Acharana Dharma (आचरणधर्मः)

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Acharana Dharma (Samskrit: आचरणधर्मः) refers to the general code of conduct prescribed for mankind in view of a healthy personal and societal life.

परिचयः ॥ Introduction

The concept of Dharma in the Bharata's conscious is far-reaching and deep. It addresses duties and responsibilities both at the micro (personal) as well as macro (societal) level. Shabdakalpadruma says,

धरति लोकान् ध्रियते पुण्यात्मभिरिति वा (धर्मः)। dharati lokān dhriyate puṇyātmabhiriti vā (dharmaḥ)।[1]

Meaning: That which holds the world (binds people together) or that which is upheld by meritorious people is Dharma. Therefore, Dharma is not just that which is upheld as a virtue in life, it is also the principle on the foundation of which a society stands. Thus, it could also refer to principles of justice (न्यायः), character (स्वभावः), behaviour (आचारः), etc. And has multiple facets viz. Svadharma (स्वधर्मः । individual), Kautumbika dharma (कौटुम्बिकधर्मः । towards family), Samajika dharma (सामाजिकधर्मः । towards society), Varna dharma (वर्णधर्मः), Ashrama dharma (आश्रमधर्मः), Rashtra dharma (राष्ट्रधर्मः । towards the nation), Manava dharma (मानवधर्मः । towards mankind), etc. Therefore, one meaning of Dharma is Achara or the regulation of daily life. In fact, Achara is referred to as the supreme Dharma.

आचारः परमो धर्मः । ācāraḥ paramo dharmaḥ ।

For, it is the basis of Tapas or austerity. It leads to wealth, beauty, longevity and continuity of lineage. Because, Dharma has its root in morality and the controller of Dharma is the Lord Himself. Whereas, evil conduct and immorality will lead to ill-fame, sorrow, disease and premature death.[2]

विधिताचरणम् ॥ Prescribed Code of Conduct

The Smrti texts elaborate on the concept of Dharma keeping in view its wide scope as mentioned above. Therefore, Acharana Dharma incorporates the code of conduct prescribed for mankind in all respects like personal and social hygiene, mutual respect, food and sleep habits for good health and others. Some such guidelines regarding cleanliness (शौचम्), respect (आदरः ), food and sleep (आहारः निद्रा च), etc. enlisted in the Manusmrti are as follows:

शौचम् ॥ Cleanliness

  • Defecation, brushing of teeth, bathing, applying collyrium to the eyes, anointment and worship the deities must be done early in the morning. (Manu Smrt. 4.152).[3]

    मैत्रं प्रसाधनं स्नानं दन्तधावनं अञ्जनम् । पूर्वाह्ण एव कुर्वीत देवतानां च पूजनम् || ४.१५२ ||[4]

    maitraṁ prasādhanaṁ snānaṁ dantadhāvanaṁ añjanam । pūrvāhṇa eva kurvīta devatānāṁ ca pūjanam || 4.152 ||

  • One should always defecate and urinate, wash feet, dispose remnants of food and the liquids from one's body far from the place of sacrifice. One should not intentionally touch things used for cleansing the body, water used for a bath, urine or excreta, blood, mucus or anything spit out or vomited. (Manu Smrt 4.151 and 4.132).[3]

    दूरादावसथान्मूत्रं दूरात्पादावसेचनम् । उच्छिष्टान्ननिषेकं च दूरादेव समाचरेत् || ४.१५१ ||

    उद्वर्तनं अपस्नानं विण्मूत्रे रक्तं एव च । श्लेश्मनिष्ठ्यूतवान्तानि नाधितिष्ठेत्तु कामतः || ४.१३२ ||[4]

    dūrādāvasathānmūtraṁ dūrātpādāvasecanam । ucchiṣṭānnaniṣekaṁ ca dūrādeva samācaret || 4.151 ||

    udvartanaṁ apasnānaṁ viṇmūtre raktaṁ eva ca । śleśmaniṣṭhyūtavāntāni nādhitiṣṭhettu kāmataḥ || 4.132 ||

