Asoucha (आशौचम्)

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Asoucha or Asoucham (Samskrit: आशौचम्) broadly refers to a period of isolation and restriction from dharmik activities in certain situations. In Sanatana Dharma texts Asoucha, translated inadequately as Impurity, is used to denote yet another unique concept which involves restrictions on a person (who has the Asoucha) from participating in certain rituals, samskaras, yajnas, danas and even mingling with other family members preventing socialization extending to a long period of time (even a month in some cases).[1]

It is a deliberate isolation period wherein the family at the time of death of a member or at the time of birth of a child are not required to attend to the regular grhastha dharmas such as Aupasana, Devata puja, Panchamahayajnas, Svadhyaya etc. Asoucham is not a condition like a disease, which requires isolation to prevent spreading of the disease. It is rather a condition which one imposes upon oneself, more of a family choice to follow the Acharas which have been handed down to us from ancient times. It is a sensible deliberate process by which we accept the changes in nature by practical and philosophical ways.

परिचयः॥ Introduction

Asoucham also called as Sutaka, in general, ensues in three situations that are common in the life of a grhastha and his family.

  1. जाताशौचम् ॥ Jaata-Asoucha - Asoucha after the birth of a child
  2. मृताशौचम् ॥ Mrta-Asoucha - After death of a family member or relatives
  3. रजस्वलाशौचम् ॥ Rajasvala-Asoucha - Asoucha during the four-day menstruation period for a girl or woman until menopause

Asoucham is not due to disease nor should be attributed to microbiological containment, and refers purely to a Ritual Isolation in which one has to conform to a certain place with some restrictions on one's personal activities and socialising for a certain period of time. These periods of Asoucha have a religious as well as a social  and practical significance. During the Mrtaasoucha the family are relieved of their various duties and social obligations so that they have time to bear the grieving process. The situation is strictly controlled with the texts such as Garuda Purana clearly laying down the things to be done or to be avoided. It is also the retrospective time while the departed are still in connection and their near and dear. In the case of Jataasoucha the family are in isolation mainly to take complete care of the new-born and as such the time is required for the stability of the new mother and child.

आशैचलक्षणम् ॥ Definition of Asoucha

According to Shanka smrti as mentioned in Smrtichandrika by Devala[1]

दानं प्रतिग्रहो होमः स्वाध्यायः पितृक्रम च । प्रेतपिण्डक्रियावर्जमाशौचे विनिवर्तयेत्॥

dānaṁ pratigrahō hōmaḥ svādhyāyaḥ pitr̥krama ca । prētapiṇḍakriyāvarjamāśaucē vinivartayēt॥

Asoucha in a person's life is of two types पापविशेषात्मकम् । due to malefic activities or papam (such as Brahmahatya, Gohatya) and सपिण्डादिजनने मरणे वा। due to the phenomenon of birth and death of family members and relatives. This is said to be the meaning of the word Asoucham. Asoucham entails restrictions in participating in certain important dharmas and rituals such as

  1. Dana (one who gives charity)
  2. Pratigraha (one who accepts Dana)
  3. Svadhyaya (study of Vedas)
  4. Homa (performing yajnas etc)
  5. Pitr karmas (such as Shraddha, Darsa-shraddha).

Asoucha however allows the conduct of Pretopakaraka-pindakriyas i.e., those activities such as dana and recitation of vedamantras pertaining to the sutaka period (10 days of mourning) for the preta (ghost of the dead person) after the death of a person.

पारिभाषिकपदानि ॥ Associated Terminology

Reference to Dharmasindhu and Smriti granthas has been given from which further information may be sought on the following topics.

कूटस्थमारभ्य सप्तमपुरुषपर्यन्ताः सपिण्डाः ॥ ततः सप्तसमानोदकाः ॥ ततः सप्तैकविंशतिपर्यन्ताः सगोत्राः ॥ (Dhar. Sind. Parich. 3)[2]

kūṭasthamārabhya saptamapuruṣaparyantāḥ sapiṇḍāḥ ॥ tataḥ saptasamānōdakāḥ ॥ tataḥ saptaikaviṁśatiparyantāḥ sagōtrāḥ ॥ (Dhar. Sind. Parich. 3)

कूटस्थः॥ Kutastha: The moola purusha is the Kutastha. The fourth older generation person is the Kutastha. Ex: Consider the persons Great-grandfather, Grand-father, Father and Person X (Son) as a lineage. Kutastha is the mostly the great-grandfather (in some cases goes upto great great-grandfather).

