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{{ToBeEdited}}{{NeedCitation}}The term Trigunas is made up of 2 parts. The first part is 'Tri' which means 3 in number and the second part is 'Gunas' which means qualities or properties of substance. Thus the term points towards 3 qualities or properties of substance. In Bharatiya shastras, Bhagvad Gita and Ayurveda, the term Triguna implies the set of 3 human characteristics namely Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. In Ayurveda these are the 3 types of energy of mind while in the frame of reference of other shastras these 3 are the modes of material energy. The human temperament, behavior, emotions and actions are influenced by the dominance of one of these trigunas at that point of the time. Also, on the basis of their levels from the time of birth in any human being, the humans are characterized as Sattvik, Rajas or Tamas in mind-type. The personality, behavior, interests, health and ultimately the quality of one's life largely depends on the presence, absence or predominance of any of these trigunas in one's mind. Thus, Ayurveda has laid large emphasis on understanding of these 3 modes with special reference to the mind and characteristics of the individual.   
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{{ToBeEdited}}{{NeedCitation}}The term Trigunas is made up of 2 parts. The first part is 'Tri' which means 3 in number and the second part is 'Gunas' which means qualities or properties of a substance. Thus the term points towards 3 qualities or properties of a substance. In Bharatiya shastras, Bhagvad Gita and Ayurveda, the term Triguna implies the set of 3 human characteristics namely Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. In Ayurveda these are the 3 types of characteristics of mind while in the frame of reference of other shastras these 3 are the modes of material energy. The human temperament, behavior, emotions and actions are influenced by the dominance of one of these trigunas at that point of the time. Also, on the basis of their levels from the time of birth in any human being, the humans are characterized as Sattvik, Rajas or Tamas in mind-type. The personality, behavior, interests, health and ultimately the quality of one's life largely depends on the presence, absence, levels or predominance of these trigunas in one's mind. Thus, Ayurveda has laid large emphasis on understanding of these 3 modes with special reference to the mind and characteristics of the individual.   
  
 
== Mahagunas or trigunas ==
 
== Mahagunas or trigunas ==
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Bhagavad Gita (भगवद्गीता) is a dialogue between Lord Krishna and Arjuna, narrated in the Bhishma Parva of the [[Mahabharata (महाभारतम्)|Mahabharata]]. In the 14th discourse of Bhagvad Gita, Lord Krishna narrates the role of Trigunas in one's life. At this place, the origin and association of Trigunas with one's life has been explained by lord Krishna as follows,  <blockquote>सत्त्वं रजस्तम इति गुणा: प्रकृतिसम्भवा: । निबध्नन्ति महाबाहो देहे देहिनमव्ययम् ॥ (Bhagvad Gita 14.5)</blockquote><blockquote>sattvaṁ rajastama iti guṇā: prakr̥tisambhavā: । nibadhnanti mahābāho dehe dehinamavyayam ॥ (Bhagvad Gita 14.5)</blockquote>Meaning: Prakrti or the material energy consists of three guṇas (modes)—sattva (goodness), rajas (passion), and tamas (ignorance). These modes bind the eternal soul to the perishable body.
 
Bhagavad Gita (भगवद्गीता) is a dialogue between Lord Krishna and Arjuna, narrated in the Bhishma Parva of the [[Mahabharata (महाभारतम्)|Mahabharata]]. In the 14th discourse of Bhagvad Gita, Lord Krishna narrates the role of Trigunas in one's life. At this place, the origin and association of Trigunas with one's life has been explained by lord Krishna as follows,  <blockquote>सत्त्वं रजस्तम इति गुणा: प्रकृतिसम्भवा: । निबध्नन्ति महाबाहो देहे देहिनमव्ययम् ॥ (Bhagvad Gita 14.5)</blockquote><blockquote>sattvaṁ rajastama iti guṇā: prakr̥tisambhavā: । nibadhnanti mahābāho dehe dehinamavyayam ॥ (Bhagvad Gita 14.5)</blockquote>Meaning: Prakrti or the material energy consists of three guṇas (modes)—sattva (goodness), rajas (passion), and tamas (ignorance). These modes bind the eternal soul to the perishable body.
  