  • A Grhastha should not eat, dressed in a single garment, bathe naked and urinate on the road, on ashes, or in a cow-pen. Nor should he urinate ever on a ploughed land, in water, on an altar, mountain, ruins of an old temple, nor on an ant-hill. Nor in holes inhabited by living creatures, while walking or standing, on the banks of a river, nor on the top of a mountain. (Manu Smrt. 4.45, 4.46 and 4.47).[3]

    नान्नं अद्यादेकवासा न नग्नः स्नानं आचरेत् । न मूत्रं पथि कुर्वीत न भस्मनि न गोव्रजे || ४.४५ ||

    न फालकृष्टे न जले न चित्यां न च पर्वते । न जीर्णदेवायतने न वल्मीके कदा चन || ४.४६ ||

    न ससत्त्वेषु गर्तेषु न गच्छन्नपि न स्थितः । न नदीतीरं आसाद्य न च पर्वतमस्तके || ४.४७ ||[4]

    nānnaṁ adyādekavāsā na nagnaḥ snānaṁ ācaret । na mūtraṁ pathi kurvīta na bhasmani na govraje || 4.45 ||

    na phālakr̥ṣṭe na jale na cityāṁ na ca parvate । na jīrṇadevāyatane na valmīke kadā cana || 4.46 ||

    na sasattveṣu garteṣu na gacchannapi na sthitaḥ । na nadītīraṁ āsādya na ca parvatamastake || 4.47 ||

  • One should not leave urine, excreta, spit, nor anything defiled by impure substances, or poison into the waters. (Manu Smrt. 4.56).[3]

    नाप्सु मूत्रं पुरीषं वा ष्ठीवनं वा समुत्सृजेत् । अमेध्यलिप्तं अन्यद्वा लोहितं वा विषाणि वा || ४.५६ ||[4]

    nāpsu mūtraṁ purīṣaṁ vā ṣṭhīvanaṁ vā samutsr̥jet । amedhyaliptaṁ anyadvā lohitaṁ vā viṣāṇi vā || 4.56 ||

  • One should never wash feet in a vessel of white brass; or eat in a broken or suspicious vessel. (Manu Smrt. 4.65).[3]

    न पादौ धावयेत्कांस्ये कदा चिदपि भाजने । न भिन्नभाण्डे भुञ्जीत न भावप्रतिदूषिते || ४.६५ ||[4]

    na pādau dhāvayetkāṁsye kadā cidapi bhājane । na bhinnabhāṇḍe bhuñjīta na bhāvapratidūṣite || 4.65 ||

  • One should not use shoes, clothes, a sacred thread, ornaments, flower garland, or a water pitcher used by others. (Manu Smrt. 4.66).[3]

    उपानहौ च वासश्च धृतं अन्यैर्न धारयेत् । उपवीतं अलङ्कारं स्रजं करकं एव च || ४.६६ ||[4]

    upānahau ca vāsaśca dhr̥taṁ anyairna dhārayet । upavītaṁ alaṅkāraṁ srajaṁ karakaṁ eva ca || 4.66 ||

  • One should not scratch the head with both hands, touch it while impure, nor bathe without wetting the head. (Manu Smrt. 4.82).[3]

    न संहताभ्यां पाणिभ्यां कण्डूयेदात्मनः शिरः । न स्पृशेच्चैतदुच्छिष्टो न च स्नायाद्विना ततः || ४.८२ ||[4]

    na saṁhatābhyāṁ pāṇibhyāṁ kaṇḍūyedātmanaḥ śiraḥ । na spr̥śeccaitaducchiṣṭo na ca snāyādvinā tataḥ || 4.82 ||

  • One should never bathe in water tanks belonging to others. By doing so, one incurs 1/4th of the sins belonging to the owner of the tank. Rather one should always bathe in rivers, or ponds dug for the deities, lakes, and in waterholes or springs. (Manu Smrt. 4.201 and 203).[3]