सपिण्डः ॥ Sapinda: All the sons and children belonging to them, upto seven generations down from the Kutastha are called Sapindas.

समानोदकाः ॥ Samanodakas: The seven generations after the sapinda generations are called samanodakas.

सगोत्राः ॥ Sagotras: The seven generations after the Samanodaka generations are called Sagotras.

Sagotras refers all the members of the family having the same surname of twenty-one generations.

दायादिः ॥ Dayadi: All the members in family who have a share in the income generated in the joint family. This inheritance is defined from the Great-grandfather's properties. Hence all the sapindas are also related family members who have a share in the ancestral property.

सूतकम् ॥ Sutaka: A synonym for Asoucha.

शुद्धिः/शौचम्॥ Shuddhi/Soucham: Is the cleansing process which happens with a ritualistic bath taken after the period of Asoucha.

अस्पृस्यत्वरुपमाशौचम् ॥ Asprushyatva-rupa Asoucha refers to the vidhi equivalent to isolation of the person without anyone getting in physical contact with them. If they have to be touched (for any reason such as offering of medicines or for food) snana removes such an asoucham. Sadly this vidhi is misrepresented as 'untouchability' by many people of the society although shastras have not restricted medical or essential help to anyone following this vidhi.

सचेलस्नानम्॥ Sachela Snanam: It is the snana vidhi ordained at certain times and refers to bathing with whatever clothes a person is wearing at an instant of time.

आशैचनिर्णयः ॥ Determining Asoucha

आशैचप्राप्तिः ॥ Asoucha Applies To

प्राप्नोति सूतकं गोत्रे चतुर्थपुरुषेण तु । दायाद्विच्छेदमाप्नोति पञ्चमो वात्मवंशजः ॥ (Para. Smrt. 3.9)[3]

prāpnōti sūtakaṁ gōtrē caturthapuruṣēṇa tu । dāyādvicchēdamāpnōti pañcamō vātmavaṁśajaḥ ॥(Para. Smrt. 3.9)

The sutaka applies upto four generations (Person X, father, grandfather and great-grandfather and the sons (and their wives) and their children of the first three generations) and the sapinda relationship ends with the fifth generation person of the same family.

A woman after marriage observes the Asoucha of her husband's family and not that of her natural family. From birth upto marriage a female child follows the Asoucha of her parental family and after marriage Asoucha of husband's family applies, though she would still have to follow the Asoucha (reduced in number of days) of her blood relatives.

आशैचापवादः ॥ Asoucha Exceptions

Five categories of exceptions are explained for Ashoucha.[4]

सपञ्चधा । कर्तृतः कर्मतः द्रव्यतः मृतदोषतः विधानतः । The five categories of Ashouchas are on account of

  • कर्तृतः ॥ Kartru Bheda
  • कर्मतः ॥ Karma Bheda
  • द्रव्यतः ॥ Dravya Bheda
  • मृतदोषतः ॥ Mrtadosha
  • विधानतः ॥ Vidhana Bheda

Kartru Bhedaashouchas are related to Sanyasis and Brahmacharis (after Upanayana before Samavartana); they are exempted from following Ashoucha in reference to the births and deaths of any Sapindas. However, at the death of parents the asoucha is removed by taking Sachela Snana for both Sanyasis and Brahmancharis. As regards to Brahmacharis who have undergone the Samavartana (after completion of education) they have to observe Asoucha of three days and perform Udakadana (उदकदानम् offering of water on the tenth day after death) at the deaths of parents and sapindas. They not only participate in treating the dead bodies (शवस्पर्शानुगमनादिसंसर्गाशौतम्) of the parents but in the Antya Kriyas and pitrkarmas also.

Now in the case of Karma Bheda, the following Asoucha exceptions apply.[4]

  • अन्नसत्रिणामन्नादिदानेषुनाशौचम् ।
  • राजादीनांप्रजापालनादौनाशौचम् । Rajas and others who are involved in various  administrative tasks like punishments to wrong doers including even deaths have no Asoucha.
  • ऋत्विजां मधुपर्कपूजोत्तरं तत्कर्मणिनाशोचम्।
  • दीक्षितानां दीक्षणीयोत्तरमवभृथस्नानपर्यन्तं-यज्ञकर्मणिनाशोचम्।
  • रोगभय-राजभयादि-नाशार्थेशान्तिकर्मणिनाशोचम्। those performing Shanti Karyas to offset fears from rulers or from illnesses have no asoucha.
  • क्षुत्पीडितकुटुम्बस्यप्रतिग्रहेनाशोचम्।
  • विस्मरणशीलस्याधीतवेदशास्त्राध्ययनेऽपिनाशोचम्।
  • वैद्यस्यनाडीस्पर्शनेनाशोचम्। a Vaidya who examines the body parts of a patient to check diseases has no Ashoucha
  • मूर्तिप्रतिष्ठाचौलोपनयन-विवाहाद्युत्सव-तडागाद्युत्सर्ग those Brahmanas who perform Naandi Shraddha for tasks like Devata Pratishtha, Upanayana or Vivaha have no Ashuchi; and Grahana nimitta or Sankrantaadi Shraddha Karmas including Daanas do not attract Ashoucha.