Prakrti is believed to be that part of source of creation which is responsible for material existence of the universe. Since the trigunas are said to be the modes of this prakrti, all the matter or the material existence possess trigunas. Bhagwad Gita explains how the same individual’s temperament oscillates amongst the trigunas. These 3 gunas are Sattvam, Rajas and Tamas.  These three guṇas are present in the material energy, and our mind is made from the same energy. These are also considered as the modes of energy.  Hence, all the three ''guṇas'' are present in our mind as well. They can be compared to three wrestlers competing with each other. Each keeps throwing the others down, and so, sometimes the first is on top, sometimes the second, and sometimes the third. In the same manner, the three ''guṇas'' keep gaining dominance over the individual’s temperament, which oscillates amongst the three modes. Based upon one’s internal thoughts, the external circumstances, past ''sanskārs'', and other factors, one or the other of these modes becomes dominant for that person. And the mode that predominates creates its corresponding shade upon that person’s personality. Hence, the soul is swayed by the influence of these dominating modes.
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Prakrti is believed to be that part of source of creation which is responsible for material existence of the universe. Since the trigunas are said to be the modes of this prakrti, all the matter or the material existence possess trigunas. Bhagwad Gita explains how the same individual’s temperament oscillates amongst the trigunas. These 3 gunas are Sattvam, Rajas and Tamas.  These three guṇas are present in the material energy, and our mind is made from the same energy. These are also considered as the modes of energy.  Hence, all the three guṇas are present in our mind as well.
  
 
== Triguna interaction ==
 
== Triguna interaction ==
'''रजस्तमश्चाभिभूय सत्त्वं भवति भारत |''' '''रज: सत्त्वं तमश्चैव तम: सत्त्वं रजस्तथा || 10|| B.G14.10'''
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All the 3 gunas can  co-exist in a persons mind at given point of a time. However, each one possesses some energy opposite to that of other guna and thus they keep on competing with each other to establish self dominance. They can be compared to three wrestlers competing with each other. Each keeps throwing the others down, and so, sometimes the first is on top, sometimes the second, and sometimes the third. In the same manner, the three guṇas keep gaining dominance over the individual’s temperament, which oscillates amongst the three modes. Based upon one’s internal thoughts, the external circumstances, past sanskaras, and other factors, one or the other of these modes becomes dominant for that person. And the mode that predominates creates its corresponding shade upon that person’s personality. Hence, the soul is swayed by the influence of these dominating modes.
  
Meaning: '''Sometimes goodness ('''''sattva''''') prevails over passion ('''''rajas''''') and ignorance ('''''tamas'''''), O scion of Bharat. Sometimes passion ('''''rajas''''') dominates goodness ('''''sattva''''') and ignorance ('''''tamas)''''', and at other times ignorance ('''''tamas''''') overcomes goodness ('''''sattva''''') and passion ('''''rajas''''').'''
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<blockquote>रजस्तमश्चाभिभूय सत्त्वं भवति भारत । रज: सत्त्वं तमश्चैव तम: सत्त्वं रजस्तथा ॥ (Bhagvad Gita 14.10) </blockquote><blockquote>rajastamaścābhibhūya sattvaṁ bhavati bhārata । raja: sattvaṁ tamaścaiva tama: sattvaṁ rajastathā ॥ (Bhagvad Gita 14.10)</blockquote>
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 +
Meaning: Sometimes sattva (goodness) prevails over rajas (passion) and tamas (ignorance). Sometimes rajas (passion) dominates sattva (goodness) and tamas (ignorance), and at other times tamas (ignorance) overcomes sattva (goodness) and rajas (passion).
  