    नदीषु देवखातेषु तडागेषु सरःसु च । स्नानं समाचरेन्नित्यं गर्तप्रस्रवणेषु च || ४.२०३ ||[4]

    nadīṣu devakhāteṣu taḍāgeṣu saraḥsu ca । snānaṁ samācarennityaṁ gartaprasravaṇeṣu ca || 4.203 ||

आदरः ॥ Respect

Manusmrti lays emphasizes on respect towards all living beings. It says,

  • One should not place fire under a bed, cross or step over it. One should never do anything that may affect living beings. (Manu Smrt. 4.54).[3]

    अधस्तान्नोपदध्याच्च न चैनं अभिलङ्घयेत् । न चैनं पादतः कुर्यान्न प्राणाबाधं आचरेत् || ४.५४ ||[4]

    adhastānnopadadhyācca na cainaṁ abhilaṅghayet । na cainaṁ pādataḥ kuryānna prāṇābādhaṁ ācaret || 4.54 ||

  • Having seen a cow feeding her calf, one should not push them away nor tell anybody of it. In fact, one should also not ride on the back of cows. (Manu Smrt. 4.59 and 4.72).[3]

    न वारयेद्गां धयन्तीं न चाचक्षीत कस्य चित् ।। ४.५९ || गवां च यानं पृष्ठेन सर्वथैव विगर्हितम् || ४.७२ || [4]

    na vārayedgāṁ dhayantīṁ na cācakṣīta kasya cit ।। 4.59 || gavāṁ ca yānaṁ pr̥ṣṭhena sarvathaiva vigarhitam || 4.72 ||

  • One should not insult those who have redundant limbs, or those who are deficient in limbs, or those destitute of learning, or those who are far advanced in age, or those destitute of beauty or wealth, or those of low birth. (Manu Smrt. 4.141).[5]

    हीनाङ्गानतिरिक्ताङ्गान्विद्याहीनान्वयोऽधिकान् । रूपद्रविणहीनांश्च जातिहीनांश्च नाक्षिपेत् || ४.१४१ ||[4]

    hīnāṅgānatiriktāṅgānvidyāhīnānvayo'dhikān । rūpadraviṇahīnāṁśca jātihīnāṁśca nākṣipet || 4.141 ||

  • One should salute the elders and give up one's own seat to them; One should wait upon them with joined hands; and when they depart, one should follow behind them. (Manu Smrt. 4.154).[5]

    अभिवादयेद्वृद्धांश्च दद्याच्चैवासनं स्वकम् । कृताञ्जलिरुपासीत गच्छतः पृष्ठतोऽन्वियात् || ४.१५४ ||[4]

    abhivādayedvr̥ddhāṁśca dadyāccaivāsanaṁ svakam । kr̥tāñjalirupāsīta gacchataḥ pr̥ṣṭhato'nviyāt || 4.154 ||

  • One should not have a quarrel with the officiating priest, the priest, or one's Teacher, or with maternal uncle, or guests or dependents, with children, or with old or sick persons, or with doctors, with one's paternal relations or marriage relations, with parents, or female relations, or brother or son, or wife, or daughter, or with one's slaves. (Manu Smrt. 4.179 and 180). Because, if one avoids quarrels with these people, one will be freed from all sins.[5]

    ऋत्विक्पुरोहिताचार्यैर्मातुलातिथिसंश्रितैः । बालवृद्धातुरैर्वैद्यैर्ज्ञातिसंबन्धिबान्धवैः || ४.१७९ ||

    मातापितृभ्यां जामीभिर्भ्रात्रा पुत्रेण भार्यया । दुहित्रा दासवर्गेण विवादं न समाचरेत् || ४.१८० ||[4]

    r̥tvikpurohitācāryairmātulātithisaṁśritaiḥ । bālavr̥ddhāturairvaidyairjñātisaṁbandhibāndhavaiḥ || 4.179 ||

    mātāpitr̥bhyāṁ jāmībhirbhrātrā putreṇa bhāryayā । duhitrā dāsavargeṇa vivādaṁ na samācaret || 4.180 ||

