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Sanatana Dharma (सनातनधर्मः)

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धर्मः॥ Dharma: adding content
Next to [[Shruti (श्रुतिः)|Shrutis]] in authority comes the [[Smrti (स्मृतिः)|Smrtis]], which explain and develop Dharmika Vyvastha laid down for common understanding the laws which regulate national, social, family and individual obligations. Just as revealed in the Vedas, the Rshis with the necessary authority made alterations and adaptations to suit the needs of the time.<ref name=":022" />
Of the Smrtis, Manusmrti and Yajnavalkya smrti, are widely accepted as chief authority in all matters of law. The other Smrtis are drawn upon when it is necessary to supplement these. Manu, the first codifier of social and individual laws, proclaims the authority of Shrutis and Smrtis thus,<blockquote>श्रुतिस्तु वेदो विज्ञेयो धर्मशास्त्रं तु वै स्मृतिः । ते सर्वार्थेष्वमीमांस्ये ताभ्यां धर्मो हि निर्बभौ ॥ २.१० (Manu. Smrt. 2.10) <refname=":2">Manusmriti ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%A8%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%83%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%83/%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%80%E0%A4%AF%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%A7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%83 Adhyaya 2])</ref></blockquote><blockquote>śrutistu vēdō vijñēyō dharmaśāstraṁ tu vai smr̥tiḥ । tē sarvārthēṣvamīmāṁsyē tābhyāṁ dharmō hi nirbabhau ॥ 2.10 (Manu. Smrt. 2.10)</blockquote>''The Veda is known as Shruti, the Dharmashastras as Smrti; these should not be doubted (but carefully consulted and considered) in all matters, for from them Dharma arise.'' <ref name=":022" />
===Puranas and Itihasa===
Next in succession to the Smrtis come the [[Puranas (पुराणानि)|Puranas]] and [[Itihasa (इतिहासः)|Itihasa]], which according to the Bhagavata and Skanda Puranas are considered as Panchamaveda. As given above the Devi Bhagavata sloka ascertains that Vishnu in the form of Vyasa reveals the Puranas, as is fitting for the sake of Dharma.
===ज्ञानम् || Jnana===
The knowledge of Vedas, Vedangas, Darshanas all culminate in the Vedanta. All these were summed up together as the Lesser Knowledge (outward and revealed), and the Knowledge of the ONE, is alone considered as supreme and indivisible by virtue of it being an internal experience of Atma. Thus states Mundakopanishad<blockquote>द्वे विद्ये वेदितव्ये इति ह स्म यद्ब्रह्मविदो वदन्ति परा चैवापरा च ॥ ४ ॥ तत्रापरा ऋग्वेदो यजुर्वेदः सामवेदोऽथर्ववेदः शिक्षा कल्पो व्याकरणं निरुक्तं छन्दो ज्योतिषमिति । अथ परा यया तदक्षरमधिगम्यते ॥ ५ ॥ (Mund. Upan. 1.1.4 and 5)<ref>Mundakopanishad ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%A3%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A1%E0%A4%95%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%B7%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%8D Mundaka 1 Khanda 1])</ref> </blockquote><blockquote>dve vidye veditavye iti ha sma yadbrahmavido vadanti parā caivāparā ca ॥ 4 ॥ tatrāparā r̥gvedo yajurvedaḥ sāmavedo'tharvavedaḥ śikṣā kalpo vyākaraṇaṁ niruktaṁ chando jyotiṣamiti । atha parā yayā tadakṣaramadhigamyate ॥ 5 ॥ (Mund. Upan. 1.1.4 and 5)</blockquote>Two kinds of knowledge are to be known, thus say the knowers of Brahman - Para (परा Supreme) and Apara (अपरा foundational). Apara vidya consists of the four vedas, shiksha, kalpa, vyakarana, nirukta, chandas and jyotisha. The Paravidya, whereby that Eternal is reached. Knowledge of the Brahman (Jnana) is attained by experiencing the Self or Atma which is possible by the removal of Avidya, the root cause of karmic cycle of rebirth.