 
== Actions and effects of Trigunas ==
 
== Actions and effects of Trigunas ==
'''सत्त्वं सुखे सञ्जयति रज: कर्मणि भारत |'''
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Sattva, rajas and tamas play hey role in the way a persons mind, emotions, behaviour and social interaction happens. All these aspects of one's personality are responsible for that persons actions and their results which ultimately decide the health, well-being and success of that individual in this world. Learning the exclusive characteristics of each of the trigunas thus one can foresee the possible quality of life of an individual based upon the predominance of the trigunas in his mind. In Bhagvad Gita, lord Krinshna has explained the action and effect of trigunas on one's life as follows,
 +
 
 +
<blockquote>सत्त्वं सुखे सञ्जयति रज: कर्मणि भारत । ज्ञानमावृत्य तु तम: प्रमादे सञ्जयत्युत ॥ (Bhagvad Gita 14.9) </blockquote><blockquote>sattvaṁ sukhe sañjayati raja: karmaṇi bhārata । jñānamāvr̥tya tu tama: pramāde sañjayatyuta ॥ (Bhagvad Gita 14.9)</blockquote>Meaning: Sattva binds one to happiness; rajas conditions the soul toward actions; and tamas clouds wisdom and binds one to delusion.
 +
 
 +
the effects of each of trigunas is a result of its property. Sattva is said to be the illuminating or enlightening quality that helps one to understand the truth or reality of the situation, gives clarity and thus helps one to understand real bliss or happiness. Rajas owing to its passionate nature, consistently forces one to initiate actions to achieve goals and thus that person gets engaged in the pursuit of various pleasures. On the other hand, Tamas by nature clouds the wisdom and incapacitates individual to know the truth or to understand the real nature of anything. Naturally, the person makes mistakes or [[Prajnaparadha (प्रज्ञापराधः)|prajnaparadhas]] leading to unrewarding, miserable life.
  
'''ज्ञानमावृत्य तु तम: प्रमादे सञ्जयत्युत || 9||''' B.G 14.9
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== मनोबलम् ॥ Effect of Trigunas on the strength of mind ==
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In Ayurveda, the term [[Balam (बलम्)|Balam]] is used to indicate strength of a physical body or mind. The strength of mind is believed to be the that factor which decides the level of imbalances occurring in a persons mind on an encounter with undesirable, painful accident of any kind. It also indicates ability of the mind to protect oneself against various stressors. These imbalances later also reflect upon physical body ultimately affecting one's health, well-being and overall quality of a life. In this way strength of mind can also be compared with the tolerance level of mind and emotions a person. More the strangth or tolerance capacity, lesss prone the person is to stressful and unpleasant circumstances. Thus one can say that, the term Manobalam literally refers to psychological immunity of a person. It is believed that these trigunas play key role in development of psychological strenth and immunity in a person in a following manner.
  
Meaning: ''Sattva'' '''binds one to material happiness;''' ''rajas'' '''conditions the soul toward actions; and''' ''tamas'' '''clouds wisdom and binds one to delusion.'''
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<blockquote>सत्त्वे उत्तमं मनोबलं, रजसि मध्यमं मनोबलं, तमसि मनोदौर्बल्यमेवेति ॥ (Sush Samh 35.38) <ref>Sushruta Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyayam 35 Sutram 38)</ref></blockquote><blockquote>sattve uttamaṁ manobalaṁ, rajasi madhyamaṁ manobalaṁ, tamasi manodaurbalyameveti ॥ (Sush Samh 35.38)</blockquote>Meaning: The strength of mind is best due to Sattva, moderate due to Rajas whereas the mind is weak due to presence or predominance of tamas.
  
== Effect of Trigunas on the strength of mind ==
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Acharya Sushruta has clarified that, the stregth of mind varies depending on the levels of trigunas in one's mind. The person the psychologically and emotionally strongest when there is predominance of sattva in mind and emotionally and psychologically vulnerable or weak when tamas is predominant in mind. Rajas level in manas makes one moderately strong while dealing stressful and unpleasant situations.
सत्त्वे उत्तमं मनोबलं, रजसि मध्यमं मनोबलं, तमसि मनोदौर्बल्यमेवेति| su su 35/38
 
  
 
== Rajas and Tamas as doshas or disease causing factors ==
 
== Rajas and Tamas as doshas or disease causing factors ==
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अतस्त्रिविधा व्याधयः प्रादुर्भवन्ति- आग्नेयाः, सौम्याः, वायव्याश्च; द्विविधाश्चापरे- राजसाः, तामसाश्च||४|| Cha ni 1/4
 