  • The children, the aged, the emaciated and the sick should be regarded as the lords of Akasha (आकाशः); the elder brother is equal to the Father; the wife and the son are one’s own body. Servants are one’s own shadow; the daughter is the highest object of tenderness. For these reasons, when offended by these, one should always bear it without heat. (Manu Smrt. 4.184 and 185).[5]

    आकाशेशास्तु विज्ञेया बालवृद्धकृशातुराः । भ्राता ज्येष्ठः समः पित्रा भार्या पुत्रः स्वका तनुः || ४.१८४ ||

    छाया स्वो दासवर्गश्च दुहिता कृपणं परम् । तस्मादेतैरधिक्षिप्तः सहेतासंज्वरः सदा || ४.१८५ ||[4]

    ākāśeśāstu vijñeyā bālavr̥ddhakr̥śāturāḥ । bhrātā jyeṣṭhaḥ samaḥ pitrā bhāryā putraḥ svakā tanuḥ || 4.184 ||

    chāyā svo dāsavargaśca duhitā kr̥paṇaṁ param । tasmādetairadhikṣiptaḥ sahetāsaṁjvaraḥ sadā || 4.185 ||

आहारः निद्रा च ॥ Food and Sleep

  • One should not eat anything from which oil has been extracted; One should not commit gluttony; One should not eat very early in the morning, nor very late in the evening; nor in the evening, if one has eaten in the morning. (Manu Smrt. 4.62).[5]

    आचार्यं च प्रवक्तारं पितरं मातरं गुरुम् । न हिंस्याद्ब्राह्मणान्गाश्च सर्वांश्चैव तपस्विनः || ४.१६२ ||[4]

    ācāryaṁ ca pravaktāraṁ pitaraṁ mātaraṁ gurum । na hiṁsyādbrāhmaṇāngāśca sarvāṁścaiva tapasvinaḥ || 4.162 ||

  • One should not exert oneself without a purpose; not drink water from joined palms; eat food placing it on the lap; not have the habit of wanting to know other's work without reason. (Manu Smrt. 4.63).[3]

    न कुर्वीत वृथाचेष्टां न वार्यञ्जलिना पिबेत् । नोत्सङ्गे भक्षयेद्भक्ष्यान्न जातु स्यात्कुतूहली । । ४.६३ । ।[4]

    na kurvīta vr̥thāceṣṭāṁ na vāryañjalinā pibet । notsaṅge bhakṣayedbhakṣyānna jātu syātkutūhalī । । 4.63 । ।

  • One should never play with dice, nor walk with one's own shoe in the hands, not eat lying on a bed, nor keep it in one hand and eat with the other, or keep it on a seat and eat. One should not eat after sunset any food containing sesame, should not sleep naked, nor go anywhere with impure mouth (after meals). (Manu Smrt. 4.74 and 4.75).[3]

    नाक्षैर्दीव्येत्कदा चित्तु स्वयं नोपानहौ हरेत् । शयनस्थो न भुञ्जीत न पाणिस्थं न चासने । । ४.७४ । ।

    सर्वं च तिलसंबद्धं नाद्यादस्तं इते रवौ । न च नग्नः शयीतेह न चोच्छिष्टः क्व चिद्व्रजेत् । । ४.७५ । ।[4]

    nākṣairdīvyetkadā cittu svayaṁ nopānahau haret । śayanastho na bhuñjīta na pāṇisthaṁ na cāsane । । 4.74 । ।

    sarvaṁ ca tilasaṁbaddhaṁ nādyādastaṁ ite ravau । na ca nagnaḥ śayīteha na cocchiṣṭaḥ kva cidvrajet । । 4.75 । ।

  • One should eat after having washed one's feet, but should not go to bed with wet feet. The who eats becoming pure, having washed the hands and legs attains a long life. (Manu Smrt. 4.76).[3]