===पुरुषार्थाः ॥ Purusharthas===The ultimate purpose of human life is to shed all attachments to matter and attain moksha (liberation from material existence) and return to the transcendental realm which is not only our true nature but also our real home. The Vedic path offers personal freedom for one to make his or her own choice of how he or she wants to pursue their spiritual approach, and what level of the Absolute Truth he or she wishes to understand. This is the height of spiritual democracy and freedom from tyranny.#Dharma (धर्मः), is to develop ourselves morally and spiritually#Artha (अर्थः), is to develop a career or trade and prosper materially#Kama (कामः), is to enjoy and work out our basic material desires as is appropriate for our particular stage of life#Moksha (मोक्षम्) is to retire from all the activities and focus on attaining Self-realization and freedom from any further rounds of birth and death in material existence.Here we elaborate on the two boundaries of the book called Life, namely Dharma and Moksha. The intermediary two namely Artha and Kama are based on Dharma thus forming Trivarga governing the codes for worldly existence. ==== धर्मः॥ Dharma ====Purusharthas define our lifestyle by influencing our thought processes directly, establishing the code of conduct through Dharma, the first of the Purusharthas. The system of morality so inculcated by the Sanatana Dharma is authoritative as it is developed based on Reason (Chit), on the Divine Wisdom primarily and on the illuminated Human Reason (Buddhi) secondarily. The object of morality is bring about happiness by establishing harmonious relations between all the Jivatmas. Thus the standard of Ethics or Dharma is in other words to unite not to divide.  Ethical teachings have therefore reference to the lower sheaths of a man's body and to the different classes of beings who form his surroundings.  ====मोक्षम् || Moksha====
The development of the Chit aspect of the Jivatma, purification of the Iccha aspect being the main work of the human stage of evolution, the growth of Manas and later of Buddhi marks the journey of the Jivatma towards the gathering of experience. In this stage, Jivatma experiences varied sensations of the outer world, through the Manas receives and organizes the impressions conveyed by the senses. Manas being a slave of Kama, searches for the objects of enjoyment. Soon the Jivatma realises that there is a conflict between the Manas and Kama, that the pleasures longed for by Kama are not always pleasurable. Thwarting objects of pleasure sought by Kama, Manas diverts Iccha (Will) towards discrimination seeking the inner Self and not the sense-born images. This leads to the evolution of Buddhi or intellect and Jivatma endeavors to understand the Self and Non-Self. Realization that the cycle of birth and death is due to his own desires, brings the Jivatma to the threshold of liberation.<blockquote>नाविरतो दुश्चरितान्नाशान्तो नासमाहितः । नाशान्तमानसो वाऽपि प्रज्ञानेनैनमाप्नुयात् ॥ २४ ॥ (Kath. Upan. 1.2.24)<ref name=":1">Kathopanishad ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%A0%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%B7%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%8D/%E0%A4%AA%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%A5%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%A7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%83/%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%80%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%B2%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B2%E0%A5%80 Adhyaya 1 Valli 2])</ref></blockquote><blockquote>nāviratō duścaritānnāśāntō nāsamāhitaḥ । nāśāntamānasō vā'pi prajñānēnainamāpnuyāt ॥ 24 ॥ (Kath. Upan. 1.2.24)</blockquote><blockquote>यदा सर्वे प्रमुच्यन्ते कामा येऽस्य हृदि श्रिताः । अथ मर्त्योऽमृतो भवत्यत्र ब्रह्म समश्नुते ॥ १४ ॥ (Kath. Upan. 1.2.14)<ref name=":1" /></blockquote><blockquote>yadā sarvē pramucyantē kāmā yē'sya hr̥di śritāḥ । atha martyō'mr̥tō bhavatyatra brahma samaśnutē ॥ 14 ॥ (Kath. Upan. 1.2.14)</blockquote>Meaning : When all the desires hiding in his heart are loosened, then the mortal becomes immortal ; here he enjoys Brahman.<ref name=":03" />
== Sanatana Dharma Vyavastha ==
The previous section is a brief summary of the siddhantas (theories) or mental processes on which Sanatana Dharma is based on. The present section deals with the course of action to be taken, the system of Karma (activities) that leads one on the path of Dharma, establishes him on the path Prvritti marga of Jnana taking him to his goal of [[Nihshreyasa (निःश्रेयसम्)|Nihshreyasa]] and Moksha. ===वेदप्रमाणत्वम् ॥ The Authority of Vedas===Texts like Bhagavadgita which have been given or spoken by Sri Krishna, considered as a Supreme Being, and others composed by seers in their deepest super conscious state in which they were able to give revelations of Universal Truths while in meditation, on the Supreme Being, form the spiritual core of Sanatana Dharma. This [[Bharatiya Samskrtika Parampara (भारतीयसांस्कृतिकपरम्परा)|Bharatiya Samskrtika Parampara]] or Vedic literature, along with other texts like Agamas and the practices congruent with them, form the basis of the Sanatana dharma. The Astika darshanas include the [[Shad Darshanas (षड्दर्शनानि)|Shad Darshanas]] which accept the authority of Vedas form the different theological bases of explaining about Atma, Brahman, Avidya, and Moksha which are exclusive features of Sanatana Dharma.