Dravya Bheda due to Kraya Vikraya like buying a host of material ranging from flowers and fruits, food materials, clothes etc.from a person with Ashoucha would not invite Asouchya.

Instances of Vidhana Bhedas are plenty as they could be Sparsha Dosha, Mrita Dosha and so on. In respect of the last two doshas which are the worst, several prayaschittthas are prescribed to atone the Asuchis from Para Stree gamana, Maha Paataka Karana, Shava Sparshana,  Preta Karya Karana etc. and such prayaschittas  include Chandrayana Vratas, Krucchra Vratas, Go-Bhu-Dravya-Vastu Danaas etc.

For the following people of different occupations and varnas, there are exceptions and the Asoucha is removed with a bath on hearing the news.

शिल्पिनः कारुका वैद्या दासीदासाश्च नापिताः । राजानः श्रोत्रियाश्चैव सद्यः शौचाः प्रकीर्तिताः ॥

सव्रतः सत्रपूतश्च आहिताग्निश्च यो द्विजः । राज्ञश्च सूतकं नास्ति यस्य चेच्छति पार्थिवः ॥ (Para. Smrt. 3.27 - 28)

śilpinaḥ kārukā vaidyā dāsīdāsāśca nāpitāḥ । rājānaḥ śrōtriyāścaiva sadyaḥ śaucāḥ prakīrtitāḥ ॥

savrataḥ satrapūtaśca āhitāgniśca yō dvijaḥ । rājñaśca sūtakaṁ nāsti yasya cēcchati pārthivaḥ ॥ (Para. Smrt. 3.27 - 28)

  1. Artisans
  2. Architects and builders
  3. Physicians
  4. Servants (male and female)
  5. Rulers (Rajas)
  6. Vedic scholars and officiating priests.
  7. Those who are in process of a religious observance or vratas i.e. brahmacharis.
  8. Ahitagnis - those who have been initiated and are engaged in the performance of a yajña lasting more than one day.

आशैचभेदाः॥ Kinds of Asoucha

जाताशौचम्॥ Jaata-Asoucha

According to Parasara Smriti

जातौ विप्रो दशाहेन द्वादशाहेन भूमिपः । वैश्यः पञ्चदशाहेन शूद्रो मासेन शुध्यति ॥ ३.४ ॥ (Para. Smrt. 3.4)[5]

jātau viprō daśāhēna dvādaśāhēna bhūmipaḥ । vaiśyaḥ pañcadaśāhēna śūdrō māsēna śudhyati ॥ 3.4 ॥ (Para. Smrt. 3.4)

On the occasion of a birth, a Brahman recovers purity in ten days; a Kshatriya does so in twelve days; a vaishya at the expiry of fifteen days; and the purification of a Shoodra takes a month.

[Madhava says that this rule applies to the case where a Sapinda has been born ; while the rule of three days applies where a Samanodaka, a more distant relative than a Sapinda, has been born.][6]

मृताशौचम्॥ Mrta-Asoucha

When Asoucha is due to death of a family member, the removal of Asoucha depends on few conditions such as varna of the person, the time of abortion or death. Based on the Varna of a person the vidhis are as follows[5]

क्षत्रियो द्वादशाहेन वैश्यः पञ्चदशाहकैः । शूद्रः शुध्यति मासेन पराशरवचो यथा ॥ ३.२ ॥ (Para. Smrt. 3.2)

kṣatriyō dvādaśāhēna vaiśyaḥ pañcadaśāhakaiḥ । śūdraḥ śudhyati māsēna parāśaravacō yathā ॥ 3.2 ॥ (Para. Smrt. 3.2)

According to Parasara's words, a Kshatriya has shuddhi (purity) from asoucha in twelve days (i.e., on 13th day); a Vaisya, when fifteen days have passed (i.e., on the 16th day); a Shudra, after the lapse of a month (i.e., on the 31st day).