    आर्द्रपादस्तु भुञ्जीत नार्द्रपादस्तु संविशेत् । आर्द्रपादस्तु भुञ्जानो दीर्घं आयुरवाप्नुयात् । । ४.७६ । ।[4]

    ārdrapādastu bhuñjīta nārdrapādastu saṁviśet । ārdrapādastu bhuñjāno dīrghaṁ āyuravāpnuyāt । । 4.76 । ।

  • One should not bathe after a meal, nor when one is ill, nor at midnight, nor along with his garments; and never in an unknown water-reservoir. (Manu Smrt. 4.129).[5]

    न स्नानं आचरेद्भुक्त्वा नातुरो न महानिशि । न वासोभिः सहाजस्रं नाविज्ञाते जलाशये || ४.१२९ ||[4]

    na snānaṁ ācaredbhuktvā nāturo na mahāniśi । na vāsobhiḥ sahājasraṁ nāvijñāte jalāśaye || 4.129 ||

  • One should never eat food offered by intoxicated or angry or sick persons; nor that which is contaminated by hair or insects, or that which has been intentionally touched with the foot. (Manu Smrt. 4.207).[5]

    मत्तक्रुद्धातुराणां च न भुञ्जीत कदा चन । केशकीटावपन्नं च पदा स्पृष्टं च कामतः || ४.२०७ ||[4]

    mattakruddhāturāṇāṁ ca na bhuñjīta kadā cana । keśakīṭāvapannaṁ ca padā spr̥ṣṭaṁ ca kāmataḥ || 4.207 ||

अन्ये नियमाः || Other rules

Some other miscellaneous rules prescribed by Manusmrti are as follows:

  • One should never intentionally look at the rising or setting sun, during eclipse, reflected in water, or in the afternoon. (Manu Smrt. 4.37).[3]

    नेक्षेतोद्यन्तं आदित्यं नास्तं यान्तं कदा चन । नोपसृष्टं न वारिस्थं न मध्यं नभसो गतम् || ४.३७ ||[4]

    nekṣetodyantaṁ ādityaṁ nāstaṁ yāntaṁ kadā cana । nopasr̥ṣṭaṁ na vāristhaṁ na madhyaṁ nabhaso gatam || 4.37 ||

  • One should not step over a rope to which a calf is tied, not run when it rains, and not look at one's own image in water; this is the rule of Dharmashastra. (Manu Smrt. 4.38).[3]

    न लङ्घयेद्वत्सतन्त्रीं न प्रधावेच्च वर्षति । न चोदके निरीक्षेत स्वरूपं इति धारणा || ४.३८ ||[4]

    na laṅghayedvatsatantrīṁ na pradhāvecca varṣati । na codake nirīkṣeta svarūpaṁ iti dhāraṇā || 4.38 ||

  • One should not live in a village where Adharmis stay or where an epidemic is prevalent; one should not go alone on a journey to far off places, and should not reside for long on a mountain. (Manu Smrt. 4.60).[3]

    नाधर्मिके वसेद्ग्रामे न व्याधिबहुले भृशम् । नैकः प्रपद्येताध्वानं न चिरं पर्वते वसेत् || ४.६० ||[4]

    nādharmike vasedgrāme na vyādhibahule bhr̥śam । naikaḥ prapadyetādhvānaṁ na ciraṁ parvate vaset || 4.60 ||

  • One should avoid the morning sun, the smoke rising from a burning corpse, and a broken seat. It is not good to cut nails and hair, or bite nails with one's teeth. (Manu Smrt. 4.69).[3]

    बालातपः प्रेतधूमो वर्ज्यं भिन्नं तथासनम् । न छिन्द्यान्नखरोमाणि दन्तैर्नोत्पाटयेन्नखान् || ४.६९ ||[4]

    bālātapaḥ pretadhūmo varjyaṁ bhinnaṁ tathāsanam । na chindyānnakharomāṇi dantairnotpāṭayennakhān || 4.69 ||

