→धर्मः॥ Dharma: adding content
Next to [[Shruti (श्रुतिः)|Shrutis]] in authority comes the [[Smrti (स्मृतिः)|Smrtis]], which explain and develop Dharmika Vyvastha laid down for common understanding the laws which regulate national, social, family and individual obligations. Just as revealed in the Vedas, the Rshis with the necessary authority made alterations and adaptations to suit the needs of the time.<ref name=":022" />
Of the Smrtis, Manusmrti and Yajnavalkya smrti, are widely accepted as chief authority in all matters of law. The other Smrtis are drawn upon when it is necessary to supplement these. Manu, the first codifier of social and individual laws, proclaims the authority of Shrutis and Smrtis thus,<blockquote>श्रुतिस्तु वेदो विज्ञेयो धर्मशास्त्रं तु वै स्मृतिः । ते सर्वार्थेष्वमीमांस्ये ताभ्यां धर्मो हि निर्बभौ ॥ २.१० (Manu. Smrt. 2.10) <ref>Manusmriti ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%A8%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%83%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%83/%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%80%E0%A4%AF%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%A7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%83 Adhyaya 2])</ref></blockquote><blockquote>śrutistu vēdō vijñēyō dharmaśāstraṁ tu vai smr̥tiḥ । tē sarvārthēṣvamīmāṁsyē tābhyāṁ dharmō hi nirbabhau ॥ 2.10 (Manu. Smrt. 2.10)</blockquote>''The Veda is known as Shruti, the Dharmashastras as Smrti; these should not be doubted (but carefully consulted and considered) in all matters, for from them Dharma arise.'' <ref name=":022" />
===Puranas and Itihasa===
Next in succession to the Smrtis come the [[Puranas (पुराणानि)|Puranas]] and [[Itihasa (इतिहासः)|Itihasa]], which according to the Bhagavata and Skanda Puranas are considered as Panchamaveda. As given above the Devi Bhagavata sloka ascertains that Vishnu in the form of Vyasa reveals the Puranas, as is fitting for the sake of Dharma.
===ज्ञानम् || Jnana===
The knowledge of Vedas, Vedangas, Darshanas all culminate in the Vedanta. All these were summed up together as the Lesser Knowledge (outward and revealed), and the Knowledge of the ONE, is alone considered as supreme and indivisible by virtue of it being an internal experience of Atma. Thus states Mundakopanishad<blockquote>द्वे विद्ये वेदितव्ये इति ह स्म यद्ब्रह्मविदो वदन्ति परा चैवापरा च ॥ ४ ॥ तत्रापरा ऋग्वेदो यजुर्वेदः सामवेदोऽथर्ववेदः शिक्षा कल्पो व्याकरणं निरुक्तं छन्दो ज्योतिषमिति । अथ परा यया तदक्षरमधिगम्यते ॥ ५ ॥ (Mund. Upan. 1.1.4 and 5)<ref>Mundakopanishad ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%A3%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A1%E0%A4%95%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%B7%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%8D Mundaka 1 Khanda 1])</ref> </blockquote><blockquote>dve vidye veditavye iti ha sma yadbrahmavido vadanti parā caivāparā ca ॥ 4 ॥ tatrāparā r̥gvedo yajurvedaḥ sāmavedo'tharvavedaḥ śikṣā kalpo vyākaraṇaṁ niruktaṁ chando jyotiṣamiti । atha parā yayā tadakṣaramadhigamyate ॥ 5 ॥ (Mund. Upan. 1.1.4 and 5)</blockquote>Two kinds of knowledge are to be known, thus say the knowers of Brahman - Para (परा Supreme) and Apara (अपरा foundational). Apara vidya consists of the four vedas, shiksha, kalpa, vyakarana, nirukta, chandas and jyotisha. The Paravidya, whereby that Eternal is reached. Knowledge of the Brahman (Jnana) is attained by experiencing the Self or Atma which is possible by the removal of Avidya, the root cause of karmic cycle of rebirth.
===मोक्षम् || Moksha===
The development of the Chit aspect of the Jivatma, purification of the Iccha aspect being the main work of the human stage of evolution, the growth of Manas and later of Buddhi marks the journey of the Jivatma towards the gathering of experience. In this stage, Jivatma experiences varied sensations of the outer world, through the Manas receives and organizes the impressions conveyed by the senses. Manas being a slave of Kama, searches for the objects of enjoyment. Soon the Jivatma realises that there is a conflict between the Manas and Kama, that the pleasures longed for by Kama are not always pleasurable. Thwarting objects of pleasure sought by Kama, Manas diverts Iccha (Will) towards discrimination seeking the inner Self and not the sense-born images. This leads to the evolution of Buddhi or intellect and Jivatma endeavors to understand the Self and Non-Self. Realization that the cycle of birth and death is due to his own desires, brings the Jivatma to the threshold of liberation.<blockquote>नाविरतो दुश्चरितान्नाशान्तो नासमाहितः । नाशान्तमानसो वाऽपि प्रज्ञानेनैनमाप्नुयात् ॥ २४ ॥ (Kath. Upan. 1.2.24)<ref name=":1">Kathopanishad ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%A0%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%B7%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%8D/%E0%A4%AA%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%A5%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%A7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%83/%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%80%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%B2%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B2%E0%A5%80 Adhyaya 1 Valli 2])</ref></blockquote><blockquote>nāviratō duścaritānnāśāntō nāsamāhitaḥ । nāśāntamānasō vā'pi prajñānēnainamāpnuyāt ॥ 24 ॥ (Kath. Upan. 1.2.24)</blockquote><blockquote>यदा सर्वे प्रमुच्यन्ते कामा येऽस्य हृदि श्रिताः । अथ मर्त्योऽमृतो भवत्यत्र ब्रह्म समश्नुते ॥ १४ ॥ (Kath. Upan. 1.2.14)<ref name=":1" /></blockquote><blockquote>yadā sarvē pramucyantē kāmā yē'sya hr̥di śritāḥ । atha martyō'mr̥tō bhavatyatra brahma samaśnutē ॥ 14 ॥ (Kath. Upan. 1.2.14)</blockquote>Meaning : When all the desires hiding in his heart are loosened, then the mortal becomes immortal ; here he enjoys Brahman.<ref name=":03" />
== Sanatana Dharma Vyavastha ==
The previous section is a brief summary of the siddhantas (theories) or mental processes on which Sanatana Dharma is based on. The present section deals with the course of action to be taken, the system of Karma (activities) that leads one on the path of Dharma, establishes him on the
path of Jnana taking him to his goal of [[Nihshreyasa (निःश्रेयसम्)|Nihshreyasa]] and Moksha.
