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==Authority of Sanatana Dharma==
 
==Authority of Sanatana Dharma==
 
A term of wide import, Sanatana Dharma is inclusive of many siddhantas and tattvas (philosophies) all unified in their goal of achieving the highest state of mankind which is [[Nihshreyasa (निःश्रेयसम्)]]. As knowledge is the rightful source of authority, as knowledge of the great Rshis was the product of their Reason in resonance with the Divine Reason, the Shrutis, given to the world are authoritative. The system of morality inculcated in Sanatana Dharma, is therefore authoritative as it  
 
A term of wide import, Sanatana Dharma is inclusive of many siddhantas and tattvas (philosophies) all unified in their goal of achieving the highest state of mankind which is [[Nihshreyasa (निःश्रेयसम्)]]. As knowledge is the rightful source of authority, as knowledge of the great Rshis was the product of their Reason in resonance with the Divine Reason, the Shrutis, given to the world are authoritative. The system of morality inculcated in Sanatana Dharma, is therefore authoritative as it  
* is founded on the recognition of Unity of Self
+
 
* draws its precepts and sanctions from that supreme truth
+
*is founded on the recognition of Unity of Self
* is capable of appealing to and being verified by Reason
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*draws its precepts and sanctions from that supreme truth
 +
*is capable of appealing to and being verified by Reason
 +
 
 
Here in the following sections we revisit all the texts of final authority on which Sanatana Dharma is based on.
 
Here in the following sections we revisit all the texts of final authority on which Sanatana Dharma is based on.
 
===Shrutis===
 
===Shrutis===
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===पुरुषार्थाः ॥ Purusharthas===
 
===पुरुषार्थाः ॥ Purusharthas===
 
The ultimate purpose of human life is to shed all attachments to matter and attain moksha (liberation from material existence) and return to the transcendental realm which is not only our true nature but also our real home. The Vedic path offers personal freedom for one to make his or her own choice of how he or she wants to pursue their spiritual approach, and what level of the Absolute Truth he or she wishes to understand. This is the height of spiritual democracy and freedom from tyranny.
 
The ultimate purpose of human life is to shed all attachments to matter and attain moksha (liberation from material existence) and return to the transcendental realm which is not only our true nature but also our real home. The Vedic path offers personal freedom for one to make his or her own choice of how he or she wants to pursue their spiritual approach, and what level of the Absolute Truth he or she wishes to understand. This is the height of spiritual democracy and freedom from tyranny.
 +
 
#Dharma (धर्मः), is to develop ourselves morally and spiritually
 
#Dharma (धर्मः), is to develop ourselves morally and spiritually
 
#Artha (अर्थः), is to develop a career or trade and prosper materially
 
#Artha (अर्थः), is to develop a career or trade and prosper materially
 
#Kama (कामः), is to enjoy and work out our basic material desires as is appropriate for our particular stage of life
 
#Kama (कामः), is to enjoy and work out our basic material desires as is appropriate for our particular stage of life
 
#Moksha (मोक्षम्) is to retire from all the activities and focus on attaining Self-realization and freedom from any further rounds of birth and death in material existence.
 
#Moksha (मोक्षम्) is to retire from all the activities and focus on attaining Self-realization and freedom from any further rounds of birth and death in material existence.
 +
 
Here we elaborate on the two boundaries of the book called Life, namely Dharma and Moksha. The intermediary two namely Artha and Kama are based on Dharma thus forming Trivarga governing the codes for worldly existence.
 
Here we elaborate on the two boundaries of the book called Life, namely Dharma and Moksha. The intermediary two namely Artha and Kama are based on Dharma thus forming Trivarga governing the codes for worldly existence.
   −
==== धर्मः॥ Dharma ====
+
====धर्मः॥ Dharma====
 
Purusharthas define our lifestyle by influencing our thought processes directly, establishing the code of conduct through Dharma, the first of the Purusharthas. The system of morality so inculcated by the Sanatana Dharma is authoritative as it is developed based on Reason (Chit), on the Divine Wisdom primarily and on the illuminated Human Reason (Buddhi) secondarily. The object of morality is bring about happiness by establishing harmonious relations between all the Jivatmas. Thus the standard of Ethics or Dharma is in other words to unite not to divide.  
 