  • One should not powder piece of mud with hands, nor pinch grass with nails; and never do anything that may have undesirable results in the future. One who powders clay, pinches off grass, bites nails, backbites about people or stays impure inside out, soon gets destroyed. (Manu Smrt. 4.70 and 71).[3]

    न मृल्लोष्ठं च मृद्नीयान्न छिन्द्यात्करजैस्तृणम् । न कर्म निष्फलं कुर्यान्नायत्यां असुखोदयम् || ४.७० ||

    लोष्ठमर्दी तृणच्छेदी नखखादी च यो नरः । स विनाशं व्रजत्याशु सूचकाशुचिरेव च || ४.७१ ||[4]

    na mr̥lloṣṭhaṁ ca mr̥dnīyānna chindyātkarajaistr̥ṇam । na karma niṣphalaṁ kuryānnāyatyāṁ asukhodayam || 4.70 ||

    loṣṭhamardī tr̥ṇacchedī nakhakhādī ca yo naraḥ । sa vināśaṁ vrajatyāśu sūcakāśucireva ca || 4.71 ||

  • One should not enter a village from a lane that is not designated for entry, nor should one enter a closed house by using the ladder, and during night stay away from the roots of trees. (Manu Smrt. 4.73).[3]

    अद्वारेण च नातीयाद्ग्रामं वा वेश्म वावृतम् । रात्रौ च वृक्षमूलानि दूरतः परिवर्जयेत् || ४.७३ ||[4]

    advāreṇa ca nātīyādgrāmaṁ vā veśma vāvr̥tam । rātrau ca vr̥kṣamūlāni dūrataḥ parivarjayet || 4.73 ||

  • One should never go to an abandoned fort, not look at urine or excreta, nor cross a river swimming with both the arms. (Manu Smrt. 4.77).[3]

    अचक्षुर्विषयं दुर्गं न प्रपद्येत कर्हि चित् । न विण्मूत्रं उदीक्षेत न बाहुभ्यां नदीं तरेत् || ४.७७ ||[4]

    acakṣurviṣayaṁ durgaṁna prapadyeta karhi cit । na viṇmūtraṁ udīkṣeta na bāhubhyāṁ nadīṁ taret || 4.77 ||

  • One should not sit on hair, ashes, bones, potsherds, cotton-seeds and chaff. The life of those who don't sit on these increase. (Manu Smrt. 4.78).[3]

    अधितिष्ठेन्न केशांस्तु न भस्मास्थिकपालिकाः । न कार्पासास्थि न तुषान्दीर्घं आयुर्जिजीविषुः || ४.७८ ||[4]

    adhitiṣṭhenna keśāṁstu na bhasmāsthikapālikāḥ । na kārpāsāsthi na tuṣāndīrghaṁ āyurjijīviṣuḥ || 4.78 ||

  • Catching of the hair, as also striking on the head,—these one should avoid; having head bathed, one should touch no limb with oil. (Manu Smrt. 4.83).[5]

    केशग्रहान्प्रहारांश्च शिरस्येतान्विवर्जयेत् । शिरःस्नातश्च तैलेन नाङ्गं किं चिदपि स्पृशेत् || ४.८३ ||[4]

    keśagrahānprahārāṁśca śirasyetānvivarjayet । śiraḥsnātaśca tailena nāṅgaṁ kiṁ cidapi spr̥śet || 4.83 ||

  • One should not cross over the shadow of images of the deities, guru, raja, snataka, acharya, brown cow, and a dikshita in a sacrifice. (Manu Smrt. 4.130).[3]

    देवतानां गुरो राज्ञः स्नातकाचार्ययोस्तथा । नाक्रामेत्कामतश्छायां बभ्रुणो दीक्षितस्य च || ४.१३० ||[4]

    devatānāṁ guro rājñaḥ snātakācāryayostathā । nākrāmetkāmataśchāyāṁ babhruṇo dīkṣitasya ca || 4.130 ||

