Chapter 2: Relative Space and Time
This chapter introduces children to concepts like behind-in front, inside-outside and earlier-later that help in understanding Space and Time in a relative context. The understanding is facilitated using various physical and mental activities that encourage awareness of the surrounding and emphasizes on their observation and articulation skills.
- 1 Behind and In front of
- 2 Inside and Outside
- 3 Story time: Inside Shri Krishna's Mouth...
- 4 Earlier and Later
- 5 Story time: Samudra Manthan
- 6 References
Behind and In front of
Cloud is behind the mountain.
Tree is in front of the mountain.
- Explain the classroom surrounding using the words 'behind' and 'in front'
Eg. The black board is behind the teacher. The table is in front of the teacher.
- Make the children stand in a straight line (one behind the other) and ask the following:
Name the person in front of you and the one behind you.
Shuffle their positions and repeat the same question.
Playtime at Home
Play hide and seek with your friends at home and name the things you hid behind.
Note: The names can be discussed in class to reinforce the concepts from Chapter 1.
Eg. Things you hide behind are bigger than you.
Visit a public place to understand the concept of a queue.
For eg. Bus stand.
In front - पुरतः |
Behind - पृष्ठतः |
Inside and Outside
Make two groups of children and ask them to take turns in naming things inside and/or outside the classroom respectively.
Note: This increases awareness of their surrounding as well as vocabulary.
Children can be introduced to the play of Kancha (Marbles). Also known as Golli, Goti and Lakhoti, Kancha is a traditional Indian game that involves the use of round glass marbles or kanchas. Several children can participate at a time in this game. The objective here is to collect the maximum number of marbles. There are various ways of playing this game.
- In the most simple version, a circle in drawn on the ground and all the marbles (except one) are placed inside the circle. Using the remaining single marble, each child should try to move the marbles outside the circle by throwing the marble into the circle. Any marbles they knock out of the circle, belongs to them. This play rotates from one child to another until all marbles are claimed. It helps if the shooting marble is of a different color from the marbles in the circle.
Shooting technique: Bend your index or middle finger backward slightly, place the marble on the fingertip, and release the finger which will shoot the marble forward.
- Alternatively, a circle is drawn and marbles are placed inside it to form the pattern 'X'. Children should try to scatter the marble formation by throwing a marble inside the circle using their thumb and knuckles. The number of marbles in the ‘X’ pattern that move when the marble is thrown belongs to the child. However, if any of the marbles go outside the circle, it has to be placed back inside the circle in the centre. Taking turns, the game continues till there are no more marbles to be claimed.
- In another version, on a leveled even ground, a small hole is dug up. Children should kneel down away from the hole and try to send the marble inside the hole. For this, the marble is to be held tightly to the forefinger of the left hand. Then, stretching the finger back by the pressure of the forefinger of the right hand, the marble is released pushing the other marble into the hole. Taking turns, children should aim to push all the marbles inside the hole.
Note: This game also subtly introduces children to an understanding of distance, force and speed.
Help your mother fill in groceries inside boxes. For eg. Grains, Pulses, etc.
Inside - अन्तः |
Outside - बहिः |
Earlier and Later
Reinforcing concepts of Earlier and Later by demonstrating various action words like,
- Going - Coming
- Standing - Sitting
- Walking - Running
- Jumping - Falling
- Eating - Drinking
- Reading - Writing
- Speaking - Singing
For eg. Earlier teacher was standing. Later the teacher sat down.
Sow a seed, water it everyday and observe it grow into a beautiful plant. This reinforces that,
Something that was a seed earlier, later transformed into a beautiful plant.
Observe and Learn
Visit a park. Observe and Describe how was it when you entered and how was it when you left.
- Earlier it was bright. Later it became dark.
- Earlier there were less children. Later more children came.
Note: Such activities emphasize on their observation and articulation skills.
Earlier - पूर्वम्
Later - पश्चात्
Source: Shrimad Bhagavata Purana, Skanda 8, Adhyayas 6 to 8.
Understand the Story
Various valuable things came out of the Samudra Manthan. Tick the one that came earlier.
Which of the following happened later ?
- Appearance of Devi Lakshmi
- Appearance of Dhanvantari
- Appearance of Devi Varuni