===यज्ञाः ॥ Yajnas===
Shrutis declare it, Smrtis inculcate it and the Shad Vedangas circle around the concept while Dharmashastras show by practice that the worlds are built and maintained by [[Yajna (यज्ञः)|Yajnas]]. Sanatana Dharma has incorporated and maintains that the yajnas pervade the whole life of man. That Srishti (Creation) began with Yajna is given by the following mantras of Brhdarnayakopanishad<blockquote>उषा वा अश्वस्य मेध्यस्य शिरः । uṣā vā aśvasya medhyasya śiraḥ । (Brhd. Upan. 1.1.1)</blockquote>Meaning : The dawn verily is the head of the yajna horse. Here the dawn is explained as the beginning of the day of Brahma, the day of creation.
The Shatapatha Brahmana, the Purusha sukta, Chandogya and other Upanishads, Manusmrti and Bhagavad Gita contain references of importance of Yajna in srishti. One of the fundamental concepts has been that of the ''''ऋृणम् (debts)''' owed by a person to the seers, devatas, pitrs, bhutas (manushya and other beings), which he paid off by Svadhyaya, by Yajnas, by having progeny, and by charity respectively. Yajnas also taught to see that man is a part of a great whole and related to all around him; and that as his own life was maintained by the sacrifice of other lives, so he must repay that debt by sacrificing to the Devatas in the fire and to men by charitable gifts as laid down in [[Panchamahayajnas (पञ्चमहायज्ञाः)|Panchamahayajnas]].<ref name=":022" /><ref name=":0" />
 === धर्मः॥ Dharma संस्काराः ॥ Samskaras===All rites and ceremonies ordained by the seers and ancient preceptors are based on the the concepts given as above such as about Atman, Jivatma, Moksha etc and those who understand these can clearly see the reason for the presence of injunctions and prohibitions along with the prayaschittas found in Vaidika Dharma.<ref name=":022" /> Thus Samskaras are a complex combination of various elements expressing belief, sentiments and knowledge of the ancient seers about the nature of human life and the interrelationship with the Universe. Almost all samskaras, the domestic rites, involve kindling of Agni (Fire) as a primary constituent.<ref>Pandey, Rajbali. (2002 Reprint) ''Hindu Samskaras : Socio-Religious Study of the Hindu Sacraments.'' Delhi : Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.</ref>
===गुरुशिष्यपरम्परा ॥ Guru-Shishya Parampara===
In the heart of Sanatana Dharma lies the tradition of handing down of knowledge from preceptor to the student. Teaching not only the shastras a Guru lays the seed of all moral and spiritual education at a young impressionable age thereby leading him on the path of a dharmik life. All can receive proper instruction on how to follow the teachings of the Vedic philosophy from a Guru who is in line with a genuine parampara, or line of gurus. This was the one tradition which upheld the society till date and the preserved the continuity of Vedas when script was not developed.
===वेदप्रमाणत्वम् ॥ The Authority of Vedas===Texts like Bhagavadgita which have been given or spoken by Sri Krishna, considered as a Supreme BeingTeachableness and obedience to the teacher are insisted on, and others composed by seers in their deepest super conscious state in which they many rules were able given intended to give revelations of Universal Truths while in meditation, impresss on the Supreme Being, form student the spiritual core of Sanatana Dharmaduty he owned to his preceptor. This [[Bharatiya Samskrtika Parampara (भारतीयसांस्कृतिकपरम्परा)|Bharatiya Samskrtika Parampara]] or Vedic literature, along with other texts like Agamas A student was to be ever serviceable and the practices congruent with themcareful not to offend, form regarding the basis of guru as his father in the Sanatana dharmahighest sense. The Astika darshanas include position of the [[Shad Darshanas Guru is very high as given below by Manu<blockquote>उत्पादकब्रह्मदात्रोर्गरीयान्ब्रह्मदः पिता । ब्रह्मजन्म हि विप्रस्य प्रेत्य चेह च शाश्वतम् ॥ २.१४६ ॥ (षड्दर्शनानिManu. Smrt. 2.146)|Shad Darshanas]] which accept <ref name=":2" /></blockquote><blockquote>utpādakabrahmadātrōrgarīyānbrahmadaḥ pitā । brahmajanma hi viprasya prētya cēha ca śāśvatam ॥ 2.146 ॥</blockquote>Of the progenitor and the authority giver of Vedas form the different theological bases knowledge of explaining about Atma, Brahman, Avidya, and Moksha which are exclusive features of Sanatana Dharma. 