Purusharthas define our lifestyle by influencing our thought processes directly, establishing the code of conduct through Dharma, the first of the Purusharthas. The system of morality so inculcated by the Sanatana Dharma is authoritative as it is developed based on Reason (Chit), on the Divine Wisdom primarily and on the illuminated Human Reason (Buddhi) secondarily. The object of morality is bring about happiness by establishing harmonious relations between all the Jivatmas. Thus the standard of Ethics or Dharma is in other words to unite not to divide.  
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According to Brhdaranyaka Upanishad, Jivatma having become tranquil, wise, subdued, dispassionate, enduring and collected, he sees the Self in Self, in all, overcomes all papa, free from passion he comes a Brahman in the all-pervading the Brahmaloka.<blockquote>स वा एष महानज आत्माऽजरोऽमरोऽमृतोऽभयो ब्रह्माभयं वै ब्रह्माभय हि वै ब्रह्म भवति य एवं वेद ॥ २५ ॥ (Brhd. Upan. 4.4.25)<ref>Brhdaranyaka Upanishad ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AC%E0%A5%83%E0%A4%B9%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%A3%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%95_%E0%A4%89%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%B7%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%8D_4p Adhyaya 4 Brahmana 4])</ref></blockquote>So long as the mind is turned towards senses it finds misery, when it turns to understanding the Self, it  finds Bliss. Such a man is termed Mukta, and the state Moksha, who has reached the stage of liberation, with the Jnana of Self, free from the cycle of births and deaths, and may or may not be surrounded by the physical conditions.<ref name=":022" />
 
According to Brhdaranyaka Upanishad, Jivatma having become tranquil, wise, subdued, dispassionate, enduring and collected, he sees the Self in Self, in all, overcomes all papa, free from passion he comes a Brahman in the all-pervading the Brahmaloka.<blockquote>स वा एष महानज आत्माऽजरोऽमरोऽमृतोऽभयो ब्रह्माभयं वै ब्रह्माभय हि वै ब्रह्म भवति य एवं वेद ॥ २५ ॥ (Brhd. Upan. 4.4.25)<ref>Brhdaranyaka Upanishad ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AC%E0%A5%83%E0%A4%B9%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%A3%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%95_%E0%A4%89%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%B7%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%8D_4p Adhyaya 4 Brahmana 4])</ref></blockquote>So long as the mind is turned towards senses it finds misery, when it turns to understanding the Self, it  finds Bliss. Such a man is termed Mukta, and the state Moksha, who has reached the stage of liberation, with the Jnana of Self, free from the cycle of births and deaths, and may or may not be surrounded by the physical conditions.<ref name=":022" />
   −
== Sanatana Dharma Vyavastha ==
+
==Sanatana Dharma Vyavastha==
 
The previous section is a brief summary of the siddhantas (theories) or mental processes on which Sanatana Dharma is based on. The present section deals with the course of action to be taken, the system of Karma (activities) that leads one on the path of Dharma, establishes him on the Prvritti marga of Jnana taking him to his goal of [[Nihshreyasa (निःश्रेयसम्)|Nihshreyasa]] and Moksha.  
 
The previous section is a brief summary of the siddhantas (theories) or mental processes on which Sanatana Dharma is based on. The present section deals with the course of action to be taken, the system of Karma (activities) that leads one on the path of Dharma, establishes him on the Prvritti marga of Jnana taking him to his goal of [[Nihshreyasa (निःश्रेयसम्)|Nihshreyasa]] and Moksha.  
 
===वेदप्रमाणत्वम् ॥ The Authority of Vedas===
 
===वेदप्रमाणत्वम् ॥ The Authority of Vedas===
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===देवताराधना ॥ Devataradhana===
 
===देवताराधना ॥ Devataradhana===
 
The presence of vast host of Devatas does not obscure the Unity of Brahman (Ishvara), in his triple form as Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva than does the vast hosts of men, animals, plants and minerals which are held sacred and prayed to since ages. As said in the Shruti<blockquote>इन्द्रं मित्रं वरुणमग्निमाहु॒रथो दिव्यः स सुपर्णो गरुत्मान् । एकं सद् विप्रा बहुधा वदन्त्यग्निं यमं मातरिश्वानमाहुः ॥४६॥ (Rig. Veda. 1.164.46)</blockquote><blockquote>indraṁ mitraṁ varuṇamagnimāhu̱ratho divyaḥ sa suparṇo garutmān । ekaṁ sad viprā bahudhā vadantyagniṁ yamaṁ mātariśvānamāhuḥ ॥46॥</blockquote>Meaning : [[Indra (इन्द्रः)|Indra]], Mitra, Varuna, [[Agni (अग्निः)|Agni]] they call Him, and the golden feathered Garutman. Of what is One, seers speak as manifold, they call Him Agni, [[Yama (यमः)|Yama]], Matarishva.
 