===यज्ञाः ॥ Yajnas===
Shrutis declare it, Smrtis inculcate it and the Shad Vedangas circle around the concept while Dharmashastras show by practice that the worlds are built and maintained by [[Yajna (यज्ञः)|Yajnas]]. Sanatana Dharma has incorporated and maintains that the yajnas pervade the whole life of man. That Srishti (Creation) began with Yajna is given by the following mantras of Brhdarnayakopanishad<blockquote>उषा वा अश्वस्य मेध्यस्य शिरः । uṣā vā aśvasya medhyasya śiraḥ । (Brhd. Upan. 1.1.1)</blockquote>Meaning : The dawn verily is the head of the yajna horse. Here the dawn is explained as the beginning of the day of Brahma, the day of creation.
The Shatapatha Brahmana, the Purusha sukta, Chandogya and other Upanishads, Manusmrti and Bhagavad Gita contain references of importance of Yajna in srishti. One of the fundamental concepts has been that of the ''''ऋृणम् (debts)''' owed by a person to the seers, devatas, pitrs, bhutas (manushya and other beings), which he paid off by Svadhyaya, by Yajnas, by having progeny, and by charity respectively. Yajnas also taught to see that man is a part of a great whole and related to all around him; and that as his own life was maintained by the sacrifice of other lives, so he must repay that debt by sacrificing to the Devatas in the fire and to men by charitable gifts as laid down in [[Panchamahayajnas (पञ्चमहायज्ञाः)|Panchamahayajnas]].<ref name=":022" /><ref name=":0" />
धर्मः॥ Dharma ===
===गुरुशिष्यपरम्परा ॥ Guru-Shishya Parampara===
In the heart of Sanatana Dharma lies the tradition of handing down of knowledge from preceptor to the student. Teaching not only the shastras a Guru lays the seed of all moral and spiritual education at a young impressionable age thereby leading him on the path of a dharmik life. All can receive proper instruction on how to follow the teachings of the Vedic philosophy from a Guru who is in line with a genuine parampara, or line of gurus. This was the one tradition which upheld the society till date and the preserved the continuity of Vedas when script was not developed.
===देवताराधना ॥ Devataradhana===
The presence of vast host of Devatas does not obscure the Unity of Brahman (Ishvara), in his triple form as Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva than does the vast hosts of men, animals, plants and minerals which are held sacred and prayed to since ages. As said in the Shruti<blockquote>इन्द्रं मित्रं वरुणमग्निमाहु॒रथो दिव्यः स सुपर्णो गरुत्मान् । एकं सद् विप्रा बहुधा वदन्त्यग्निं यमं मातरिश्वानमाहुः ॥४६॥ (Rig. Veda. 1.164.46)</blockquote><blockquote>indraṁ mitraṁ varuṇamagnimāhu̱ratho divyaḥ sa suparṇo garutmān । ekaṁ sad viprā bahudhā vadantyagniṁ yamaṁ mātariśvānamāhuḥ ॥46॥</blockquote>Meaning : [[Indra (इन्द्रः)|Indra]], Mitra, Varuna, [[Agni (
आग्निः)|Agni]] they call Him, and the golden feathered Garutman. Of what is One, seers speak as manifold, they call Him Agni, [[Yama (यमः)|Yama]], Matarishva.
So also in the Manusmrti it is explained<blockquote>आत्मैव देवताः सर्वाः सर्वं आत्मन्यवस्थितम् । ātmaiva devatāḥ sarvāḥ sarvaṁ ātmanyavasthitam । (Manu. Smrt. 12.119)<ref>Manusmriti ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%A8%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%83%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%83/%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%B6%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%A7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%83 Adhyaya 12])</ref></blockquote>All the devatas are indeed the Self, all rests on the Self. <ref name=":022" />
===आश्रमाः ॥ The Four Ashramas===
In our life there are four main goals, as indicated by the four ashramas of life,
#Vanaprastha (वानप्रस्थः) or retired stage of life in which we take our spiritual goals more seriously
#Sanyasa (सन्यासः) or renunciation stage of life in which our spiritual purpose is the main focus
===धार्मिकजीवनविधानम् ॥ Dharmik Jeevanavidhana===
Leading a [[Dharmika Jivana Vidhana (धार्मिकजीवनविधानम्)|Dharmika Jivana Vidhana]] includes adherence to principles of Dharma as laid down in Shrutis and Smrtis. Vedas proclaim that society and nature sustains one and all hence our duties towards them are more important not the individual. Rishis placed morals and ethics in the forefront and daily activities of life were based on them rather than for individual gains or sense gratification. Following Rta (ऋत) or highest natural order was of prime importance and jeevana vidhana was aligned to that principle.