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परिचयः ॥ Introduction
Svayambhuva Manu, the son of Lord Brahma, had two sons named Priyavrata and Uttanapada. They were mighty heroes and of righteous character. Among them, Uttanapada had two wives, Suruchi and Suniti who each gave birth to a son. Suruchi's son was Uttama and Suniti's son was Dhruva.
कथासारः ॥ Story in Brief
Dhruva was the son of Uttanapada by his queen Suniti, to whom he was less attached. While he dearly loved his other son named Uttama by his favourite wife Suruchi. Once, observing his brother Uttama on his father’s lap, Dhruva was desirous of ascending the same. But as Suruchi was present, the Raja did not gratify the desire of his son. Moreover, he was also unkindly treated by Suruchi.
Dhruva then appeals to his mother, who advises him to engage in pursuing religious merit that bestows all the good. Accordingly, Dhruva quits the city and enters an adjoining thicket, where he meets the Saptarshis. Having heard his story, the rshis recommend him to propitiate Vishnu. Dhruva then commences his penance as enjoined by the Rshis and begins contemplation on Vishnu. As he was wholly absorbed in meditation, Vishnu pervaded his heart and due to his presence in Dhruva, the earth could not sustain the weight of the boy ascetic. And this created a great imbalance. Therefore, the celestials, with the counsel of Indra, made anxious efforts to distract his meditation but were unsuccessful. They then appealed to Vishnu, who allayed their fears, and appeared in front of Dhruva. Being pleased with his devotion, Vishnu granted him a boon and Dhruva asked for worthiness to praise the Lord. The Lord grants his wish and accepts his praise. And at his behest, endows Dhruva with a position superior to all others. And thus, Dhruva is raised to the skies as the pole-star. This story of Dhruva occurs in Chapters 11 and 12 of the Vishnu Purana(Part 1) as also in the Chapters 8-13 of the Bhagavata Purana.
The Matsya Purana, Brahma Purana, Hari Vamsha and Vayu Purana speak of only one wife of Uttanapada and call her Sunrita. According to these Puranas, Sunrita gave birth to four sons viz. Apaspati (or Vasu), Ayushmanta, Kirtimat and Dhruva. They also only allude to Dhruva been transferred by Brahma to the skies, in reward of his austerities. Whereas, the Bhagavata Purana, Padma Purana (Svarga Khanda), Agni Purana and Naradiya Purana have the same account of the story as mentioned above.
सुनित्याः उपदेशः ॥ Advice of Suniti
Dhruva, hurt by the unkind words of Suruchi, repaired to his mother's abode. Observing his dejection and understanding the cause behind it, his mother Suniti consoles him with her just advice. Some excerpts from her advice as per the Vishnu Purana are as follows. She says,
अन्यजन्मकृतैः पुण्यैः सुरुच्या सुरुचिर्नृपः ।... पुण्योपचयसंपन्नस्तस्याः पुत्रस्तथोत्तमः ।...
तथापि दुःखं न भवान् कर्तुमर्हसि पुत्रक । यस्य यावत्स तेनैव स्वेन तुष्यति मानवः ॥ १.११.२२ ॥ (Vish. Pura.)
anyajanmakr̥taiḥ puṇyaiḥ surucyā surucirnr̥paḥ ।... puṇyopacayasaṁpannastasyāḥ putrastathottamaḥ ।...
tathāpi duḥkhaṁ na bhavān kartumarhasi putraka । yasya yāvatsa tenaiva svena tuṣyati mānavaḥ ॥ 1.11.22 ॥
Meaning: That the raja favours Suruchi is the reward of her merits in a former birth.. her son is the progeny of accumulated piety and is born as Uttama.. Therefore, my child, it is not proper for you to be sorry on this account; a wise man will be contented with that degree which appertains to him. She then suggests that if he (Dhruva) is greatly hurt at the words of Suruchi, he should try to amass peity which bestows all good. She further asks him to be good natured, virtuous, friendly and be engaged in doing good to all living creatures. For, prosperity descends upon worthy people as water flows towards low ground.
यदि ते दुःखमत्यर्थं सुरुच्या वचसाभवत् । तत्पुण्योपचये यत्नं कुरु सर्वफलप्रदे ॥ १.११.२३ ॥
सुशीलो भव धर्मात्मा मैत्रः प्राणिहिते रतः । निम्नं यथापः प्रवणाः पात्रमायान्ति सम्पदः ॥ १.११.२४ ॥ (Vish. Pura.)
yadi te duḥkhamatyarthaṁ surucyā vacasābhavat । tatpuṇyopacaye yatnaṁ kuru sarvaphalaprade ॥ 1.11.23 ॥
suśīlo bhava dharmātmā maitraḥ prāṇihite rataḥ । nimnaṁ yathāpaḥ pravaṇāḥ pātramāyānti sampadaḥ ॥ 1.11.24 ॥
सप्तर्षेः उपदेशः ॥ Advice of the Saptarshis
The Vishnu Purana elaborates that Dhruva, inspite of his mother's advice, was still unsettled by the turn of events and quit the city with a desire to acquire a position that had not been enjoyed by any other. He repaired to a neighboring thicket where he beheld the Saptarshis - Marichi, Atri, Angira, Pulastya, Kratu, Pulaha and Vasishtha. Having heard the story of Dhruva and understanding his desire to attain the most elavated position, the rshis adviced him as follows:
Rshi Marichi said,
अनाराधितगोविन्दैर्नरैः स्थानं नृपात्मज । न हि संप्राप्यते श्रेष्ठं तस्मादाराधयाच्युतम् ॥ १.११.४३ ॥
anārādhitagovindairnaraiḥ sthānaṁ nr̥pātmaja । na hi saṁprāpyate śreṣṭhaṁ tasmādārādhayācyutam ॥ 1.11.43 ॥
Meaning: O Prince, none can attain that best of stations who does not propitiate Govinda. Therefore, you should worship Achyuta (undecaying). Rshi Atri said,
परः पराणां पुरुषो यस्य तुष्टो जनार्दनः । संप्राप्नोत्यक्षयं स्थानमेतत्सत्यं मयोदितम् ॥ १.११.४४ ॥
paraḥ parāṇāṁ puruṣo yasya tuṣṭo janārdanaḥ । saṁprāpnotyakṣayaṁ sthānametatsatyaṁ mayoditam ॥ 1.11.44 ॥
Meaning: He with whom the foremost of beings, Janardana, is pleased, obtains imperishable dignity. I declare to you this truth. Rshi Angira said,
यस्यान्तः सर्वमेवेदमच्युतस्याव्ययात्मनः । तमाराधय गोविन्दं स्थानमग्र्यं यदीच्छसि ॥ १.११.४५ ॥
yasyāntaḥ sarvamevedamacyutasyāvyayātmanaḥ । tamārādhaya govindaṁ sthānamagryaṁ yadīcchasi ॥ 1.11.45 ॥
Meaning: If you desire an exalted station, worship that Govinda who is immutable and undecaying; in whom, all that is, exists. Rshi Pulastya said,
परं ब्रह्म परं धाम योऽसौ ब्रह्म तथा परम् । तमाराध्य हरिं याति मुक्तिमप्यति दुर्लभाम् ॥ १.११.४६ ॥
paraṁ brahma paraṁ dhāma yo'sau brahma tathā param । tamārādhya hariṁ yāti muktimapyati durlabhām ॥ 1.11.46 ॥
Meaning: Worshipping the divine Hari who is the supreme one, supreme glory and the supreme Brahman, you may attain even the eternal mukti, then what of reaching the most exalted station. Rshi Kratu said,
यो यज्ञपुरुषो यज्ञो योगेशः परमः पुमान् । तस्मिंस्तुष्टे यदप्राप्यं किन्तदस्ति जनार्दने ॥ १.११.४८ ॥
yo yajñapuruṣo yajño yogeśaḥ paramaḥ pumān । tasmiṁstuṣṭe yadaprāpyaṁ kintadasti janārdane ॥ 1.11.48 ॥
ऐन्द्रमिन्द्रः परं स्थानं यमाराध्य जगत्पतिम् । प्राप यज्ञपतिं विष्णुं तमाराधय सुव्रत ॥ १.११.४७ ॥
aindramindraḥ paraṁ sthānaṁ yamārādhya jagatpatim । prāpa yajñapatiṁ viṣṇuṁ tamārādhaya suvrata ॥ 1.11.47 ॥
Meaning: You adore that Vishnu, the lord of yajna and the universe, O pious boy, worshipping whom Indra obtained the dignity of a raja of the celestials. Rshi Vasishtha then observed,
प्राप्नोष्याराधिते विष्णौ मनसा यद्यदिच्छति । त्रेलोक्यान्तर्गतं स्थानं किमु वत्सोत्तमोत्तमम् ॥ १.११.४९ ॥
prāpnoṣyārādhite viṣṇau manasā yadyadicchati । trelokyāntargataṁ sthānaṁ kimu vatsottamottamam ॥ 1.11.49 ॥
Meaning: Any thing, that a man desires, may be obtained in this world by adoring Vishnu. Then what of that exalted position. At this, Dhruva enquired with the rshis about the prayer which he should meditate upon in order to propitiate the Lord. The Rshis then guided him in the following manner. They said,
बाह्यार्थादखिलाच्चित्तं त्याजयेत्प्रथमं नरः । तस्मिन्नेव जगद्धाम्नि ततः कुर्वित निश्चलम् ॥ १.११.५३ ॥
एवमेकाग्रचित्तेन तन्मयेन धृतात्मना । जप्तव्यं यन्नि बोधैतत्तन्रः पार्थिवनन्दन ॥ १.११.५४ ॥
bāhyārthādakhilāccittaṁ tyājayetprathamaṁ naraḥ । tasminneva jagaddhāmni tataḥ kurvita niścalam ॥ 1.11.53 ॥
evamekāgracittena tanmayena dhr̥tātmanā । japtavyaṁ yanni bodhaitattanraḥ pārthivanandana ॥ 1.11.54 ॥
Meaning: (Those who are devoted to Lord Vishnu), they shall first withdraw their minds from all exterior objects and then fix it steadily on that being in whom the world exists. By him, who has thus concentrated his thoughts on that one object, whose heart is filled with that alone and who has controlled himself, the prayer that is to be recited is,
हिरण्यगर्भपुरुषप्रधानव्यक्तरूपिणे । ओं नमो वासुदेवाय शुद्धज्ञानस्वरूपिणे ॥ १.११.५५ ॥
hiraṇyagarbhapuruṣapradhānavyaktarūpiṇe । oṁ namo vāsudevāya śuddhajñānasvarūpiṇe ॥ 1.11.55 ॥
Meaning: Om ! salutation to Vasudeva, who is manifest as Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, and whose form is inscrutable.
They also mention that, this prayer was formerly uttered by Dhruva's grandsire, Manu Svayambhuva, propitiated by which, Vishnu conferred upon him the prosperity he desired, unequalled in the three worlds.
ध्रुवस्य तपः ॥ Dhruva's Austerity
Having heard the advice of the Saptarshis, Dhruva repaired to the holy place, on the banks of the river Yamuna, called Madhuvana, the grove of Madhu (named after the demon who formerly resided there) and engaged in penance. In accordance with instruction given by Rshi Marichi and others, he began to contemplate on Vishnu, having his mind perfectly withdrawn from all other thoughts. The great Hari, ever existing in all creatures, took possession of his heart. And Vishnu thus, occupying his heart, the earth, the supporter of elemental life, could not sustain his (Dhruva's) weight. When he used to stand upon his left foot, one half of the earth bent beneath him; and when he used to stand upon his right foot, the other half of the earth sank down. And when he used to stand touching the earth with his toes, the whole earth shook with its mountains and rivers. Thereby, the rivers and seas were greatly agitated and being greatly alarmed, even the celestials called as Yamas, in consultation with Indra, began to think of measures to interrupt the austerity of Dhruva.
The Kushmandas, in company with Indra, assuming various shapes, actively engaged in distracting Dhruva. One, assuming the shape of his mother Suniti, stood before him with tears in his eyes saying,
पुत्रकास्मान्निवर्त्तस्व शरीरव्ययदारुणात् । निर्बन्धतो मया लब्धो बहुभिस्त्वं मनोरथैः ।। १५ ।।
दीनामेकां परित्यक्तुमनाथां न त्वमर्हसि । सपत्नीवचनाद् वत्स अगतेस्तं गतिर्मम ।। १६ ।।
क्व च त्वं पञ्चवर्षीयः क्व चैतद् दारुणां तपः । निवर्त्त्यतां मनः कष्टान्निर्वन्धात् फलार्वाज्जतात ।। १७ ।।
कालः क्रीड़नकानां ते तदन्तेऽध्ययनस्य च । ततः समस्तभोगानां तदन्ते चेष्यते तपः ।। १८ ।।
कालक्रीड़नकाना यस्तव बालस्य पुत्रक । तस्मिंस्त्वमित्थं तपसि किं नाशायात्मनो रतः ।। १९ ।।
मत्प्रीतिः परमो धर्मो वयोऽवर्त्तास्मादधर्मतः ।। २० ।।
परित्यजति वत्साद्य यद्यतन्न भवांस्तपः । त्यक्ष्याम्यहमपि प्राणांस्ततो वै पश्यतस्तव ।। २१ ।।
putrakāsmānnivarttasva śarīravyayadāruṇāt । nirbandhato mayā labdho bahubhistvaṁ manorathaiḥ ।। 15 ।।
dīnāmekāṁ parityaktumanāthāṁ na tvamarhasi । sapatnīvacanād vatsa agatestaṁ gatirmama ।। 16 ।।
kva ca tvaṁ pañcavarṣīyaḥ kva caitad dāruṇāṁ tapaḥ । nivarttyatāṁ manaḥ kaṣṭānnirvandhāt phalārvājjatāta ।। 17 ।।
kālaḥ krīḍa़nakānāṁ te tadante'dhyayanasya ca । tataḥ samastabhogānāṁ tadante ceṣyate tapaḥ ।। 18 ।।
kālakrīḍa़nakānā yastava bālasya putraka । tasmiṁstvamitthaṁ tapasi kiṁ nāśāyātmano rataḥ ।। 19 ।।
matprītiḥ paramo dharmo vayo'varttāsmādadharmataḥ ।। 20 ।।
parityajati vatsādya yadyatanna bhavāṁstapaḥ । tyakṣyāmyahamapi prāṇāṁstato vai paśyatastava ।। 21 ।।
Meaning: My son, desist from this penance that is destroying your health. I have, after many troubles gained you and have formed many hopes in you. O child, it does not befit you to foresake me who is helpless, alone and unprotected, at the unkind words of my rival (your stepmother). You are a boy of five years old. Such a hard penance is not for you. Therefore, desist from such fearful practices which are not productive. This is the time of youthful pastime for you, then comes the season for study, then the period of worldly enjoyment and lastly, that of austere devotion. Oh my boy, you are but a child, this is the season of play for you. Then why have you engaged in asceticism to destroy yourself ? Your chief duty consists in your devotion to me now. Engage in such works as it benefits your age and circumstance. Do not be guided by bewildering error and desist from such unrighteous actions. If you don't renounce these devout austerities today, I will terminate my life in front of you.
However, Dhruva, being wholly intent upon seeing Vishnu, did not behold his mother weeping.
Then came the rakshasas wielding terrible arms, and with countenances emitting fiery flame; and hundreds of jackals from whose mouths gushed out flame. The rakshasas cried out saying,
हन्यतां हन्यतामेष छिद्यतां छिद्यतामयम् । भक्ष्यतां भक्ष्यताम् ...
hanyatāṁ hanyatāmeṣa chidyatāṁ chidyatāmayam । bhakṣyatāṁ bhakṣyatām ...
Meaning: Kill him, kill him; cut him to pieces; eat him, eat him ...
Thus, those rakshasas with faces of lions, camels and crocodiles, howled about to strike terror into the heart of the prince. But these illusions of rakshasas and jackals, their cries and weapons made no impression upon his senses whose mind was completely given up to the meditation of Govinda.
Therefore, the celestials were greatly disturbed and approached Sri Hari for help. They said,
दिने दिने कलालेशौः शशाङ्कः पूर्यते यथा । तथायं तपसा देव प्रयात्यृद्धिमहर्निशम् ।। ३४ ।।
औत्तानपादितपसा वयमित्थं जनार्दन । भीतास्त्वां शरणं यातास्तपसस्तं निवर्त्तय ।। ३५ ।।
न विङ्मः किं स शक्रत्वं किं सूर्यत्वमभीप्सति । वित्तापाम्बुपसोमानां साबिलाषः पदे नु किम् ।। ३६ ।।
dine dine kalāleśauḥ śaśāṅkaḥ pūryate yathā । tathāyaṁ tapasā deva prayātyr̥ddhimaharniśam ।। 34 ।।
auttānapāditapasā vayamitthaṁ janārdana । bhītāstvāṁ śaraṇaṁ yātāstapasastaṁ nivarttaya ।। 35 ।।
na viṅmaḥ kiṁ sa śakratvaṁ kiṁ sūryatvamabhīpsati । vittāpāmbupasomānāṁ sābilāṣaḥ pade nu kim ।। 36 ।।
Meaning: As the moon increases in his orb day by day, so is this boy approaching superhuman power by his devotion. O Janardana, we have been greatly alarmed by the devout austerities of the son of Uttanapada and have taken your refuge; you please desist him from his devout exercises. We do not know whose position he aspires - whether the throne of Shakra (Indra), of the Sun, of the lord of wealth or that of Varuna (the lord of water). Mahavishnu replied that,
नेन्द्रत्वं न च सूर्यत्वं नैवाम्बुपधनेशताम् । प्रार्थायत्येष यं कामं तं करोम्यखिलं सुराः ।। ३८ ।।
यात देवा यथाकामं स्वस्थानं विगतज्वराः । निवर्त्तयाम्यहं बाल तपस्यासक्तमानसम् ।। ३९ ।।
nendratvaṁ na ca sūryatvaṁ naivāmbupadhaneśatām । prārthāyatyeṣa yaṁ kāmaṁ taṁ karomyakhilaṁ surāḥ ।। 38 ।।
yāta devā yathākāmaṁ svasthānaṁ vigatajvarāḥ । nivarttayāmyahaṁ bāla tapasyāsaktamānasam ।। 39 ।।
Meaning: He does not aspire to the throne of Indra, nor to the sovereignty of the solar orb, nor to the rank of the lord of riches. I shall soon confer on him, what he desires to have. Removed of your anxiety, you all proceed to your respective quarters - I shall soon desist that boy whose mind is wholly engrossed with devout meditation. Being thus pacified by Vishnu, as the celestials returned to their abode, Vishnu, being pleased with Dhruva's whole minded devotedness to him, approached him and offered a boon. Hearing this, Dhruva who was overcome with awe said,
भगवन् यदि मे तोषं तपसा परमं गतः । स्तोतुं तदहमिच्छामि वरमेतं प्रयच्छ मे ।। ४८ ।।
ब्रह्माद्यर्वेदवेदज्ञैर्ज्ञायते यस्य नो गतिः । तं त्वां कथमहं देव स्तोतुं शक्नोमि बालक ।। ४९ ।।
त्वदूभक्तिप्रवणां ह्मतत् परमेश्वर मे मनः । स्तोतुं प्रवृत्तं त्वत्पादौ तत्र प्रज्ञां प्रयटच्छ मे ।। ५० ।।
bhagavan yadi me toṣaṁ tapasā paramaṁ gataḥ । stotuṁ tadahamicchāmi varametaṁ prayaccha me ।। 48 ।।
brahmādyarvedavedajñairjñāyate yasya no gatiḥ । taṁ tvāṁ kathamahaṁ deva stotuṁ śaknomi bālaka ।। 49 ।।
tvadūbhaktipravaṇāṁ hmatat parameśvara me manaḥ । stotuṁ pravr̥ttaṁ tvatpādau tatra prajñāṁ prayaṭaccha me ।। 50 ।।
Meaning: O great lord, if you are greatly pleased with my devout exercise, please do confer upon me the boon that I may praise you whenever I wish. I am but a boy. How shall I be able to sing your glory whom even the great sages like Brahma conversant with Vedas have not been able to know sufficiently. My heart is filled with devotion to you and so, O lord, grant me the understanding of placing my praises at your feet.
भगवदनुग्रहः ॥ Grace of the Lord
As Dhruva sang the praise of Mahavishnu, being pleased, the Lord said,
तपसस्तु फलं प्राप्तं यदू दृष्टोऽहं त्वया ध्रुव । मदूदर्शनं हि विफलं राजपुत्र न जायते ।। ७६ ।
वरं वरय तस्मात् त्वं यथाभिमतमात्मनः ।। सर्वं संपद्यते पुंसां मयि दृष्टिपथं गते ।। ७७ ।।
tapasastu phalaṁ prāptaṁ yadū dr̥ṣṭo'haṁ tvayā dhruva । madūdarśanaṁ hi viphalaṁ rājaputra na jāyate ।। 76 ।
varaṁ varaya tasmāt tvaṁ yathābhimatamātmanaḥ ।। sarvaṁ saṁpadyate puṁsāṁ mayi dr̥ṣṭipathaṁ gate ।। 77 ।।
Meaning: O Dhruva, your devotion has been crowned with success today since you have beheld me. The sight of me is never devoid of results. Ask therefore, of me, whatever boon you desire. For, whenever I appear before men, all their wishes are satisfied. Encouraged thus, Dhruva then asked for an exalted station which surpasses all others and is the support of the universe and shall last forever. He says,
आधारभूतं जगतः सर्वेषामुत्तमोत्तमम् । प्रार्थयामि प्रभो स्थानं त्वत्प्रसादादतोऽव्ययम् ।। ८२ ।।
ādhārabhūtaṁ jagataḥ sarveṣāmuttamottamam । prārthayāmi prabho sthānaṁ tvatprasādādato'vyayam ।। 82 ।।
Hearing this wish of Dhruva, the Lord says,
Birth in the race of Svayambhuva is considered as a great boon by others and for this I was propitiated by you (in your previous birth). But now, you are not valuing it so much. The man who worships me obtains, in no time, liberation from life. What is the abode of celestials to one whose mind is centered in me. Therefore, you shall, by my grace, attain a position which is above the three worlds and become the abode of stars and the planets. I confer upon you, O Dhruva, a station which is above those of the Sun, the Moon, stars, the son of Soma (Mercury), Venus, the son of Surya (Saturn) and all the other constellations; above the regions of the seven rshis, and the divinities who traverse the atmosphere. Some celestials live for four ages; some for the reign of a Manu, but you shall live the duration of a Kalpa. Your mother Suniti too, in the form of a bright star, shall abide near you for a similar term. And all those who, with concentrated minds, sing your glory morning and evening, shall acquire exceeding religious merit.
Thus, the sage Dhruva, having received this boon from Janardana, attained this exalted position. 
पूर्वजन्म ॥ Previous Birth
As Dhruva asked the Lord for an exalted position as the boon, Mahavishnu says that Dhruva will surely attain the position he is asking for as he was satisfied with Dhruva even in his previous birth. The Lord then gives an account of Dhruva's previous birth as follows. He says,
You were, in your previous existence, a Brahmana, devoted with all your heart to me, ever dutiful to your parents and always fulfilling your duties. In course of time, a prince became your friend, who was in the period of youth and indulged in all sensual pleasures. He had a good appearance and bright form. While in his company and beholding his riches, hard to acquire, you did desire that you might be born as the son of a raja. It is by virtue of that desire that you are born as a prince in the mansion of Uttanapada which cannot be easily obtained.
फलश्रुतिः ॥ Fruit of Dhruva's Story
Beholding Dhruva's glory, Ushanas, the preceptor of the devas and asuras, said,
यश्चैतत् कीर्त्तयेन्नित्यं ध्रुवस्यारोहणां दिवि । स सर्वपापनिर्मुक्तः स्वर्गलोके महीयते ।। १०१ ।।
स्थानभ्रशं न चाप्तोति दिवि वा यदि वा भुवि । सर्वकल्याणसंयुक्तो दीर्घकालञ्च जीवति ।। १०२ ।।
yaścaitat kīrttayennityaṁ dhruvasyārohaṇāṁ divi । sa sarvapāpanirmuktaḥ svargaloke mahīyate ।। 101 ।।
sthānabhraśaṁ na cāptoti divi vā yadi vā bhuvi । sarvakalyāṇasaṁyukto dīrghakālañca jīvati ।। 102 ।।
Meaning: He who shall worthily describe the ascent into the sky of Dhruva, for ever shall be freed from all papa, and be adored in svarga. He shall not lose his station, either in this world, or in the other world (after death) and shall live long, possessed of every blessing.
ध्रुवस्य सन्ततिः ॥ Posterity of Dhruva
The descendants of Dhruva are described by Rshi Parashara as follows in the Vishnu Purana (Prathama Amsha, adhyaya 13):
Dhruva's wife Shambhu gave birth to two sons Shishti and Bhavya. Suchaya, the wife of Shishti gave birth to five sons, freed from papa, by name Ripu, Ripunjaya, Vipra, Vrkala and Vrkatejas. Of these, Ripu begot a highly effulgent son named Chakshusha by Brhati who then begot Manu Chakshusha on Pushkarini, the daughter of the venerable patriarch Anaranya, from the family of Varuna. Then Manu begot ten highly effulgent sons named Uru, Puru, Shatadyumna, Tapasvi, Satyavak, Kavi, Agnishtoma, Atiratra, Sudyumna and Abhimanyu by his wife Nadula, the daughter of Prajapati Vairaja. The wife of Uru, Agneyi, bore six excellent sons, Anga, Sumanas, Svati, Kratu, Angiras, and Shiva. And Anga, by his wife Sunita, had only one son, named Vena from whose arm sprang the famous monarch named Vainya celebrated as Prthu for milking the earth for the benefit of his subjects.