  • One who desires one's own betterment, should never insult a Kshatriya, a snake, and a learned Brahmana, even if they are weak. Because these three, when being insulted destroy the person who caused it; hence a wise person must never insult them. (Manu Smrt. 4.135 and 136).[3]

    क्षत्रियं चैव सर्पं च ब्राह्मणं च बहुश्रुतम् । नावमन्येत वै भूष्णुः कृशानपि कदा चन || ४.१३५ ||

    एतत्त्रयं हि पुरुषं निर्दहेदवमानितम् । तस्मादेतत्त्रयं नित्यं नावमन्येत बुद्धिमान् || ४.१३६ ||[4]

    kṣatriyaṁ caiva sarpaṁ ca brāhmaṇaṁ ca bahuśrutam । nāvamanyeta vai bhūṣṇuḥ kr̥śānapi kadā cana || 4.135 ||

    etattrayaṁ hi puruṣaṁ nirdahedavamānitam । tasmādetattrayaṁ nityaṁ nāvamanyeta buddhimān || 4.136 ||

  • One should not despise oneself by reason of former failures. Until death, one should seek fortune, and should never think it unattainable. (Manu Smrt. 4.137).[5]

    नात्मानं अवमन्येत पुर्वाभिरसमृद्धिभिः । आ मृत्योः श्रियं अन्विच्छेन्नैनां मन्येत दुर्लभाम् || ४.१३७ ||[4]

    nātmānaṁ avamanyeta purvābhirasamr̥ddhibhiḥ । ā mr̥tyoḥ śriyaṁ anvicchennaināṁ manyeta durlabhām || 4.137 ||

समुचिताचरणहेतुः ॥ Purpose of Prescribed Code of Conduct

It is said that,

प्रयोजनमन्तरेण मन्दः अपि न प्रवर्तते । prayojanamantareṇa mandaḥ api na pravartate ।

Purpose inspires action. The prescribed code of conduct is also to achieve a purpose - Dharma Sanchaya (धर्मसञ्चयः | Accumulation of Merits).

Manusmrti says,

  • Without causing pain to any beings, one shall, for the purpose of obtaining a companion in the other world, accumulate adhyatmik merit, slowly; just as the white ants accumulate the ant-hill. For there, neither father, nor mother, nor wife, nor sons, nor relations stay as companions; adhyatmik merit alone remains. One should, therefore, slowly accumulate adhyatmik merit, for the purpose of securing a companion; for, with merit as one's companion, man crosses over unfordable darkness. (Manu Smrt. 4.238, 239 and 242).[5]

    धर्मं शनैः संचिनुयाद्वल्मीकं इव पुत्तिकाः । परलोकसहायार्थं सर्वभूतान्यपीडयन् || ४.२३८ ||

    नामुत्र हि सहायार्थं पिता माता च तिष्ठतः । न पुत्रदारं न ज्ञातिर्धर्मस्तिष्ठति केवलः || ४.२३९ ||

    तस्माद्धर्मं सहायार्थं नित्यं संचिनुयाच्छनैः । धर्मेण हि सहायेन तमस्तरति दुस्तरम् || ४.२४२ ||[4]

    dharmaṁ śanaiḥ saṁcinuyādvalmīkaṁ iva puttikāḥ । paralokasahāyārthaṁ sarvabhūtānyapīḍayan || 4.238 ||

    nāmutra hi sahāyārthaṁ pitā mātā ca tiṣṭhataḥ । na putradāraṁ na jñātirdharmastiṣṭhati kevalaḥ || 4.239 ||

    tasmāddharmaṁ sahāyārthaṁ nityaṁ saṁcinuyācchanaiḥ । dharmeṇa hi sahāyena tamastarati dustaram || 4.242 ||

  • One who acts resolutely, is gentle and tolerant, who does not associate with persons of cruel disposition, and who does no injury to others, shall win heaven by self-control and liberality, if one sticks to this practice. (Manu Smrt. 4.246).[5]