अतस्त्रिविधा व्याधयः प्रादुर्भवन्ति- आग्नेयाः, सौम्याः, वायव्याश्च; द्विविधाश्चापरे- राजसाः, तामसाश्च||४|| Cha ni 1/4
  
 
== Role of Trigunas in Moksha ==
 
== Role of Trigunas in Moksha ==
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<references />

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The term Trigunas is made up of 2 parts. The first part is 'Tri' which means 3 in number and the second part is 'Gunas' which means qualities or properties of a substance. Thus the term points towards 3 qualities or properties of a substance. In Bharatiya shastras, Bhagvad Gita and Ayurveda, the term Triguna implies the set of 3 human characteristics namely Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. In Ayurveda these are the 3 types of characteristics of mind while in the frame of reference of other shastras these 3 are the modes of material energy. The human temperament, behavior, emotions and actions are influenced by the dominance of one of these trigunas at that point of the time. Also, on the basis of their levels from the time of birth in any human being, the humans are characterized as Sattvik, Rajas or Tamas in mind-type. The personality, behavior, interests, health and ultimately the quality of one's life largely depends on the presence, absence, levels or predominance of these trigunas in one's mind. Thus, Ayurveda has laid large emphasis on understanding of these 3 modes with special reference to the mind and characteristics of the individual.

Mahagunas or trigunas

The 3 modes of material energy or the 3 characteristics of mind are called as trigunas. These are also known as Mahagunas in Ayurveda literature.

सत्त्वं रजस्तमश्चेति त्रयः प्रोक्ता महागुणाः॥ (Asht. Samg. 1.29)[1]

sattvaṁ rajastamaśceti trayaḥ proktā mahāguṇāḥ॥ (Asht. Samg. 1.29)

Trigunas according to Bhagvad gita

Bhagavad Gita (भगवद्गीता) is a dialogue between Lord Krishna and Arjuna, narrated in the Bhishma Parva of the Mahabharata. In the 14th discourse of Bhagvad Gita, Lord Krishna narrates the role of Trigunas in one's life. At this place, the origin and association of Trigunas with one's life has been explained by lord Krishna as follows,

सत्त्वं रजस्तम इति गुणा: प्रकृतिसम्भवा: । निबध्नन्ति महाबाहो देहे देहिनमव्ययम् ॥ (Bhagvad Gita 14.5)

sattvaṁ rajastama iti guṇā: prakr̥tisambhavā: । nibadhnanti mahābāho dehe dehinamavyayam ॥ (Bhagvad Gita 14.5)

Meaning: Prakrti or the material energy consists of three guṇas (modes)—sattva (goodness), rajas (passion), and tamas (ignorance). These modes bind the eternal soul to the perishable body.

Prakrti is believed to be that part of source of creation which is responsible for material existence of the universe. Since the trigunas are said to be the modes of this prakrti, all the matter or the material existence possess trigunas. Bhagwad Gita explains how the same individual’s temperament oscillates amongst the trigunas. These 3 gunas are Sattvam, Rajas and Tamas. These three guṇas are present in the material energy, and our mind is made from the same energy. These are also considered as the modes of energy. Hence, all the three guṇas are present in our mind as well.

Triguna interaction

All the 3 gunas can co-exist in a persons mind at given point of a time. However, each one possesses some energy opposite to that of other guna and thus they keep on competing with each other to establish self dominance. They can be compared to three wrestlers competing with each other. Each keeps throwing the others down, and so, sometimes the first is on top, sometimes the second, and sometimes the third. In the same manner, the three guṇas keep gaining dominance over the individual’s temperament, which oscillates amongst the three modes. Based upon one’s internal thoughts, the external circumstances, past sanskaras, and other factors, one or the other of these modes becomes dominant for that person. And the mode that predominates creates its corresponding shade upon that person’s personality. Hence, the soul is swayed by the influence of these dominating modes.