The presence of vast host of Devatas does not obscure the Unity of Brahman (Ishvara), in his triple form as Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva than does the vast hosts of men, animals, plants and minerals which are held sacred and prayed to since ages. As said in the Shruti<blockquote>इन्द्रं मित्रं वरुणमग्निमाहु॒रथो दिव्यः स सुपर्णो गरुत्मान् । एकं सद् विप्रा बहुधा वदन्त्यग्निं यमं मातरिश्वानमाहुः ॥४६॥ (Rig. Veda. 1.164.46)</blockquote><blockquote>indraṁ mitraṁ varuṇamagnimāhu̱ratho divyaḥ sa suparṇo garutmān । ekaṁ sad viprā bahudhā vadantyagniṁ yamaṁ mātariśvānamāhuḥ ॥46॥</blockquote>Meaning : [[Indra (इन्द्रः)|Indra]], Mitra, Varuna, [[Agni (अग्निः)|Agni]] they call Him, and the golden feathered Garutman. Of what is One, seers speak as manifold, they call Him Agni, [[Yama (यमः)|Yama]], Matarishva.
   
So also in the Manusmrti it is explained<blockquote>आत्मैव देवताः सर्वाः सर्वं आत्मन्यवस्थितम् । ātmaiva devatāḥ sarvāḥ sarvaṁ ātmanyavasthitam । (Manu. Smrt. 12.119)<ref>Manusmriti ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%A8%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%83%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%83/%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%B6%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%A7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%83 Adhyaya 12])</ref></blockquote>All the devatas are indeed the Self, all rests on the Self. <ref name=":022" />
 
So also in the Manusmrti it is explained<blockquote>आत्मैव देवताः सर्वाः सर्वं आत्मन्यवस्थितम् । ātmaiva devatāḥ sarvāḥ sarvaṁ ātmanyavasthitam । (Manu. Smrt. 12.119)<ref>Manusmriti ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%A8%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%83%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%83/%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%B6%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%A7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%83 Adhyaya 12])</ref></blockquote>All the devatas are indeed the Self, all rests on the Self. <ref name=":022" />
 
===आश्रमाः ॥ The Four Ashramas===
 
===आश्रमाः ॥ The Four Ashramas===
 
In our life there are four main goals, as indicated by the four ashramas of life,
 
In our life there are four main goals, as indicated by the four ashramas of life,
 +
 
#[[Brahmacharyashrama (ब्रह्मचर्याश्रमः)|Brahmacharya]] (ब्रह्मचर्यम् । the student’s life)
 
#[[Brahmacharyashrama (ब्रह्मचर्याश्रमः)|Brahmacharya]] (ब्रह्मचर्यम् । the student’s life)
 
#[[Grhasthashrama (गृहस्थाश्रमः)|Grhastha]] (गृहस्थः) or the householder stage of life
 
#[[Grhasthashrama (गृहस्थाश्रमः)|Grhastha]] (गृहस्थः) or the householder stage of life
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#Sanyasa (सन्यासः) or renunciation stage of life in which our spiritual purpose is the main focus
 
#Sanyasa (सन्यासः) or renunciation stage of life in which our spiritual purpose is the main focus
   −
=== वर्णाः ॥ The Four Varnas ===
+
===वर्णाः ॥ The Four Varnas===
 
Varna is a conceptual framework that aims to provide a conceptual basis for building a social order that promotes harmony and overall wellbeing of everyone.<ref name=":22">Nithin Sridhar, [http://indiafacts.org/varna-vyavastha-as-a-conceptual-social-order-that-facilitates-self-actualization/ Varṇa vyavastha as a conceptual social order that facilitates self-actualization], indiafacts.org</ref> There are four varnas, namely
 