    दृढकारी मृदुर्दान्तः क्रूराचारैरसंवसन् । अहिंस्रो दमदानाभ्यां जयेत्स्वर्गं तथाव्रतः || ४.२४६ ||[4]

    dr̥ḍhakārī mr̥durdāntaḥ krūrācārairasaṁvasan ।ahiṁsro damadānābhyāṁ jayetsvargaṁ tathāvrataḥ || 4.246 ||

सदाचारफलम् || Fruits of Good Conduct

Manusmrti also enumerates the fruits of adhering to the prescribed code of conduct. It says,

  • One should always take the experience of auspicious things, keep the mind in control, chant mantras like the gayatri and perform sacrifices always. The one who follows good conduct, does chanting and sacrifices, who has control over his indriyas (इन्द्रिय-s । sense organs) obtains bliss in this world and the other world. (Manu Smrt. (4.145 and 146).[3]

    मङ्गलाचारयुक्तः स्यात्प्रयतात्मा जितेन्द्रियः । जपेच्च जुहुयाच्चैव नित्यं अग्निं अतन्द्रितः || ४.१४५ ||

    मङ्गलाचारयुक्तानां नित्यं च प्रयतात्मनाम् । जपतां जुह्वतां चैव विनिपातो न विद्यते || ४.१४६ ||[4]

    maṅgalācārayuktaḥ syātprayatātmā jitendriyaḥ । japecca juhuyāccaiva nityaṁ agniṁ atandritaḥ || 4.145 ||

    maṅgalācārayuktānāṁ nityaṁ ca prayatātmanām । japatāṁ juhvatāṁ caiva vinipāto na vidyate || 4.146 ||

  • By studying the Vedas diligently, observing the rules of purity, doing japa and having love towards all created beings, one gains the memory of his former births. One who, recollecting his former births, continues to study the Veda, gains endless bliss by the continual study of the Veda. (Manu Smrt. 4.148 and 149).[3]

    वेदाभ्यासेन सततं शौचेन तपसैव च । अद्रोहेण च भूतानां जातिं स्मरति पौर्विकीम् || ४.१४८ ||

    पौर्विकीं संस्मरन्जातिं ब्रह्मैवाभ्यस्यते पुनः । ब्रह्माभ्यासेन चाजस्रं अनन्तं सुखं अश्नुते || ४.१४९ ||[4]

    vedābhyāsena satataṁ śaucena tapasaiva ca । adroheṇa ca bhūtānāṁ jātiṁ smarati paurvikīm || 4.148 ||

    paurvikīṁ saṁsmaranjātiṁ brahmaivābhyasyate punaḥ । brahmābhyāsena cājasraṁ anantaṁ sukhaṁ aśnute || 4.149 ||

  • A Brahmana who, being learned in the lore of the Vedas, conducts himself in this manner and nullifies his sins, will be exalted in the brahmaloka. (Manu Smrt. 4.260).[3]

    अनेन विप्रो वृत्तेन वर्तयन्वेदशास्त्रवित् । व्यपेतकल्मषो नित्यं ब्रह्मलोके महीयते || ४.२६० ||[4]

    anena vipro vr̥ttena vartayanvedaśāstravit । vyapetakalmaṣo nityaṁ brahmaloke mahīyate || 4.260 ||

References

  1. Shabdakalpadruma
  2. Swami Sivananda (1999), All About Hinduism, Uttar Pradesh: The Divine Life Society.
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 3.20 3.21 3.22 3.23 3.24 3.25 Pt. Girija Prasad Dvivedi (1917), The Manusmriti, Lucknow: Naval Kishore Press.
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 4.20 4.21 4.22 4.23 4.24 4.25 4.26 4.27 4.28 4.29 4.30 4.31 4.32 4.33 4.34 4.35 4.36 Manusmrti, Adhyaya 4.
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 Ganganath Jha (1920-39), Manusmrti (Vol.4), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited.