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|Devanagari||Singular - उपनिषद्||Plural - उपनिषदः|
|English Transliteration||Singular - upaniṣad||Plural - upaniṣadaḥ|
|Indian Languages (if applicable)|
|Definition/Description||The term Upaniṣad term consists of उप (upa) and नि (ni) उपसर्ग-s (Upasargas or Prefixes) and सद् धातुः (Sad dhatu) used in the sense of विशरणगत्यवसादनेषु । viśaraṇagatyavasādaneṣu.
Here visharana means to destroy - the seeds of Avidya; gati is used in the sense of knowing or obtaining - Brahmavidya; Avasadanam means to loosen or dissolve - the bondages of samsara.
|There are 10-12 mukhya pracheena or important Upanishads and close to 200 known Upanishads. Muktikopanishad lists 108 Upanishads.
|Upanishadic texts, like the Vedas were passed down verbally from generations. They expound the philosophy of life and after-life, are are one of the Prasthana traya granthas. They are the basis of the six Astika Darshana shastras.||Central concepts in Upanishads|
|Examples of Usage||साङ्गोपाङ्गोपनिषदः सरहस्यः प्रदीयताम् (sāṅgopāṅgopaniṣadaḥ sarahasyaḥ pradīyatām) Rāmayana.1.55.16.|
|Common misinterpretations/mistranslations||Many Western translators have mistranslated the term Upanishads as having a sense of secrecy.
- secret doctrine (Max Muller and Paul Deussen)
- mystic meaning (Robert Hume)
- hidden connections (Patrick Olivelle)
Upanishads lack systematic philosophy and a central theme - Max Muller
Chronology of Upanishads is a highly debatable topic
- Upadhyaya, Baldev. (1958) Vaidik Sahitya.