Varna is a conceptual framework that aims to provide a conceptual basis for building a social order that promotes harmony and overall wellbeing of everyone.<ref name=":22">Nithin Sridhar, [http://indiafacts.org/varna-vyavastha-as-a-conceptual-social-order-that-facilitates-self-actualization/ Varṇa vyavastha as a conceptual social order that facilitates self-actualization], indiafacts.org</ref> There are four varnas, namely
# Brahmana
+
 
# Kshatriya
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#Brahmana
# Vaishya
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#Kshatriya
# Shudra
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#Vaishya
 +
#Shudra
 +
 
 
The purpose of varnas was to organize the society.  
 
The purpose of varnas was to organize the society.  
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==Dharmika Vyavahara==
 
==Dharmika Vyavahara==
 
Yoga shashtra of Pantanjali lays down ten rules of moral conduct, five of which are observances for positive traits and self-restraint to attain inner mental purity (Yamas). The other five are rules for lifestyle changes for discipline and external purification (Niyamas). These rules are for regulating one's behavior to avoid suffering and pain leading to the foundation of spiritual life. The path to discipline, control of the senses and mind, and discrimination between right and wrong is given by the Yoga darshana, to be practiced in everyday life by a spiritual aspirant.<blockquote>अहिंसासत्यास्तेयब्रह्मचर्यापरिग्रहा यमाः ॥३०॥ शौचसंतोषतपःस्वाध्यायेश्वरप्रणिधानानि नियमाः ॥३२॥(Yoga. Dars. 2.30 and 32)<ref name=":12">Yoga Darshana by Patanjali ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%9E%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%9C%E0%A4%B2%E0%A4%AF%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%97%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B6%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8D_-_%E0%A4%B5%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%B8%E0%A4%AD%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%B7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%B8%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%87%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8D/%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%83_%E0%A5%A8 Pada 2])</ref></blockquote><blockquote>ahiṁsāsatyāstēyabrahmacaryāparigrahā yamāḥ ॥30॥ śaucasaṁtōṣatapaḥsvādhyāyēśvarapraṇidhānāni niyamāḥ ॥32॥</blockquote>'''Yamas (for inner purity)'''
 
Yoga shashtra of Pantanjali lays down ten rules of moral conduct, five of which are observances for positive traits and self-restraint to attain inner mental purity (Yamas). The other five are rules for lifestyle changes for discipline and external purification (Niyamas). These rules are for regulating one's behavior to avoid suffering and pain leading to the foundation of spiritual life. The path to discipline, control of the senses and mind, and discrimination between right and wrong is given by the Yoga darshana, to be practiced in everyday life by a spiritual aspirant.<blockquote>अहिंसासत्यास्तेयब्रह्मचर्यापरिग्रहा यमाः ॥३०॥ शौचसंतोषतपःस्वाध्यायेश्वरप्रणिधानानि नियमाः ॥३२॥(Yoga. Dars. 2.30 and 32)<ref name=":12">Yoga Darshana by Patanjali ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%9E%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%9C%E0%A4%B2%E0%A4%AF%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%97%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B6%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8D_-_%E0%A4%B5%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%B8%E0%A4%AD%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%B7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%B8%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%87%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8D/%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%83_%E0%A5%A8 Pada 2])</ref></blockquote><blockquote>ahiṁsāsatyāstēyabrahmacaryāparigrahā yamāḥ ॥30॥ śaucasaṁtōṣatapaḥsvādhyāyēśvarapraṇidhānāni niyamāḥ ॥32॥</blockquote>'''Yamas (for inner purity)'''
 +
 
#अहिंसा || Ahimsa or non-injury to others and treating all beings with respect
 
#अहिंसा || Ahimsa or non-injury to others and treating all beings with respect
 
#सत्यम् || Satya or truthfulness
 
#सत्यम् || Satya or truthfulness
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#ब्रह्मचर्यम् || Brahmacharya or celibacy
 
#ब्रह्मचर्यम् || Brahmacharya or celibacy
 
#अपरिग्रहः || Aparighara or no unnecessarily selfish accumulation of resources for one’s own purpose
 
#अपरिग्रहः || Aparighara or no unnecessarily selfish accumulation of resources for one’s own purpose
 +
 
