Indra and Vrtrasura (इन्द्रः वृत्रासुरः च)

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Vrtrasura the son of त्वष्ट्रः ॥ Tvashtra Prajapati, is an important asuric force who came into existence for the sole purpose of destroying Indra. Indra, slays Vrtra with his Vajrayudha and is greatly praised for his valour and deeds in many suktas of Rig Veda. Thus the enmity between Indra and Vrtrasura is present from birth of Vrtrasura. Indra as a लोकपालकः ॥ lokapalaka (as the ruler of the worlds) and devaloka rakshaka plays a very important role in protection of Dharma and its followers such as other devatas, rishis and pious people.

परिचयः || Introduction

The most important work of Indra is to stop those energies and powers which are against the flow of life or creation. The Vedas describe a continuous battle between  Asuras (demons) and suras (devas). Every moments result of the battle decides whether there will be flow of life or a regression. There are varieties in the asuric powers or asuric energy. Amongst them Vrtra is the most important[1]. Extensive mention of Vrtra and Indra's story is seen in vedas and vedic literature.

  1. Rigveda
  2. Taittriya samhita
  3. Atharvaveda (अथर्ववेदः/काण्डं ६)
  4. Kaushitaki Brahmana (कौषीतकिब्राह्मणम्/अध्यायः १५)
  5. Devipurana (Skanda 6, Adhyaya 1 to 6) (देवीभागवतपुराणम्/स्कन्धः ०६/अध्यायः ०६)
  6. Padmapurana (पद्मपुराणम्/खण्डः २ (भूमिखण्डः)/अध्यायः ०२४)
  7. Brahmapurana (ब्रह्मपुराणम्/अध्यायः १७३)
  8. Brahmandapurana (ब्रह्माण्डपुराणम्/मध्यभागः/अध्यायः ६)
  9. Skandapurana (स्कन्दपुराणम्/खण्डः १ (माहेश्वरखण्डः)/केदारखण्डः/अध्यायः १७)
  10. Shrimad Bhagavatapurana (श्रीमद्भागवतपुराणम्/स्कन्धः ६/अध्यायः १७)
  11. Mahabharata

शत्रुत्वम् ॥ Vrtrasura and Indra's Enmity

वृत्रासुरजननम् || Vrtrasura Janana

In Taittriya Samhita the legend is mentioned in this way: Tvashtra prajapathi had a son named Vishwarupa.

विश्वरूपो वै त्वाष्ट्रः पुरोहितो देवानामासीत्स्वस्रीयोऽसुराणां तस्य त्रीणि शीर्षाण्यासन्त्सोमपानद्ग सुरापानमन्नादनद्ग स प्रत्यक्षं देवेभ्यो भागमवदत्परोऽक्षमसुरभ्य: सर्वस्मै वै प्रत्यक्षम्भा॒गं वदन्ति यस्मा एव परोऽक्षं वदन्ति तस्य भाग उदितस्तस्मादिन्द्रोऽबिभेदीदृङ्वै राष्ट्रं वि पर्यावर्तयतीति तस्य वज्रमादाय शीर्षाण्यच्छिनद्यत्सोमपानमा (Arsheya System 1.2.22.1 and Saraswat system 1.2.5.1.1) (Tait. Samh. 2.5.1)[2]

viśvarūpo vai tvāṣṭraḥ purohito devānāmāsītsvasrīyo'surāṇāṁ tasya trīṇi śīrṣāṇyāsantsomapānadga surāpānamannādanadga sa pratyakṣaṁ devebhyo bhāgamavadatparo'kṣamasurabhya: sarvasmai vai pratyakṣambhā̱gaṁ vadanti yasmā eva paro'kṣaṁ vadanti tasya bhāga uditastasmādindro'bibhedīdr̥ṅvai rāṣṭraṁ vi paryāvartayatīti tasya vajramādāya śīrṣāṇyacchinadyatsomapānamā (Arsheya System 1.2.22.1 and Saraswat system 1.2.5.1.1) (Tait. Samh. 2.5.1)

Once the purohit of the devathas, Brihaspati, being angry, left his priestly work and so the devathas invited Vishwarupa as their priest. Vishwarupa also known as Trisiras was favorable to the asuras. Therefore, without the knowledge of devatas, he offered the havishya (oblations) to the asuras which belonged to devatas.[1] When Indra came to know about this, he was furious and killed Vishwarupa. Hearing this, Tvashtra was very angry and performed a yajna to beget a son who could kill Indra. Tvashtra perfomed a yajna without inviting Indra and did not offer Soma pana. On knowing this, Indra instructed that Tvashtra should invite him. Tvashtra in anger refused to invite him since Indra killed his son. He then performed the yajna without Indra but Indra by force without the permission of Tvashtra drank the Soma during the conclusion of yajna.  