Vidhis for Shudravarna are mentioned in Dharmasindhu as follows: death of a child who had Namakarana samskara up to the age of 3 years shuddhi for the parents and relatives happens with snana; Between 3 years to Vivaha or 16 years shuddhi happens after three days of Asoucha. If death happens after 16 years Mrtashoucham for one month has to be followed (as given above in Parashara smriti also).[2]

Death due to Unnatural Reasons

In the Garuda Purana ShriKrishna explains to Garuda the vidhis of Asoucha in case of unnatural deaths such as death due to snake-bite, drowning and being struck by an horned animal, through weapons or in an accident and when no funeral rites are carried out such as cremation.

गरुड उवाच ।

सर्पाद्धि प्राप्तमृत्यूनामग्निदाहादि न क्रिया । जलेन शृङ्गिणा वापि शस्त्राद्यैर्म्रियते यदि ॥ २,१३.९ ॥

असन्मृत्युमृतानां च कथं शुद्धिर्भवत्प्रभो । एतन्मे संशयं देव च्छेत्तुमर्हस्यशेषतः ॥ २,१३.१० ॥

श्रीकृष्ण उवाच ।

षण्मासैर्ब्राह्मणः शुध्येद्युग्मे सार्धे तु बाहुजः । सार्धमासेन वैश्यस्तु शूद्रो मासेन शुध्यति ॥ २,१३.११ ॥ (Garu. Pura. 2.13.9-11)[7]

garuḍa uvāca ।

sarpāddhi prāptamr̥tyūnāmagnidāhādi na kriyā । jalēna śr̥ṅgiṇā vāpi śastrādyairmriyatē yadi ॥ 2,13.9 ॥

asanmr̥tyumr̥tānāṁ ca kathaṁ śuddhirbhavatprabhō । ētanmē saṁśayaṁ dēva cchēttumarhasyaśēṣataḥ ॥ 2,13.10 ॥

śrīkr̥ṣṇa uvāca ।

ṣaṇmāsairbrāhmaṇaḥ śudhyēdyugmē sārdhē tu bāhujaḥ । sārdhamāsēna vaiśyastu śūdrō māsēna śudhyati ॥ 2,13.11 ॥ (Garu. Pura. 2.13.9-11)

Krishna replies : If he is a Brahmana, shuddhi is after six months, if a Kshatriya in three months; if a Vaishya - a month and a half and if he is a Shudra shuddhi is after one month.[8]

रजस्वलाशौचम् ॥ Rajasvala-Asoucha

The time period in a woman's life when she has the ability to bear children is said to be the Rtukala of a woman. A woman prior to Rtusnana (purificatory bath) is said to be Rajasvala. From about 12 years of age (puberty) to the age of 50 years (menopause), every month (lunar month of 27-28 days) a woman has a discharge of menstrual blood from her uterus called Rajasraava (रजस्रावम्) or Aartavi (आर्तवी), and during the time she goes through a monthly menstrual cycle (of 3-4 days) she is called Rajasvala (रजस्वला).[9]

Ancient texts such as Vedas, Puranas, the Itihasas, Smrti granthas (Parashara Smrti, Apastamba Smrti, Manusmrti, Atri Smrti etc) Charaka samhita, Sushruta samhita have all described about the purity of women and the changes that happen at the time of menstruation in women along with the associated vidhis to be practiced by them. Women who are in their monthly menstrual cycle or "periods" are said to have entered a temporary period (four days) of Asoucha according to Sanatana Dharma texts. Parashara Smrti describes the process of purification procedures.

भस्मना शुध्यते कांस्यं ताम्रमम्लेन शुध्यति ॥ रजसा शुध्यते नारी विकलं या न गच्छति । (Para. Smrt. 7.3-4)[10]

bhasmanā śudhyatē kāṁsyaṁ tāmramamlēna śudhyati ॥ rajasā śudhyatē nārī vikalaṁ yā na gacchati । (Para. Smrt. 7.3-4)

Bronze is purified by the presence of Bhasma (ash), and copper by acidic cleanser (substance), by the flow of menstrual discharge (रजसा) a woman is purified. (Also mentioned in Vashishta Dharmasutras 3.58).

Rajodharma (रजोधर्मः), is the natural biological phenomenon seen in all mammals however, the menstrual discharge is seen the female gender of the human species and primates (and a few other mammals). Most of the mammals having a covert menstruation which gets completely absorbed by the body if the egg is not fertilized.