'''Niyamas (for external purification)'''
 
'''Niyamas (for external purification)'''
 +
 
#शौच || Shaucha or cleanliness and purity of mind and body
 
#शौच || Shaucha or cleanliness and purity of mind and body
 
#संतोषः || Santosh or contentment to cut the roots of desires
 
#संतोषः || Santosh or contentment to cut the roots of desires
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#स्वाध्यायम् || Swadhyaya or study of the shastras for attaining Moksha (or Pranava japa) and self-analysis
 
#स्वाध्यायम् || Swadhyaya or study of the shastras for attaining Moksha (or Pranava japa) and self-analysis
 
#ईश्वरप्रणिधानम् || Ishwara-pranidhana or self surrender to the Supreme (sarvakarmarpana)<ref name=":12" />
 
#ईश्वरप्रणिधानम् || Ishwara-pranidhana or self surrender to the Supreme (sarvakarmarpana)<ref name=":12" />
 +
 
===आत्मगुणाः ॥ Atmagunas===
 
===आत्मगुणाः ॥ Atmagunas===
 
By following the practice path laid down in Yoga darshana man achieves certain qualities of the Self. Gautama Dharmasutras describe these eight virtues of the Self, to be cultivated at will by everyone, as follows (Page 1648 of Reference <ref name=":0" />).<blockquote>दया सर्वभूतेषु क्षान्तिर् अनसूया शौचम् अनायासोमङ्गलम् अकार्पण्यम् अस्पृहेति ॥ (Gaut. Dhar. 1.8.23)</blockquote><blockquote>dayā sarvabhūtēṣu kṣāntir anasūyā śaucam anāyāsōmaṅgalam akārpaṇyam aspr̥hēti ॥ (Gaut. Dhar. 1.8.23)</blockquote>Dayā (दया । Compassion towards all creatures), kṣānti (क्षान्ति। forbearance) anasūyā (अनसूया। devoid of ill-will or envy ) śaucam (शौचम्। purity (external and internal)) anāyāsaḥ (अनायासः । avoiding pain even to oneself ) maṅgalam (मङ्गलम् । auspiciousness) akārpaṇyam (अकार्पण्यम् । freedom from self-pity or weakness) aspr̥heti (अस्पृहः। free from covetousness) are the qualities of the Atman.
 
By following the practice path laid down in Yoga darshana man achieves certain qualities of the Self. Gautama Dharmasutras describe these eight virtues of the Self, to be cultivated at will by everyone, as follows (Page 1648 of Reference <ref name=":0" />).<blockquote>दया सर्वभूतेषु क्षान्तिर् अनसूया शौचम् अनायासोमङ्गलम् अकार्पण्यम् अस्पृहेति ॥ (Gaut. Dhar. 1.8.23)</blockquote><blockquote>dayā sarvabhūtēṣu kṣāntir anasūyā śaucam anāyāsōmaṅgalam akārpaṇyam aspr̥hēti ॥ (Gaut. Dhar. 1.8.23)</blockquote>Dayā (दया । Compassion towards all creatures), kṣānti (क्षान्ति। forbearance) anasūyā (अनसूया। devoid of ill-will or envy ) śaucam (शौचम्। purity (external and internal)) anāyāsaḥ (अनायासः । avoiding pain even to oneself ) maṅgalam (मङ्गलम् । auspiciousness) akārpaṇyam (अकार्पण्यम् । freedom from self-pity or weakness) aspr̥heti (अस्पृहः। free from covetousness) are the qualities of the Atman.
 
===धर्मलक्षणम्‌ || Dharma Lakshanas===
 
===धर्मलक्षणम्‌ || Dharma Lakshanas===
 
With conscious practice of yoga, purity of mind and body, atman gets purified by which Atmagunas are manifested. Such a person automatically aligns with Rta and follows Dharma. Manusmrti lays down the following four lakshanas of Dharma. Following the Vedas, Smrtis, Sadachara (सदाचारः), one's inner consciousness are the four lakshanas defined in a simplified form.<ref name=":022" /> <blockquote>वेदः स्मृतिः सदाचारः स्वस्य च प्रियमात्मनः । एतच्चतुर्विधं प्राहुः साक्षाद् धर्मस्य लक्षणम् || (Manu. Smrt. 2.12)</blockquote><blockquote>vedaḥ smr̥tiḥ sadācāraḥ svasya ca priyamātmanaḥ । etaccaturvidhaṁ prāhuḥ sākṣād dharmasya lakṣaṇam || (Manu. Smrt. 2.12)</blockquote>Additionally Manu lays down the following ten lakshanas<blockquote>धृति: क्षमा दमोऽस्‍तेयं शौचमिन्‍द्रियनिग्रह:। धीर्विद्या सत्‍यमक्रोधो दशकं धर्मलक्षणम्‌ || (Manu. Smrt. 6.92)</blockquote><blockquote>dhr̥ti: kṣamā damō's‍tēyaṁ śaucamin‍driyanigraha:। dhīrvidyā sat‍yamakrōdhō daśakaṁ dharmalakṣaṇam‌ || (Manu. Smrt. 6.92)</blockquote>
 
With conscious practice of yoga, purity of mind and body, atman gets purified by which Atmagunas are manifested. Such a person automatically aligns with Rta and follows Dharma. Manusmrti lays down the following four lakshanas of Dharma. Following the Vedas, Smrtis, Sadachara (सदाचारः), one's inner consciousness are the four lakshanas defined in a simplified form.<ref name=":022" /> <blockquote>वेदः स्मृतिः सदाचारः स्वस्य च प्रियमात्मनः । एतच्चतुर्विधं प्राहुः साक्षाद् धर्मस्य लक्षणम् || (Manu. Smrt. 2.12)</blockquote><blockquote>vedaḥ smr̥tiḥ sadācāraḥ svasya ca priyamātmanaḥ । etaccaturvidhaṁ prāhuḥ sākṣād dharmasya lakṣaṇam || (Manu. Smrt. 2.12)</blockquote>Additionally Manu lays down the following ten lakshanas<blockquote>धृति: क्षमा दमोऽस्‍तेयं शौचमिन्‍द्रियनिग्रह:। धीर्विद्या सत्‍यमक्रोधो दशकं धर्मलक्षणम्‌ || (Manu. Smrt. 6.92)</blockquote><blockquote>dhr̥ti: kṣamā damō's‍tēyaṁ śaucamin‍driyanigraha:। dhīrvidyā sat‍yamakrōdhō daśakaṁ dharmalakṣaṇam‌ || (Manu. Smrt. 6.92)</blockquote>
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#Dhrti (धृति: । firmness or fortitude)
 
#Dhrti (धृति: । firmness or fortitude)
 
#Kshama (क्षमा । forgiveness)
 
#Kshama (क्षमा । forgiveness)
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#Satyam (सत्‍यम् । truthfulness)
 
#Satyam (सत्‍यम् । truthfulness)
 
#Akrodhah (अक्रोधः । absence of anger)
 
#Akrodhah (अक्रोधः । absence of anger)
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Yajnavalkya Smrti recounts the above qualities as the means to be on the Dharmika path, similar to those given in Manusmrti, with slight differences.
 
Yajnavalkya Smrti recounts the above qualities as the means to be on the Dharmika path, similar to those given in Manusmrti, with slight differences.
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:अहिंसा सत्‍यमस्‍तेयं शौचमिन्‍द्रियनिग्रह:। दानं दमो दया शान्‍ति: सर्वेषां धर्मसाधनम्‌ || (Yajn. Smrt. 1.122)<ref>Yajnavalkya Smrti ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%9C%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%9E%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%B2%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%95%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%83%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%83/%E0%A4%86%E0%A4%9A%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%83/%E0%A4%97%E0%A5%83%E0%A4%B9%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A5%E0%A4%A7%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%AA%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%A3%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8D Adhyaya 1 Grhasthadharma Prakarana])</ref>
 
:अहिंसा सत्‍यमस्‍तेयं शौचमिन्‍द्रियनिग्रह:। दानं दमो दया शान्‍ति: सर्वेषां धर्मसाधनम्‌ || (Yajn. Smrt. 1.122)<ref>Yajnavalkya Smrti ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%9C%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%9E%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%B2%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%95%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%83%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%83/%E0%A4%86%E0%A4%9A%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%83/%E0%A4%97%E0%A5%83%E0%A4%B9%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A5%E0%A4%A7%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%AA%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%A3%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8D Adhyaya 1 Grhasthadharma Prakarana])</ref>
 