त्वष्टा हतपुत्रो वीन्द्रद्ग सोममाहरत्तस्मिन्निन्द्र उपहवमैच्छत तं नोपा ह्वयत पुत्रम्मेऽवधीरिति स यज्ञवेशसं कृत्वा प्रासहा सोममपिबत्तस्य यदत्यशिष्यत तत्त्वष्टाहवनीयमुप प्रावर्तयत्स्वाहेन्द्रशत्रुर्वर्धस्वेति यदवर्तयत्तद्वृत्रस्य वृत्रत्वं यदब्रवीत्स्वाहेन्द्रशत्रुर्वर्धस्वेति तस्मादस्येन्द्रः शत्रुरभवत्स सम्भवन्नग्नीषोमावभि समभवत्स इषुमात्रमिषुमात्रं विष्वङ्ङवर्धत (Tait. Samh. 2.5.2)[2]

tvaṣṭā hataputrō vīndradga sōmamāharattasminnindra upahavamaicchata taṁ nōpā hvayata putrammē'vadhīriti sa yajñavēśasaṁ kr̥tvā prāsahā sōmamapibattasya yadatyaśiṣyata tattvaṣṭāhavanīyamupa prāvartayatsvāhēndraśatrurvardhasvēti yadavartayattadvr̥trasya vr̥tratvaṁ yadabravītsvāhēndraśatrurvardhasvēti tasmādasyēndraḥ śatrurabhavatsa sambhavannagnīṣōmāvabhi samabhavatsa iṣumātramiṣumātraṁ viṣvaṅṅavardhata (Tait. Samh. 2.5.2)

Being angry with Indra, Tvashtra used left over Soma and invoked the ahavaniiya agni. As the fire blazed in the yagna homa the ritviks chanted स्वाहेन्द्रशत्रुर्वर्धस्व इति. Due to the swara mispronunciation in the mantra, the entire meaning was altered. Instead of "let there be a son who could kill indra" it meant "let there be a son who will be killed by Indra". Instantly, Vrtra was born and started expanding over the entire universe.  

वज्रायुधम् || Vajrayudha

स यावदूर्ध्वः पराविध्यति तावति स्वयमेव व्यरमत यदि वा तावत्प्रवणमासीत्यदि वा तावदध्यग्नेरासीत्स सम्भवन्नग्नीषोमावभि समभवत्स इषुमात्रमिषुमात्रं विष्वङ्ङवर्धत स इमाँल्लोकानवृणोद्यदिमाँल्लोकानवृणोत्तद्वृत्रस्य वृत्रत्वं तस्मादिन्द्रोऽबिभेदपि त्वष्टा तस्मै त्वष्टा वज्रमसिञ्चत्तपो वै स वज्र आसीत्तमुद्यन्तुं नाशक्नोदथ वै तर्हि विष्णुरन्या (Arsheya system 4.5.36.2 and Saraswat System 1.2.4.12.2 in Parankusa.org) (Tait. Samh. 2.5.12)[2]

sa yāvadūrdhvaḥ parāvidhyati tāvati svayamēva vyaramata yadi vā tāvatpravaṇamāsītyadi vā tāvadadhyagnērāsītsa sambhavannagnīṣōmāvabhi samabhavatsa iṣumātramiṣumātraṁ viṣvaṅṅavardhata sa imām̐llōkānavr̥ṇōdyadimām̐llōkānavr̥ṇōttadvr̥trasya vr̥tratvaṁ tasmādindrō'bibhēdapi tvaṣṭā tasmai tvaṣṭā vajramasiñcattapō vai sa vajra āsīttamudyantuṁ nāśaknōdatha vai tarhi viṣṇuranyā (Arsheya system 4.5.36.2 and Saraswat System 1.2.4.12.2 in Parankusa.org) (Tait. Samh. 2.5.12)

Vrtra means one who grows or goes in circles and though Indra did not fear him he was not able to control him. Meanwhile Vrtra’s father, Tvashtra offered a special thunderbolt to Indra. Here Vajrayudha is described as "tapo vy sa vajra asit" meaning "tapasaya" itself is Vajrayudha (thunderbolt)". As Indra could not lift the Vajrayudha, he prayed to Sri MahaVishnu.

विष्णुरन्या देवतासीत्सोऽब्रवीद्विष्णवेहीदमा हरिष्यावो येनायमिदमिति स विष्णुस्त्रेधात्मानं वि न्यधत्त पृथिव्यां तृतीयमन्तरिक्षे तृतीयं दिवि तृतीयमभिपर्यावर्ताद्ध्यबिभेद्यत्पृथिव्यां तृतीयमासीत्तेनेन्द्रो वज्रमुदयच्छद्विष्ण्वनुस्थितः सोऽब्रवीतन्मा मे प्र हारस्ति वा इदं (Arsheya system 4.5.36.3 and Saraswat system 1.2.4.12.3) (Tait. Samh. 2.5.12) [2]

viṣṇuranyā dēvatāsītsō'bravīdviṣṇavēhīdamā hariṣyāvō yēnāyamidamiti sa viṣṇustrēdhātmānaṁ vi nyadhatta pr̥thivyāṁ tr̥tīyamantarikṣē tr̥tīyaṁ divi tr̥tīyamabhiparyāvartāddhyabibhēdyatpr̥thivyāṁ tr̥tī̍yamāsīttēnēndrō vajramudayacchadviṣṇvanusthitaḥ sō'bravītanmā mē pra hārasti vā idaṁ (Arsheya system 4.5.36.3 and Saraswat system 1.2.4.12.3) (Tait. Samh. 2.5.12)

Mahavisnu pleased with Indra's prayers and that of other devatas, divided himself into 3 parts "विष्णुस्त्रेधात्मानं viṣṇustrēdhātmānaṁ" . It indicates His Trivikrama tattva. One third part of Vishnu's energy was placed in the earth, another one third in devaloka and the last third was placed in the Antariksha or Space.[1]

मयि वीर्यं तत्ते प्र दास्यामीति तदस्मै प्रायच्छत्तत्प्रत्यगृह्णादधा मेति तद्विष्णवेति प्रायच्छत्तद्विष्णुः प्रत्यगृह्णादस्मास्विन्द्र इन्द्रियं दधात्विति यदन्तरिक्षे तृती॑यमासीत्तेनेन्द्रो वज्रमुदयच्छद्विष्ण्वनुस्थितः सोऽब्रवीन्मा मे प्र हारस्ति वा इदं (Arsheya system 4.5.36.4 and Saraswat System 1.2.4.12.4) (Tait. Samh. 2.5.12) [2]

mayi vīryaṁ tattē pra dāsyāmīti tadasmai prāyacchattatpratyagr̥hṇādadhā mēti tadviṣṇavēti prāyacchattadviṣṇuḥ pratyagr̥hṇādasmāsvindra indriyaṁ dadhātviti yadantarikṣē tr̥tī̍yamāsīttēnēndrō vajramudayacchadviṣṇvanusthitaḥ sō'bravīnmā mē pra hārasti vā idaṁ (Arsheya system 4.5.36.4 and Saraswat System 1.2.4.12.4)(Tait. Samh. 2.5.12)

Indra then merged himself with Visnu's energy of prithvi and with that strength was able to lift the vajrayudha. Seeing this Vrtra removed himself from the earth and continued the battle in space and in heavenly planets. Indra with the blessing of Mahavishnu then defeated him who entered into a truce with indra.

वृत्रासुरवधः ।। Vrtrasura Vadha

In Taittriya Samhita and Shatapata Brahamana the details of the battle between Indra and Vrtra, the cause and consequences, have been described.

Many Rig Veda suktas (1.80, 1.32) glorify the war of Indra against Vrtrasura. Indra's power and strength in wielding the Vajrayudha is beautifully described in these mantras.

Indra and Vrtrasura's war is also described in Shrimad Bhagavata Mahapurana (Skanda 6, Chap. 9)[3]. The preparation of Vajrayudha by Visvakarma from the bones of Dadhichi rishi is explained there in detail.

