Snataka Gunas (स्नातकगुणाः)

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Snataka Gunas (Samskrit: स्नातकगुणाः) refer to the qualities that a Snataka (स्नातक: । graduate) is expected to uphold in the execution of his responsibilities as a Grhastha.

परिचयः ॥ Introduction

A student who has had the ritual abulation after completion of his study in the gurukula is called a Snataka (स्नातकः ॥ a graduate). He then enters the second phase of his life - the Grhasthashrama. Manusmrti elaborates on the duties (Snataka Dharma) as he readies to take up the responsibilities of a grhastha. And one of the important duties therein is sustenance of the family. In the execution of this responsibility, adherence to certain qualities is enforced in the life of a Snataka subsisting through different means of livelihood. They are,

  • अप्रसक्तिः ॥ Non-attachment
  • अहिंसा ॥ Non-violence
  • सत्यवादित्वम् ॥ Righteousness, truthfulness
  • आत्माश्रयः ॥ Self-reliance
  • औदार्यता ॥ Generosity

These qualities and the guidelines given in Manusmrti to help adhere to these good qualities are elaborated below.

अप्रसक्तिः ॥ Non-attachment

The foremost among the qualities to be fostered is Non-attachment. In this regard it is said,

  • One should not seek wealth by clinging pursuits, or by contrary acts; nor when wealth is already there; nor from here and there, even in times of distress. (Manu. Smrt. 4.15).[1]

    नेहेतार्थान्प्रसङ्गेन न विरुद्धेन कर्मणा । न विद्यमानेष्वर्थेषु नार्त्यां अपि यतस्ततः || ४.१५ ||[2]

    nehetārthānprasaṅgena na viruddhena karmaṇā । na vidyamāneṣvartheṣu nārtyāṁ api yatastataḥ || 4.15 ||

  • One should not, through desires, become addicted to any sensual objects; excessive addiction to these, one shall avoid by mental reflection. (Manu .Smrt. 4.16).[1]

    इन्द्रियार्थेषु सर्वेषु न प्रसज्येत कामतः । अतिप्रसक्तिं चैतेषां मनसा संनिवर्तयेत् || ४.१६ ||[2]

    indriyārtheṣu sarveṣu na prasajyeta kāmataḥ । atiprasaktiṁ caiteṣāṁ manasā saṁnivartayet || 4.16 ||

  • Though entitled to accept presents, one should avoid addiction to it; because, by receiving gifts, one's adhyatmik light is quickly extinguished. (Manu Smrt. 4.186).[1] An ignorant brahmana who wishes to accept donations, sinks to the hell along with the donor like how those seated in a boat made of stone submerge in water. (Manu. Smrt. 4.190).[3]

    प्रतिग्रहसमर्थोऽपि प्रसङ्गं तत्र वर्जयेत् । प्रतिग्रहेण ह्यस्याशु ब्राह्मं तेजः प्रशाम्यति || ४.१८६ ||

    अतपास्त्वनधीयानः प्रतिग्रहरुचिर्द्विजः । अम्भस्यश्मप्लवेनेव सह तेनैव मज्जति || ४.१९० ||[2]

    pratigrahasamartho'pi prasaṅgaṁ tatra varjayet । pratigraheṇa hyasyāśu brāhmaṁ tejaḥ praśāmyati || 4.186 ||

    atapāstvanadhīyānaḥ pratigraharucirdvijaḥ । ambhasyaśmaplaveneva saha tenaiva majjati || 4.190 ||

अहिंसा ॥ Non-violence

  • One should not injure one's Preceptor, Teacher, Father, mother, another elder, Brahmanas, Cows, or any persons performing austerities. (Manu. Smrt. 4.162).[1]

    आचार्यं च प्रवक्तारं पितरं मातरं गुरुम् । न हिंस्याद्ब्राह्मणान्गाश्च सर्वांश्चैव तपस्विनः || ४.१६२ ||[2]

    ācāryaṁ ca pravaktāraṁ pitaraṁ mātaraṁ gurum । na hiṁsyādbrāhmaṇāngāśca sarvāṁścaiva tapasvinaḥ || 4.162 ||

  • One should avoid disbelief and finding faults in the Vedas, abusing of the deities, hatred, haughtiness, pride, anger and hastiness. (Manu. Smrt. 4.163).[1]

    नास्तिक्यं वेदनिन्दां च देवतानां च कुत्सनम् । द्वेषं दम्भं च मानं च क्रोधं तैक्ष्ण्यं च वर्जयेत् || ४.१६३ ||[2]

    nāstikyaṁ vedanindāṁ ca devatānāṁ ca kutsanam । dveṣaṁ dambhaṁ ca mānaṁ ca krodhaṁ taikṣṇyaṁ ca varjayet || 4.163 ||

  • One should not, when angry, raise the rod against another person, nor should one let it fall; except in the case of the son or the pupil; these two one may beat with a view to correction. (Manu. Smrt. 4.164).[1]

    परस्य दण्डं नोद्यच्छेत्क्रुद्धो नैनं निपातयेत् । अन्यत्र पुत्राच्छिष्याद्वा शिष्ट्यर्थं ताडयेत्तु तौ || ४.१६४ ||[2]

    parasya daṇḍaṁ nodyacchetkruddho nainaṁ nipātayet । anyatra putrācchiṣyādvā śiṣṭyarthaṁ tāḍayettu tau || 4.164 ||

  • If a Grhastha picks up a stick with the intention of beating a brahmana, then he wanders for about a hundred years in the Tamisra naraka. If a brahmana is struck intentionally, even with a blade of grass, in a fit of rage, then one will be born in the wombs of faltered people for twenty-one lifetimes. (Manu. Smrt. 4.165 and 166).[3]

    ब्राह्मणायावगुर्यैव द्विजातिर्वधकाम्यया । शतं वर्षाणि तामिस्रे नरके परिवर्तते || ४.१६५ ||

    ताडयित्वा तृणेनापि संरम्भान्मतिपूर्वकम् । एकविंशतीं आजातीः पापयोनिषु जायते || ४.१६६ ||[2]

    brāhmaṇāyāvaguryaiva dvijātirvadhakāmyayā । śataṁ varṣāṇi tāmisre narake parivartate || 4.165 ||

    tāḍayitvā tr̥ṇenāpi saṁrambhānmatipūrvakam । ekaviṁśatīṁ ājātīḥ pāpayoniṣu jāyate || 4.166 ||

  • The one who does not engage in a fight but still blood oozes out of his body; such a person obtains, after death, exceedingly great pain due to his own fault. (Manu Smrt. 4.167)[3]

    अयुध्यमानस्योत्पाद्य ब्राह्मणस्यासृगङ्गतः । दुःखं सुमहदाप्नोति प्रेत्याप्राज्ञतया नरः || ४.१६७ ||[2]

    ayudhyamānasyotpādya brāhmaṇasyāsr̥gaṅgataḥ । duḥkhaṁ sumahadāpnoti pretyāprājñatayā naraḥ || 4.167 ||

  • Talking of the fruit of violence, it is said that, as many particles of dust absorb droplets of blood from a brahmana's body, for so many years the person responsible for it is said to be troubled by the stings of blood sucking insects in the other world. And therefore, a wise man is advised to never threaten a Brahmana, nor strike him even with a blade of grass, causing his blood to flow. (Manu. Smrt. 4.168 and 169).[3]

    शोणितं यावतः पांसून्संगृह्णाति महीतलात् । तावतोऽब्दानमुत्रान्यैः शोणितोत्पादकोऽद्यते || ४.१६८ ||

    न कदा चिद्द्विजे तस्माद्विद्वानवगुरेदपि । न ताडयेत्तृणेनापि न गात्रात्स्रावयेदसृक् || ४.१६९ ||[2]

    śoṇitaṁ yāvataḥ pāṁsūnsaṁgr̥hṇāti mahītalāt । tāvato'bdānamutrānyaiḥ śoṇitotpādako'dyate || 4.168 ||

    na kadā ciddvije tasmādvidvānavaguredapi । na tāḍayettr̥ṇenāpi na gātrātsrāvayedasr̥k || 4.169 ||

सत्यवादित्वम् ॥ Righteousness, truthfulness

  • One should always delight in truthfulness, dharma and right conduct, as also in cleanliness; one should discipline one's pupils in accordance with dharma - with the speech, arms, and belly duly controlled. (Manu. Smrt. 4.175).[1]

    सत्यधर्मार्यवृत्तेषु शौचे चैवारमेत्सदा । शिष्यांश्च शिष्याद्धर्मेण वाग्बाहूदरसंयतः || ४.१७५ ||[2]

    satyadharmāryavr̥tteṣu śauce caivārametsadā । śiṣyāṁśca śiṣyāddharmeṇa vāgbāhūdarasaṁyataḥ || 4.175 ||

  • One should avoid such wealth and pleasures as are opposed to righteousness, as also righteousness if it be conducive to unhappiness, or disapproved by the people. (Manu. Smrt. 4.176).[1]

    परित्यजेदर्थकामौ यौ स्यातां धर्मवर्जितौ । धर्मं चाप्यसुखोदर्कं लोकसंक्रुष्टं एव च || ४.१७६ ||[2]

    parityajedarthakāmau yau syātāṁ dharmavarjitau । dharmaṁ cāpyasukhodarkaṁ lokasaṁkruṣṭaṁ eva ca || 4.176 ||

  • One who is unrighteous, whose wealth is begotten unrighteously, and one who is always addicted to injuring, never obtains happiness in this world. (Manu. Smrt. 4.170).[1]

    अधार्मिको नरो यो हि यस्य चाप्यनृतं धनम् । हिंसारतश्च यो नित्यं नेहासौ सुखम् एधते || ४.१७० ||[2]

    adhārmiko naro yo hi yasya cāpyanr̥taṁ dhanam । hiṁsārataśca yo nityaṁ nehāsau sukhaṁ edhate || 4.170 ||

  • Perceiving the quick overthrow of unrighteous and wicked people, one should not turn one's mind towards unrighteousness, even though suffering in consequence of righteousness. (Manu. Smrt. 4.171).[1]

    न सीदन्नपि धर्मेण मनोऽधर्मे निवेशयेत् । अधार्मिकानां पापानां आशु पश्यन्विपर्ययम् || ४.१७१ ||[2]

    na sīdannapi dharmeṇa mano'dharme niveśayet । adhārmikānāṁ pāpānāṁ āśu paśyanviparyayam || 4.171 ||

  • Adharma (unrighteousness), practised in this world, does not, like the Earth (or the Cow) bring its fruit immediately; but, accumulating gradually, it cuts off the roots of the perpetrator. (Manu. Smrt. 4.172).[1]

    नाधर्मश्चरितो लोके सद्यः फलति गौरिव । शनैरावर्त्यमानस्तु कर्तुर्मूलानि कृन्तति || ४.१७२ ||[2]

    nādharmaścarito loke sadyaḥ phalati gauriva । śanairāvartyamānastu karturmūlāni kr̥ntati || 4.172 ||

  • If the fruit of adharma doesn't fall on the doer himself, it falls on his sons, if not on the sons then surely on his grandsons; but one does not get free without having to experience the fruit of one's actions. (Manu. Smrt. 4.173).[3]

    यदि नात्मनि पुत्रेषु न चेत्पुत्रेषु नप्तृषु । न त्वेव तु कृतोऽधर्मः कर्तुर्भवति निष्फलः || ४.१७३ ||[2]

    yadi nātmani putreṣu na cetputreṣu naptr̥ṣu । na tveva tu kr̥to'dharmaḥ karturbhavati niṣphalaḥ || 4.173 ||

  • A person on the path of adharma, prospers at first, through wealth, experiences happiness and conquers his enemies, but at last, he is destroyed from the roots. (Manu. Smrt. 4.174).[3]

    अधर्मेणैधते तावत्ततो भद्राणि पश्यति । ततः सपत्नान्जयति समूलस्तु विनश्यति || ४.१७४ ||[2]

    adharmeṇaidhate tāvattato bhadrāṇi paśyati । tataḥ sapatnānjayati samūlastu vinaśyati || 4.174 ||

  • In short, one should say what is true; and what is agreeable; one should not say what is true, but disagreeable; nor should one say what is agreeable, but untrue; this is the eternal dharma. What is (not) well, one should call 'well'; or simply say 'well'; one should not create needless enmity or dispute with any one. (Manu. Smrt. 4.138 and 139).[1]

    भद्रं भद्रं इति ब्रूयाद्भद्रं इत्येव वा वदेत् । शुष्कवैरं विवादं च न कुर्यात्केन चित्सह || ४.१३९ ||[2]

    bhadraṁ bhadraṁ iti brūyādbhadraṁ ityeva vā vadet । śuṣkavairaṁ vivādaṁ ca na kuryātkena citsaha || 4.139 ||

आत्माश्रयः ॥ Self-reliance

  • One should carefully avoid every such act as is dependent upon others; such acts as are dependent upon oneself, every one of those one should eagerly pursue. Because, all that is dependent on others is painful; all that is dependent on oneself is pleasing; one should know this to be, in short, the definition of pleasure and pain. (Manu. Smrt. 4.159 and 160).[1]

    यद्यत्परवशं कर्म तत्तद्यत्नेन वर्जयेत् । यद्यदात्मवशं तु स्यात्तत्तत्सेवेत यत्नतः || ४.१५९ ||

    सर्वं परवशं दुःखं सर्वं आत्मवशं सुखम् । एतद्विद्यात्समासेन लक्षणं सुखदुःखयोः || ४.१६० ||[2]

    yadyatparavaśaṁ karma tattadyatnena varjayet । yadyadātmavaśaṁ tu syāttattatseveta yatnataḥ || 4.159 ||

    sarvaṁ paravaśaṁ duḥkhaṁ sarvaṁ ātmavaśaṁ sukham । etadvidyātsamāsena lakṣaṇaṁ sukhaduḥkhayoḥ || 4.160 ||

  • Similarly, one should perform, with diligence that act, by performing which there arises satisfaction in one's inner soul; and should avoid the contrary. (Manu. Smrt. 4.161).[1]

    यत्कर्म कुर्वतोऽस्य स्यात्परितोषोऽन्तरात्मनः । तत्प्रयत्नेन कुर्वीत विपरीतं तु वर्जयेत् || ४.१६१ ||[2]

    yatkarma kurvato'sya syātparitoṣo'ntarātmanaḥ । tatprayatnena kurvīta viparītaṁ tu varjayet || 4.161 ||

औदार्यता ॥ Generosity

  • It is said that a grhastha should do charity to the worthy during the time of sacrifices. (Manu. Smrt. 4.226)[3].

    श्रद्धयेष्टं च पूर्तं च नित्यं कुर्यादतन्द्रितः । श्रद्धाकृते ह्यक्षये ते भवतः स्वागतैर्धनैः || ४.२२६ ||[2]

    śraddhayeṣṭaṁ ca pūrtaṁ ca nityaṁ kuryādatandritaḥ । śraddhākr̥te hyakṣaye te bhavataḥ svāgatairdhanaiḥ || 4.226 ||

  • In fact, one should practise, to the best of one's ability, charity and righteousness in connection with sacrifices and acts of piety with a cheerful heart, if one finds a suitable recipient. (Manu. Smrt. 4.227).[1]

    दानधर्मं निषेवेत नित्यं ऐष्टिकपौर्तिकम् । परितुष्टेन भावेन पात्रं आसाद्य शक्तितः || ४.२२७ ||[2]

    dānadharmaṁ niṣeveta nityaṁ aiṣṭikapaurtikam । parituṣṭena bhāvena pātraṁ āsādya śaktitaḥ || 4.227 ||

  • When asked, one should give something, without showing any displeasure. Because that person may turn out to be a worthy recipient who will save the giver from everything. (Manu. Smrt. 4.228).[1] It is said that, the one who gives water obtains satisfaction, giving food provides unending happiness, giving sesame endows one with desirable offspring, while donation of a lamp gives one an excellent eyesight. A donation of land endows land, that of gold a long life, a house endows a house in return and silver endows one with exquisite beauty. A giver of a garment secures a place in the Chandra loka, giving a horse one secures a place in the loka of the Asvina kumaras, a donation of an Ox brings all wealth and a cow secures the giver the loka of the Sun. One who helps in transport and provides a shelter obtains all wealth, a giver of grains attains eternal bliss and the teacher of the Veda attains the world of Brahma. (Manu. Smrt. 4.229, 230, 231 and 232).[3]

    यत्किं चिदपि दातव्यं याचितेनानसूयया । उत्पत्स्यते हि तत्पात्रं यत्तारयति सर्वतः || ४.२२८ ||

    वारिदस्तृप्तिं आप्नोति सुखं अक्षय्यं अन्नदः । तिलप्रदः प्रजां इष्टां दीपदश्चक्षुरुत्तमम् || ४.२२९ ||