रजस्तमश्चाभिभूय सत्त्वं भवति भारत । रज: सत्त्वं तमश्चैव तम: सत्त्वं रजस्तथा ॥ (Bhagvad Gita 14.10)

rajastamaścābhibhūya sattvaṁ bhavati bhārata । raja: sattvaṁ tamaścaiva tama: sattvaṁ rajastathā ॥ (Bhagvad Gita 14.10)

Meaning: Sometimes sattva (goodness) prevails over rajas (passion) and tamas (ignorance). Sometimes rajas (passion) dominates sattva (goodness) and tamas (ignorance), and at other times tamas (ignorance) overcomes sattva (goodness) and rajas (passion).

Actions and effects of Trigunas

Sattva, rajas and tamas play hey role in the way a persons mind, emotions, behaviour and social interaction happens. All these aspects of one's personality are responsible for that persons actions and their results which ultimately decide the health, well-being and success of that individual in this world. Learning the exclusive characteristics of each of the trigunas thus one can foresee the possible quality of life of an individual based upon the predominance of the trigunas in his mind. In Bhagvad Gita, lord Krinshna has explained the action and effect of trigunas on one's life as follows,

सत्त्वं सुखे सञ्जयति रज: कर्मणि भारत । ज्ञानमावृत्य तु तम: प्रमादे सञ्जयत्युत ॥ (Bhagvad Gita 14.9)

sattvaṁ sukhe sañjayati raja: karmaṇi bhārata । jñānamāvr̥tya tu tama: pramāde sañjayatyuta ॥ (Bhagvad Gita 14.9)

Meaning: Sattva binds one to happiness; rajas conditions the soul toward actions; and tamas clouds wisdom and binds one to delusion.

the effects of each of trigunas is a result of its property. Sattva is said to be the illuminating or enlightening quality that helps one to understand the truth or reality of the situation, gives clarity and thus helps one to understand real bliss or happiness. Rajas owing to its passionate nature, consistently forces one to initiate actions to achieve goals and thus that person gets engaged in the pursuit of various pleasures. On the other hand, Tamas by nature clouds the wisdom and incapacitates individual to know the truth or to understand the real nature of anything. Naturally, the person makes mistakes or prajnaparadhas leading to unrewarding, miserable life.

मनोबलम् ॥ Effect of Trigunas on the strength of mind

In Ayurveda, the term Balam is used to indicate strength of a physical body or mind. The strength of mind is believed to be the that factor which decides the level of imbalances occurring in a persons mind on an encounter with undesirable, painful accident of any kind. It also indicates ability of the mind to protect oneself against various stressors. These imbalances later also reflect upon physical body ultimately affecting one's health, well-being and overall quality of a life. In this way strength of mind can also be compared with the tolerance level of mind and emotions a person. More the strangth or tolerance capacity, lesss prone the person is to stressful and unpleasant circumstances. Thus one can say that, the term Manobalam literally refers to psychological immunity of a person. It is believed that these trigunas play key role in development of psychological strenth and immunity in a person in a following manner.

सत्त्वे उत्तमं मनोबलं, रजसि मध्यमं मनोबलं, तमसि मनोदौर्बल्यमेवेति ॥ (Sush Samh 35.38) [2]

sattve uttamaṁ manobalaṁ, rajasi madhyamaṁ manobalaṁ, tamasi manodaurbalyameveti ॥ (Sush Samh 35.38)

Meaning: The strength of mind is best due to Sattva, moderate due to Rajas whereas the mind is weak due to presence or predominance of tamas.

Acharya Sushruta has clarified that, the stregth of mind varies depending on the levels of trigunas in one's mind. The person the psychologically and emotionally strongest when there is predominance of sattva in mind and emotionally and psychologically vulnerable or weak when tamas is predominant in mind. Rajas level in manas makes one moderately strong while dealing stressful and unpleasant situations.

Rajas and Tamas as doshas or disease causing factors

अतस्त्रिविधा व्याधयः प्रादुर्भवन्ति- आग्नेयाः, सौम्याः, वायव्याश्च; द्विविधाश्चापरे- राजसाः, तामसाश्च||४|| Cha ni 1/4

Role of Trigunas in Moksha

  1. Ashtang Samgraha (Sutrasthanam Adhyayam 1 Sutram 29)
  2. Sushruta Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyayam 35 Sutram 38)