Mahabharata (Vana Parva. Chap 101, Verses 14, 15. Santi Parva. Chap 281. Verses 13 -21) also discusses about the war with Vrtrasura.

इन्द्रवृत्रयोः युद्धविचारः || Indra and Vrtra War Viewpoint

As seen here many texts have discussed the story of Indra and Vrtra with slight differences in the versions. However, the consequence of Vrtra after the war has been summarized below as per different interpretations.

वृत्रः क्षुत्खलु || Vrtra is Hunger

According to Taittiriya Samhita,

इदमस्मि तत्ते प्र दास्यामीति त्वी (३) इत्यब्रवीत्सन्धान्तु सं दधावहै त्वामेव प्र विशानीति यन्माम्प्रविशेः किम्मा भुञ्ज्या इत्यब्रवीत्त्वामेवेन्धीय तव भोगाय त्वाम्प्र विशेयमित्यब्रवीत्तव्वृँत्रः प्राविशदुदरं वै वृत्रः क्षुत्खलु वै मनुष्यस्य भ्रातृव्यो य (Arsheya system 4.5.36.6 and Saraswat System 1.2.4.12.6) (Tait. Samh. 2.5.12)[2]

idamasmi tattē pra dāsyāmīti tvī (3) ityabravītsandhāntu saṁ dadhāvahai tvāmēva pra viśānīti yanmāmpraviśēḥ kimmā bhuñjyā ityabravīttvāmēvēndhīya tava bhōgāya tvāmpra viśēyamityabravīttavvr̥m̐traḥ prāviśadudaraṁ vai vr̥traḥ kṣutkhalu vai manuṣyasya bhrātr̥vyō ya (Arsheya system 4.5.36.6 and Saraswat System 1.2.4.12.6) (Tait. Samh. 2.5.12)[2]

Vrtrasura said allow me to enter into your body. Indra asked him what will you do with me? Will you eat me? Vrtra replied that he will become the fire in the stomach, as hunger (jataragni) in humanbeings. In this way Vrtra entered into the body of Indra and the living entities and continues to stay in the form of hunger. He is called as भ्रातृव्यो॒ brathravya and those who understand this, they will conquer hunger. It should be noted that Vrtra was though killed in one perspective, was not killed but was given a place in every living entity as hunger. Therefore the disturbance to the living entity is an eternal experience in this world, symbolically, hunger is the sign of dissatisfaction.  

Similarly, hunger is not just limited to physical hunger but is connected to insatiable wants and desires. Lust and anger are insatiable hunger[1].  

क्षुद्रोगौ कामक्रोधौ || Kama and Krodha

Shrimad Bhagavad Gita[4] explains

काम एष क्रोध एष रजोगुणसमुद्भवः । महाशनो महापाप्मा विद्ध्येनमिह वैरिणम् ॥ (Bhag. Gita. 3.37)

kāma ēṣa krōdha ēṣa rajōguṇasamudbhavaḥ । mahāśanō mahāpāpmā viddhyēnamiha vairiṇam ॥ (Bhag. Gita. 3.37)

Meaning : Bhagavan explains 'Kaama (Desire) and Krodha (wrath or anger) arise from Rajoguna. They are all-consuming, all-polluting, know that they are one's greatest enemy.' Here Bhagavan explains about the sins and delusions. In the 16th chapter of Bhagavad Gita it is explained:

काममाश्रित्य दुष्पूरं दम्भमानमदान्विताः । मोहाद्गृहीत्वासद्ग्राहान्प्रवर्तन्तेऽशुचिव्रताः ॥ (Bhag. Gita. 16.10)

kāmamāśritya duṣpūraṁ dambhamānamadānvitāḥ । mōhādgr̥hītvāsadgrāhānpravartantē'śucivratāḥ ॥ (Bhag. Gita. 16.10)

Meaning : Contained with insatiable desire, intoxicated with pride, and deceitful, these ignorant ones (people) gripped with illusionary false goals pursue impure sinful activities.

काम ॥ Kaama (desire) is thus compared to the inexhaustible fire. Those afflicted with the hunger of Kama and Krodha are said to be afflicted by the ghost of Vrtra, constantly inhabiting the mind and soul of the human being. Vrtra is the eternal enemy (with kama, krodha) and personification of sins[1].

प्रकृतिप्रतीतिविचारः || Natural Phenomenon

Many definitions as per Nirukta (10.8) [5] for example : इरां ददातीति वा ॥ irāṁ dadātīti vā, indicate Indra's association with water, clouds and winds. Through the study of the water cycle, one can understand the formation of rain and the inter-relativity of sun, clouds and water precipitation. From the following mantras of Rig Veda, it can be understood that the natural phenomenon of clouds, lighting and rains have been minutely studied and water cycle was well established during the vedic period. Astrologically also the correlation of nakshtra constellations with the formation of clouds and rains have been identified. Nirukta also mentions thus

अपां च ज्योतिषः च मिश्रीभावकर्मणः वर्षकर्म जायते । rains occur due to the interrelated activities of water and sun (Niru. 2.16)[6]

By a study of the scriptures as an application to modern science, Sri. C V B Subrahmanyam[7] proposed a relationship between Indra and Vrtrasura yudda (as mentioned in Rig veda mantras) and the story Maruts (as given in Ramayana and Vishnu Purana) that clearly refers to the natural phenomenon of rains and cyclones. The concept is extended to how lightning (Vajrayudha the lighting bolt) can be used to pierce through the strong circling winds (Vrtra) and clouds (Indra's strength) and control cyclones.

Rigveda (1.32)

अहन् वृत्रं वृत्रतरं व्यंसमिन्द्रो वज्रेण महता वधेन । स्कन्धांसीव कुलिशेना विवृक्णाऽहि: शयत उपपृक् पृथिव्याः ॥५ (Rig. Veda. 1.32.5)[8]

Meaning : Indra killed Vrtra by the fatal blows of his Vajrayudha (lightning strike). Just like how an axe is used to cut down the branches of a tree which falls down to the ground.

Summary : The whole sukta explains in detail how Indra uses Vajrayudha to break down Vrtrasura, there by releasing waters. Symbolically the whirling winds (Vrtra) which capture the dense clouds (Indra) are dispersed by the lightning strikes (Vajraayuda), thus reducing the intensity of cyclone, releasing rains on to the earth.

Marut Ganas

The legend of Marutganas are also symbolic of how Indra controls the rain causing winds by using his Vajrayudha. The origin of मरुद्गणाः || Marutganas (Maruts are Vaayu devatas of Cosmic Air divisions) has been given in Ramayana (Bala. Kand. 47.1 to 7)[9] as follows

सप्तधा तु कृते गर्भे दितिः परम दुःखिता | सहस्राक्षम् दुराधर्षम् वाक्यम् स अनुनया अब्रवीत् || १-४७-१ (Valm. Rama. 1.47.1)

saptadhā tu kr̥te garbhe ditiḥ parama duḥkhitā | sahasrākṣam durādharṣam vākyam sa anunayā abravīt || 1-47-1 (Valm. Rama. 1.47.1)

प्रियम् त्वत् कृतम् इच्छामि मम गर्भ विपर्यये | मरुताम् सप्त सप्तानाम् स्थानपाला भवन्तु ते || १-४७-३ (Valm. Rama. 1.47.3)

priyam tvat kr̥tam icchāmi mama garbha viparyaye | marutām sapta saptānām sthānapālā bhavantu te || 1-47-3 (Valm. Rama. 1.47.3)

वात स्कंधा इमे सप्त चरन्तु दिवि पुत्रक | मारुता इति विख्याता दिव्यरूपा मम आत्मजाः ||१-४७-४ (Valm. Rama. 1.47.4)

vāta skaṁdhā ime sapta carantu divi putraka | mārutā iti vikhyātā divyarūpā mama ātmajāḥ ||1-47-4 (Valm. Rama. 1.47.4)

Summary : Diti highly anguished by the destruction of the embryo, in her womb, requests Indra to accept the 7 Maruts so formed as his followers and be granted a place in the devas as वातस्कंधाः or presiding deities of the 7 cosmic air divisions.

वैदिकप्रतीतिविचारः || Vedic Symbolism

Indra, is the most amazing power and energy assuming different kinds of forms for the sake of well-being of the universe, as explained in the Rig Veda mantras. Therefore the battle between Indra and Vrtra is symbolically very significant and must be seen from this perspective rather than the Indological historic viewpoint.[1] The Rig veda mantras also describe the symbolism of the wars of Indra as follows

यदचरस्तन्वा वावृधानो बलानीन्द्र प्रब्रुवाणो जनेषु । मायेत्सा ते यानि युद्धान्याहुर्नाद्य शत्रुं ननु पुरा विवित्से ।। (Rig Veda 10.54.2) [10]

yadacarastanvā vāvr̥dhānō balānīndra prabruvāṇō janēṣu । māyētsā tē yāni yuddhānyāhurnādya śatruṁ nanu purā vivitsē ।। (Rig Veda 10.54.2)

Meaning 2nd line: Hey Indra ! you don’t have enemity with anyone, and even so how can any enemy match you? All those who say you fought wars are nothing but maya (illusion) for you do not have any enemies in the past. Rig Veda mantras depict that Vrtra was killed and other mantras pronounce that a truce between Indra and Vrtra is established, whereby Vrtra exists in the form of hunger. In this perspective, the battle between Indra and Vrtra is eternal and Vrtra is not killed once and for all.

तव च्यौत्नानि वज्रहस्त तानि नव यत्पुरो नवतिं च सद्यः | निवेशने शततमाविवेषीरहञ्च वर्त्रं नमुचिमुताहन् || (Rig Veda. 7.19.5.) [11]

tava cyautnāni vajrahasta tāni nava yatpurō navatiṁ ca sadyaḥ | nivēśanē śatatamāvivēṣīrahañca vartraṁ namucimutāhan || (Rig Veda. 7.19.5.)

Meaning : With Vajrayudha in his hands, the invincible power, Indra swiftly destroyed 99 of the 100 places and captured the likes of Vrtra and Namuchi in his hundredth attempt.

आधुनिकैतिहासिकविचारः || History as per Indologists

Interpretation of Vedic texts by Indologists have distorted the Indra & Vrtra episode by giving it a caste and race colour. Using the fake Aryan-Dravidian invasion theory, Vrtra is said to be in charge of the tribes who were the mulnivasis before the 'fair' Aryans invaded. The fight between Vrtra and Indra (portrayed as the God of the Aryans) is interpreted through race theories concluding that Indra is a historical person.

Verses and Meanings

Rigveda mantras of 1st Mandala - 32 Sukta[8]

इन्द्र॑स्य॒ नु वी॒र्या॑णि॒ प्र वो॑चं॒ यानि॑ च॒कार॑ प्रथ॒मानि॑ व॒ज्री । अह॒न्नहि॒मन्व॒पस्त॑तर्द॒ प्र व॒क्षणा॑ अभिन॒त् पर्व॑तानाम् ॥१

अह॒न्नहिं॒ पर्व॑ते शिश्रिया॒णं त्वष्टा॑स्मै॒ वज्रं॑ स्व॒र्यं॑ ततक्ष । वा॒श्रा इ॑व धे॒नव॒: स्यन्द॑माना॒ अञ्ज॑: समु॒द्रमव॑ जग्मु॒राप॑: ॥२ 

वृ॒षा॒यमा॑णो ऽवृणीत॒ सोमं॒ त्रिक॑द्रुकेष्वपिबत् सु॒तस्य॑ । आ साय॑कं म॒घवा॑दत्त॒ वज्र॒मह॑न्नेनं प्रथम॒जामही॑नाम् ॥३ 

यदि॒न्द्राह॑न् प्रथम॒जामही॑ना॒मान्मा॒यिना॒ममि॑ना॒: प्रोत मा॒याः । आत् सूर्यं॑ ज॒नय॒न् द्यामु॒षासं॑ ता॒दीत्ना॒ शत्रुं॒ न किला॑ विवित्से ॥४ 

अह॑न् वृ॒त्रं वृ॑त्र॒तरं॒ व्यं॑स॒मिन्द्रो॒ वज्रे॑ण मह॒ता व॒धेन॑ । स्कन्धां॑सीव॒ कुलि॑शेना॒ विवृ॒क्णाऽहि॑: शयत उप॒पृक् पृ॑थि॒व्याः ॥५ 

अ॒यो॒द्धेव॑ दु॒र्मद॒ आ हि जु॒ह्वे म॑हावी॒रं तु॑विबा॒धमृ॑जी॒षम् । नाता॑रीदस्य॒ समृ॑तिं व॒धानां॒ सं रु॒जाना॑: पिपिष॒ इन्द्र॑शत्रुः ॥६ 

अ॒पाद॑ह॒स्तो अ॑पृतन्य॒दिन्द्र॒मास्य॒ वज्र॒मधि॒ सानौ॑ जघान । वृष्णो॒ वध्रि॑: प्रति॒मानं॒ बुभू॑षन् पुरु॒त्रा वृ॒त्रो अ॑शय॒द्व्य॑ व्य॑स्तः ॥७ 

न॒दं न भि॒न्नम॑मु॒या शया॑नं॒ मनो॒ रुहा॑णा॒ अति॑ य॒न्त्याप॑: । याश्चि॑द् वृ॒त्रो म॑हि॒ना प॒र्यति॑ष्ठ॒त् तासा॒महि॑: पत्सुत॒:शीर्ब॑भूव ॥८ 

नी॒चाव॑या अभवद् वृ॒त्रपु॒त्रेन्द्रो॑ अस्या॒ अव॒ वध॑र्जभार । उत्त॑रा॒ सूरध॑रः पु॒त्र आ॑सी॒द् दानु॑: शये स॒हव॑त्सा॒ न धे॒नुः ॥९ 

अति॑ष्ठन्तीनामनिवेश॒नानां॒ काष्ठा॑नां॒ मध्ये॒ निहि॑तं॒ शरी॑रम् । वृ॒त्रस्य॑ नि॒ण्यं वि च॑र॒न्त्यापो॑ दी॒र्घं तम॒ आश॑य॒दिन्द्र॑शत्रुः ॥१० 

दा॒सप॑त्नी॒रहि॑गोपा अतिष्ठ॒न् निरु॑द्धा॒ आप॑: प॒णिने॑व॒ गाव॑: । अ॒पां बिल॒मपि॑हितं॒ यदासी॑द् वृ॒त्रं ज॑घ॒न्वाँ अप॒ तद् व॑वार ॥११ 

अश्व्यो॒ वारो॑ अभव॒स्तदि॑न्द्र सृ॒के यत् त्वा॑ प्र॒त्यह॑न् देव एक॑: । अज॑यो॒ गा अज॑यः शूर॒ सोम॒मवा॑सृज॒: सर्त॑वे स॒प्त सिन्धू॑न् ॥१२ 

नास्मै॑ वि॒द्युन्न त॑न्य॒तुः सि॑षेध॒ न यां मिह॒मकि॑रद् ध्रा॒दुनिं॑ च । इन्द्र॑श्च॒ यद् यु॑यु॒धाते॒ अहि॑श्चो॒ताप॒रीभ्यो॑ म॒घवा॒ वि जि॑ग्ये ॥१३ 

अहे॑र्या॒तारं॒ कम॑पश्य इन्द्र हृ॒दि यत्ते॑ ज॒घ्नुषो॒ भीरग॑च्छत् । नव॑ च॒ यन् न॑व॒तिं च॒ स्रव॑न्तीः श्ये॒नो न भी॒तो अत॑रो॒ रजां॑सि ॥१४ 

इन्द्रो॑ या॒तोऽव॑सितस्य॒ राजा॒ शम॑स्य च शृ॒ङ्गिणो॒ वज्र॑बाहुः । सेदु॒ राजा॑ क्षयति चर्षणी॒नाम॒रान् न ने॒मिः परि॒ ता ब॑भूव ॥१५ 

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Narayanacharya, K. S. (2011). Veda Samskrita Parichaya. Part 1. Hubli:​Sahitya Prakashana​.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Krishna Yajurveda Samhita (Taittiriya Samhita): http://parankusa.org/KrYajurBrowse.aspx and http://sanskritlibrary.org/download/krishna_yajur_ved.html
  3. www.vcscsd.org/content/balabhavan/18-Puranas.pdf
  4. https://sanskritdocuments.org/doc_giitaa/bhagvadnew.html?lang=sa
  5. Nirukta (Adhyaya 10)
  6. Nirukta (Adhyaya 2)
  7. Dr. C V B Subrahmanyam and Ch V Ananth, Vedic Sciences - Applicability to Modern Life (2013). Vedic Seminar Series, USCEFI, Hyderabad
  8. 8.0 8.1 Rig Veda (Mandala 1, Sukta 32)
  9. http://valmikiramayan.net/utf8/baala/sarga47/bala_47_frame.htm
  10. Rig Veda Samhita (Mandala 10, Sukta 54)
  11. Rig Veda Samhita (Mandala 7, Sukta 19)