However, Sanatana Dharma texts have identified the existence of (the biological process) of Rajodharma (menstrual cycles in which there is a vaginal discharge of menstrual blood) in the female gender of the human species and instilled traditions and practices for women. As per the legend in the Taittriya Samhita which was later explained in many Puranic versions, Rajodharma in women is attributed to the one-fourth share of the Brahmahatyadosha of Indra, the ruler of the celestial worlds. After Indra killed Trishiraska the son of Tvashtra Prajapati, he is haunted by Brahmahatya-papa. In order to get rid of that he distributed it among Jala (water), Prthvi (earth), Vrkshas (trees) and Stree (women). For this favour shown to him, Indra grants boons to all of them. Women received the boon of being allowed to live with their husbands at all times in return for bearing the Brahmahatyadosha every month for three days. Prior to this women lived with their husbands only during the days of Rtukala (16 days of fertile time).[9]

शश्वत्कामवरेणांहस्तुरीयं जगृहुः स्त्रियः । रजोरूपेण तास्वंहो मासि मासि प्रदृश्यते ॥ ९ ॥ (Bhag. Pura. 6.9.9)[11]

śaśvatkāmavarēṇāṁhasturīyaṁ jagr̥huḥ striyaḥ । rajōrūpēṇa tāsvaṁhō māsi māsi pradr̥śyatē ॥ 9 ॥ (Bhag. Pura. 6.9.9)

Indra's Brahmahatyadosha came to be visible in the form of Rajasraava during the reproductive phase of a woman. Thus associated with such Rajodharma for a few days in a month she came to be known as Rajasvala (रजस्वला), Rtumati (ऋतुमती), Udaki (उदकी), Pushpini (पुष्पिणी), Aatreyi (आत्रेयी), Malavadvasa (मलवद्वसा), Rajaki (रजकी) and Aartavi (आर्तवी).[9]

Reasoning behind Rajasvala Asoucha

In Sanatana Dharma, marriage and grhastha ashrama are extremely important dharmika activities for the good and perpetuation of mankind. A grhastha's important duty is to fulfill the Pitr Rna by producing progeny with the support of a lady. Thus one of the primary duties for uniting a man and woman in Vivaha samskara, according to Sanatana Dharma, is to give a good dharmika citizen to the society and elevate their ancestral lineage by bearing a child. Thus by giving birth to a child, by becoming parents, a couple is bringing to life another Jivatma into a bodily form to continue its karmic journey. By preventing the birth of a Jiva whether intentionally or unintentionally, leads the grhasthas to commit papa in the process. In this context, it is to be understood that even loss of egg, when unfertilized, results in the failure of birth and thus prevention of life form to take shape. The papa is even more serious, equated to murder or Brahmahatya (Brhunhatya -killing of an embryo) in the case of prevention of birth due to abortion.[12]

The legend of Indra's attempt to attain Shoucha by distributing his doshas to others is to be understood with respect to the biological process of menstruation and its relation to childbirth. In this context one can relate the importance of birth related Asoucha. It is well-known that the menstrual discharge not only contains blood, but also the unfertilized egg. Thus one-third of the papa of Brahmahatya is incurred due to the failure of the egg to fertilize and emerge as a Jivatma into this universe. Since there is an amsha of childbirth involved in the monthly menses of a Rajasvala, she also has to enforce the Asoucha vidhis that are laid out in relation to failure of conception.[9][12]

Determining the Period of Rajasvala Asoucha

It should be noted that Asoucha due to birth and death should not be combined with Rajasvala Asoucha. For example: if a woman having rajasvala asoucha happens to have asoucha due to death in the family, they have to follow different vidhis and cannot intermingle. Characteristics of Rajasvala Asoucha[12]

  • Asoucha is applicable for three days (and nights) from the day of Rajodarshana (रजोदर्शनम् । sighting of the menstrual discharge).[9] A menstruating woman remains impure for three nights (and days) त्रिरात्रं रजस्वलाऽशुचिर्भवति । trirātraṁ rajasvalā'śucirbhavati । (Vash. Dhar. Sutr. 5.6)
  • Shuddhi is on the fourth day.