===देवताराधना ॥ Devataradhana===
The presence of vast host of Devatas does not obscure the Unity of Brahman (Ishvara), in his triple form as Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva than does the vast hosts of men, animals, plants and minerals which are held sacred and prayed to since ages. As said in the Shruti<blockquote>इन्द्रं मित्रं वरुणमग्निमाहु॒रथो दिव्यः स सुपर्णो गरुत्मान् । एकं सद् विप्रा बहुधा वदन्त्यग्निं यमं मातरिश्वानमाहुः ॥४६॥ (Rig. Veda. 1.164.46)</blockquote><blockquote>indraṁ mitraṁ varuṇamagnimāhu̱ratho divyaḥ sa suparṇo garutmān । ekaṁ sad viprā bahudhā vadantyagniṁ yamaṁ mātariśvānamāhuḥ ॥46॥</blockquote>Meaning : [[Indra (इन्द्रः)|Indra]], Mitra, Varuna, [[Agni (आग्निःअग्निः)|Agni]] they call Him, and the golden feathered Garutman. Of what is One, seers speak as manifold, they call Him Agni, [[Yama (यमः)|Yama]], Matarishva.
So also in the Manusmrti it is explained<blockquote>आत्मैव देवताः सर्वाः सर्वं आत्मन्यवस्थितम् । ātmaiva devatāḥ sarvāḥ sarvaṁ ātmanyavasthitam । (Manu. Smrt. 12.119)<ref>Manusmriti ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%A8%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%83%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%83/%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%B6%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%A7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%83 Adhyaya 12])</ref></blockquote>All the devatas are indeed the Self, all rests on the Self. <ref name=":022" />
===पुरुषार्थाः ॥ Purusharthas===
The ultimate purpose of human life is to shed all attachments to matter and attain moksha (liberation from material existence) and return to the transcendental realm which is not only our true nature but also our real home. The Vedic path offers personal freedom for one to make his or her own choice of how he or she wants to pursue their spiritual approach, and what level of the Absolute Truth he or she wishes to understand. This is the height of spiritual democracy and freedom from tyranny.
#Dharma (धर्मः), is to develop ourselves morally and spiritually
#Artha (अर्थः), is to develop a career or trade and prosper materially
#Kama (कामः), is to enjoy and work out our basic material desires as is appropriate for our particular stage of life
#Moksha (मोक्षम्) is to retire from all the activities and focus on attaining Self-realization and freedom from any further rounds of birth and death in material existence.
===आश्रमाः ॥ The Four Ashramas===
In our life there are four main goals, as indicated by the four ashramas of life,
#Vanaprastha (वानप्रस्थः) or retired stage of life in which we take our spiritual goals more seriously
#Sanyasa (सन्यासः) or renunciation stage of life in which our spiritual purpose is the main focus
===संस्काराः ॥ Samskaras===All rites and ceremonies ordained by the seers and ancient preceptors are based on the the concepts given as above such as about Atman, Jivatma, Moksha etc and those who understand these can clearly see the reason for the presence of injunctions and prohibitions along with the prayaschittas found in Vaidika Dharma.<ref name=":022" /> Thus Samskaras are a complex combination of various elements expressing belief, sentiments and knowledge of the ancient seers about the nature of human life and the interrelationship with the Universe. Almost all samskaras, the domestic rites, involve kindling of Agni (Fire) as a primary constituent.<ref>Pandey, Rajbali. (2002 Reprint) ''Hindu Samskaras : Socio-Religious Study of the Hindu Sacraments.'' Delhi : Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.</ref>
===धार्मिकजीवनविधानम् ॥ Dharmik Jeevanavidhana===
Leading a [[Dharmika Jivana Vidhana (धार्मिकजीवनविधानम्)|Dharmika Jivana Vidhana]] includes adherence to principles of Dharma as laid down in Shrutis and Smrtis. Vedas proclaim that society and nature sustains one and all hence our duties towards them are more important not the individual. Rishis placed morals and ethics in the forefront and daily activities of life were based on them rather than for individual gains or sense gratification. Following Rta (ऋत) or highest natural order was of prime importance and jeevana vidhana was aligned to that principle.

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