras deal with such rites. They belong to the [[Smrti (स्मृतिः)|Smritis]] and so are called "Smarta-karmas". The seven Pakayajnas also belong to this category.<ref name=":0" />
The list of seven Pakayajnas according to Apastamba Grhyasutras as elucidated in the commentary of Haradatta, include <blockquote>तत्र च सप्त पाकयज्ञसंस्थाः - औपासनहोमो, वैश्वदेवं, पार्वण, मष्टका, मासिश्राद्धं, सर्पबलिं, रीशानबलिरिति ।<ref>Apastamba Grhyasutras with commentary by Haradatta ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%86%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AC_%E0%A4%97%E0%A5%83%E0%A4%B9%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%82%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A3%E0%A4%BF,_%E0%A4%B9%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF_%E0%A4%85%E0%A4%A8%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%95%E0%A5%82%E0%A4%B2%E0%A4%BE,_%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B6%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%82%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%87%E0%A4%83_%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B6%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8D_%E0%A4%9A Anukula Vritti])</ref></blockquote><blockquote>''tatra ca sapta pākayajñasaṁsthāḥ - aupāsanahomo, vaiśvadevaṁ, pārvaṇa, maṣṭakā, māsiśrāddhaṁ, sarpabaliṁ, rīśānabaliriti ।''</blockquote>
* औपासनहोमः ॥ ''Aupasanahoma''
* वैश्वदेवः ॥ ''Vaishvadeva''
* सर्पबलिः॥ ''Sarpabali''
* इशानबलिः ॥ ''Ishanabali''
Other versions of Grhyasutras are present. For example: according to Baudhayana Grhya sutras, the Pakayajnas are  <blockquote>यथो एतद्धुतः प्रहुत आहुतश्शूलगवो बलिहरणं प्रत्यवरोहणमष्टकाहोम इति सप्त पाकयज्ञसंस्था इति ।१। (Baud. Ghry. Sutr. 1.1.1)<ref>Baudhayana Grhya Sutras ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AC%E0%A5%8C%E0%A4%A7%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%97%E0%A5%83%E0%A4%B9%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%82%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8D/%E0%A4%AA%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%B6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%83_%E0%A5%A7 Prashna 1 Adhyaya 1])</ref></blockquote><blockquote>''yatho etaddhutaḥ prahuta āhutaśśūlagavo baliharaṇaṁ pratyavarohaṇamaṣṭakāhoma iti sapta pākayajñasaṁsthā iti ।1।'' </blockquote>
* हुतः ॥ Huta 
* प्रहुतः ॥ Prahuta 
= औपासनः ॥ Aupasana =
Aupasana can be considered as a enhancement of samidadhanam samidadhana which is performed by brahmacharis once initiated by Upanayana ceremony.
=== Etymology ===
According to Vachaspatyam<ref>Vachaspatyam ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%9A%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8D/%E0%A4%94 See Aupasana])</ref> Aupasana is given as <blockquote>उपास्यते प्रतिदिनमित्युपासनो गृह्योऽग्निस्तत्र भवः अण् । गृह्याग्नौ कर्त्तव्ये सायंप्रातर्होमादौ कर्म्मणि । गृह्याग्निश्च विवाहाग्निः । </blockquote><blockquote>''upāsyate pratidinamityupāsano gr̥hyo'gnistatra bhavaḥ aṇ । gr̥hyāgnau karttavye sāyaṁprātarhomādau karmmaṇi । gr̥hyāgniśca vivāhāgniḥ ।''</blockquote>That Agni which is worshipped at home everyday is Grhyagni, in which the morning and evening homa kriyas are to be performed. Grhyagni is Vivahagni.
=== Initiation into Aupasana ===
* Starting from marriage, a grihasta (along with his wife) offers yava or rice aahutis twice daily at twilight time (dawn and dusk) in the Aupasanagni, this is also called as Aupasana.<ref name=":022222222">Venkateswara Rao. Potturi (2010) ''Paaramaathika Padakosam'' Hyderabad: Msko Books</ref>
* All the daily ahutis and cooking involves the aupasana fire and pertain exclusively to the individual and his family. Thus, "Grhyakarmas" including the seven pakayajnas involve the aupasana agni (Grhyagni or smarthagni). They are related exclusively to the family and are not very elaborate.
* Aupasana is to be performed by the grihasthas of the three varnas. Valmiki Ramayana in Ayodhya kanda mentions that Sri Ramachandra, a kshatriya, enquires Bharata about tending the Agni in the house.<blockquote>कच्चिद् अग्निषु ते युक्तो विधिज्नो मतिमान् ऋजुः | हुतम् च होष्यमाणम् च काले वेदयते सदा || २-१००-१२ (Valm. Rama. 2.100.12)</blockquote><blockquote>''kaccid agniṣu te yukto vidhijno matimān r̥juḥ | hutam ca hoṣyamāṇam ca kāle vedayate sadā || 2-100-12''</blockquote>Meaning : "I hope that a brahmin brahmana who is versed in the traditions, who is intelligent and just, employed in your sacred fires, always informs you in time, about a sacrificial fire having been or going to be fed with oblations."<ref>Valmiki Ramayana [http://valmikiramayan.net/utf8/ayodhya/sarga100/ayodhya_100_frame.htm Ayodhya Kanda] Sarga 100</ref>
* Every grihastha has to maintain the agni until he is prevented by old age or illness or death. In case where he cannot perform it on behalf of him his son, brother or son-in-law may perform the ritual. <ref name=":122222222">Purkayastha, Dipanjona (2014) Ph. D Thesis from Assam University : ''[http://hdl.handle.net/10603/41946 A Study of the Asvalayana srauta sutra with reference to the principal sacrifices]''</ref>
* Anuditahomi's perform aupasana homa before sunrise and Uditahomi's perform it after sunset.<ref name=":122222222" />
* Mantras for conducting Agnihotra are according to the Sutras in particular shaka of the Veda of the Karta.
* Samidhas for homa are smaller and different from those used in Srauta yajnas. However, the trees that they are collected from are the same as those in yajnas. They should be covered with bark, of proper shape, of same dimensions, dried form, of the girth of the index figure, unbroken, not with two branches, not contain worms or green leaves and be strong.
<blockquote>समिधःपावनाः पूज्याः चर्मयुक्ताः परात्पराः | युष्मान् हरामि होमार्थं अस्मान् रक्षत सर्वदा ॥<ref name=":1" /></blockquote><blockquote>''samidhaḥpāvanāḥ pūjyāḥ carmayuktāḥ parātparāḥ | yuṣmān harāmi homārthaṁ asmān rakṣata sarvadā ॥''</blockquote>* Morning aahutis ahutis are made to the deities Surya and Prajapati, while the evening aahutis are made to Agni and Prajapati.<ref name=":122222222" />
* Nitya agnihotra is not to be performed by an uninitiated bachelor or widows.

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