स्नात्वा रजस्वला चैव चतुर्थेऽह्नि विशुध्यति । कुर्य्याद्रजसि निवृत्तेऽनिवृत्ते न कथञ्चन ॥ (Angi. Smrt. 35)[13]

snātvā rajasvalā caiva caturthē'hni viśudhyati । kuryyādrajasi nivr̥ttē'nivr̥ttē na kathañcana ॥ (Angi. Smrt. 35)

On the fourth day, after menstruation stops, women become shuddha (pure) by taking a purificatory bath.[12]

  • It is a temporary form of Asoucha as stated in Boudhayana Dharmasutra (2.2.4.4).
  • Asoucha is restricted to three days and if blood continues to flow after four days due to some illness, it will cause no further Asoucha.

रोगेण यद्रजः स्त्रीणां अन्वहं तु प्रवर्तते ।। ७.१६ ।। rōgēṇa yadrajaḥ strīṇāṁ anvahaṁ tu pravartatē ।। 7.16 ।।

नाशुचिः सा ततस्तेन तत्स्याद्वैकालिकं मतम् । साध्वाचारा न तावत्स्याद्रजो यावत्प्रवर्तते ।। ७.१७ ।। (Para. Smrt. 7.16-17)[10]

nāśuciḥ sā tatastēna tatsyādvaikālikaṁ matam । sādhvācārā na tāvatsyādrajō yāvatpravartatē ।। 7.17 ।। (Para. Smrt. 7.16-17)

  • Any other vaginal discharge or bleeding apart from the regular monthly menses is not associated with this Asoucha.

Discussion

Soucha (शौचम्) is yet again a unique concept of Sanatana Dharma traditions and practices. Starting with Taittriya Samhita which mentioned the restrictions for a rajasvala in certain activities, Dharmasutras even grhyasutras and almost all Smrti granthas have advised people to follow the practices of Asoucha. This pertains not just to physical cleanliness implied by the translation of the word Soucha, and the rough translation of "Impurity" for Asoucha is grossly misrepresentative of this concept.

The practice of these vidhis require an in depth understanding as they are not mere physical cleanliness or hygiene of the gross body and surroundings. A holistic approach to understand this concept is very explicit when we study various aspects of Asoucha extending from gross physical level to the subtle physiological, mental and karmic levels, that affect a human being, creating an imbalance and disturbing their functionality. Restrictions from all kinds of worship, be it a daily devatarchana to the yajnas, are imposed not to degrade or make anyone inferior but to give the person undergoing impacting changes (such as those brought about by birth and death in families and menstruation in women) a good period of time to overcome their imbalances in the body at all levels. For all spiritual and ritualistic activities, Soucha at all levels are required and any imbalance in these attributes reduces their competency to perform not just spiritual but even their daily activities.[12]

A holistic understanding of our age old traditions are unfortunately (and sadly) not imparted in our present day education systems for children to continue the tradition. In the present world, a void has been created for a few centuries in the name of "modernization", leading to loss of practices and questions thus arise about the essence and worth of these practices. It is the need of the hour, for those few remaining people who are continuing the traditional practices, to rise and clarify these doubts and concerns - which are not unfounded, if we do not want these practices to be lost in the sands of time.[12][14]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Shama Sastry, R. (1921) Smritichandrika, Asaucha Kaanda by Devanabhatta. Mysore : Oriental Library Publications. (Pages 1 -25)
  2. 2.0 2.1 The Dharmasindhu bu Kasinath Upadhyaya (1986 Reprint Edition) Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications (Page 341 - 343)
  3. The Smriti Sandarbha (1988) Collection of the Four Dharmashastric Texts by Maharshies. Vol. 2. Delhi: Nag Publishers. (Page 633-)
  4. 4.0 4.1 Vasudeva Sharma (1939) The Dharmasindhu by Kasinath Upadhyaya. Mumbai: Nirnaya Sagar Press (Pages 379-385)
  5. 5.0 5.1 Parashara Smrti (Adhyaya 3)
  6. The Essence of Dharmasindhu from kamakoti.org
  7. Garuda Purana (Dharma Kaanda Adhyaya 13)
  8. The Garuda Purana, Part 2, Translated by a Board of Scholars (1957 First Edition) Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Pvt. Ltd. (Page 799)
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Sanskarprakash by Gita Press, Gorakhpur. (Pages 493-509)
  10. 10.0 10.1 Parashara Smrti (Adhyaya 7)
  11. Bhagavata Purana (Skanda 6 Adhyaya 9)
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 Hindu View of Menstruation (Part 2) by Nithin Sridhar
  13. The Smriti Sandarbha (1988) Collection of the Ten Dharmashastric Texts by Maharshies. Vol. 1. Delhi: Nag Publishers. (Page 594)
  14. Menstrual Taboos and Ancient Wisdom