    भूमिदो भूमिं आप्नोति दीर्घं आयुर्हिरण्यदः । गृहदोऽग्र्याणि वेश्मानि रूप्यदो रूपं उत्तमम् || ४.२३० ||

    वासोदश्चन्द्रसालोक्यं अश्विसालोक्यं अश्वदः । अनडुहः श्रियं पुष्टां गोदो ब्रध्नस्य विष्टपम् || ४.२३१ ||

    यानशय्याप्रदो भार्यां ऐश्वर्यं अभयप्रदः । धान्यदः शाश्वतं सौख्यं ब्रह्मदो ब्रह्मसार्ष्टिताम् || ४.२३२ ||[2]

    yatkiṁ cidapi dātavyaṁ yācitenānasūyayā । utpatsyate hi tatpātraṁ yattārayati sarvataḥ || 4.228 ||

    vāridastr̥ptiṁ āpnoti sukhaṁ akṣayyaṁ annadaḥ । tilapradaḥ prajāṁ iṣṭāṁ dīpadaścakṣuruttamam || 4.229 ||

    bhūmido bhūmiṁ āpnoti dīrghaṁ āyurhiraṇyadaḥ । gr̥hado'gryāṇi veśmāni rūpyado rūpaṁ uttamam || 4.230 ||

    vāsodaścandrasālokyaṁ aśvisālokyaṁ aśvadaḥ । anaḍuhaḥ śriyaṁ puṣṭāṁ godo bradhnasya viṣṭapam || 4.231 ||

    yānaśayyāprado bhāryāṁ aiśvaryaṁ abhayapradaḥ । dhānyadaḥ śāśvataṁ saukhyaṁ brahmado brahmasārṣṭitām || 4.232 ||

  • The giving of Veda surpasses all gifts or water, food, cows, buffaloes, clothes, sesame, gold and clarified butter. (Manu. Smrt. 4.233).[1]

    सर्वेषां एव दानानां ब्रह्मदानं विशिष्यते । वार्यन्नगोमहीवासस् तिलकाञ्चनसर्पिषाम् || ४.२३३ ||[2]

    sarveṣāṁ eva dānānāṁ brahmadānaṁ viśiṣyate । vāryannagomahīvāsas tilakāñcanasarpiṣām || 4.233 ||

  • It is also to be noted that the Satvik or Rajasic sentiment with which a donation is made, the fruit of that sentiment is also borne by the giver. (Manu Smrt. 4.234).[3]

    येन येन तु भावेन यद्यद्दानं प्रयच्छति । तत्तत्तेनैव भावेन प्राप्नोति प्रतिपूजितः || ४.२३४ ||[2]

    yena yena tu bhāvena yadyaddānaṁ prayacchati । tattattenaiva bhāvena prāpnoti pratipūjitaḥ || 4.234 ||

  • Both, the one who respectfully receives a donation, and one who respectfully bestows it, obtain the fruit of svarga; if not, they both reach the naraka. (Manu. Smrt. 4.235).[3]

    योऽर्चितं प्रतिगृह्णाति ददात्यर्चितं एव वा । तावुभौ गच्छतः स्वर्गं नरकं तु विपर्यये || ४.२३५ ||[2]

    yo'rcitaṁ pratigr̥hṇāti dadātyarcitaṁ eva vā । tāvubhau gacchataḥ svargaṁ narakaṁ tu viparyaye || 4.235 ||

  • Not boasting of accomplishing tapas, not lying having performed a sacrifice, not insulting even if pained by behaviour and not boasting of one's donation - these are the qualities of a good person. (Manu. Smrt. 4.237).[3]

    यज्ञोऽनृतेन क्षरति तपः क्षरति विस्मयात् । आयुर्विप्रापवादेन दानं च परिकीर्तनात् || ४.२३७ ||[2]

    yajño'nr̥tena kṣarati tapaḥ kṣarati vismayāt । āyurviprāpavādena dānaṁ ca parikīrtanāt || 4.237 ||

References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 Ganganath Jha (1920-39), Manusmrti (Vol.4), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited.
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 Manusmrti, Adhyaya 4.
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 Pt. Girija Prasad Dvivedi (1917), The Manusmriti, Lucknow: Naval Kishore Press.