:ahiṁsā sat‍yamas‍tēyaṁ śaucamin‍driyanigraha:। dānaṁ damō dayā śān‍ti: sarvēṣāṁ dharmasādhanam‌ ||
 
:ahiṁsā sat‍yamas‍tēyaṁ śaucamin‍driyanigraha:। dānaṁ damō dayā śān‍ti: sarvēṣāṁ dharmasādhanam‌ ||
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According to Yajnavalkya, Ahimsa (not hurting other creatures by thought, word or deed) and Dana (charity) are also the means to attain Dharma apart from the other qualities.
 
According to Yajnavalkya, Ahimsa (not hurting other creatures by thought, word or deed) and Dana (charity) are also the means to attain Dharma apart from the other qualities.
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=== परो धर्मः || Paradharmas ===
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===परो धर्मः || Paradharmas===
 
Bhagavata Purana (7.11.8-12) describes the 30 Para Dharmas (highest dharmas of mankind) that everyone should have<ref>Poddar, Hanuman Prasad (1986) ''Manav Dharma''. Gorakhpur : Gita Press</ref><blockquote>सत्यं दया तपः शौचं तितिक्षेक्षा शमो दमः । अहिंसा ब्रह्मचर्यं च त्यागः स्वाध्याय आर्जवम् ॥ ८ ॥</blockquote><blockquote>सन्तोषः समदृक् सेवा ग्राम्येहोपरमः शनैः । नृणां विपर्ययेहेक्षा मौनं आत्मविमर्शनम् ॥ ९ ॥</blockquote><blockquote>अन्नाद्यादेः संविभागो भूतेभ्यश्च यथार्हतः । तेष्वात्मदेवताबुद्धिः सुतरां नृषु पाण्डव ॥ १० ॥</blockquote><blockquote>श्रवणं कीर्तनं चास्य स्मरणं महतां गतेः । सेवेज्यावनतिर्दास्यं सख्यमात्म समर्पणम् ॥ ११ ॥</blockquote><blockquote>नृणामयं परो धर्मः सर्वेषां समुदाहृतः । त्रिंशत् लक्षणवान् राजन् सर्वात्मा येन तुष्यति ॥ १२ ॥</blockquote>{{columns-list|colwidth=12em|style=width: 800px; font-style: normal;|
 
Bhagavata Purana (7.11.8-12) describes the 30 Para Dharmas (highest dharmas of mankind) that everyone should have<ref>Poddar, Hanuman Prasad (1986) ''Manav Dharma''. Gorakhpur : Gita Press</ref><blockquote>सत्यं दया तपः शौचं तितिक्षेक्षा शमो दमः । अहिंसा ब्रह्मचर्यं च त्यागः स्वाध्याय आर्जवम् ॥ ८ ॥</blockquote><blockquote>सन्तोषः समदृक् सेवा ग्राम्येहोपरमः शनैः । नृणां विपर्ययेहेक्षा मौनं आत्मविमर्शनम् ॥ ९ ॥</blockquote><blockquote>अन्नाद्यादेः संविभागो भूतेभ्यश्च यथार्हतः । तेष्वात्मदेवताबुद्धिः सुतरां नृषु पाण्डव ॥ १० ॥</blockquote><blockquote>श्रवणं कीर्तनं चास्य स्मरणं महतां गतेः । सेवेज्यावनतिर्दास्यं सख्यमात्म समर्पणम् ॥ ११ ॥</blockquote><blockquote>नृणामयं परो धर्मः सर्वेषां समुदाहृतः । त्रिंशत् लक्षणवान् राजन् सर्वात्मा येन तुष्यति ॥ १२ ॥</blockquote>{{columns-list|colwidth=12em|style=width: 800px; font-style: normal;|
 
# Truthfulness (सत्यम्)  
 
# Truthfulness (सत्यम्)  
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Along the road - Nivrttimarga, or the returning path, the Jivatma returns from his wanderings in the Samsara and ultimately reaches the destination, the Eternal, all the while paying for the debts he incurred in the Pravrttimarga. To see the Self is Jnana, wisdom; to love the Self is Bhakti, devotion; to serve the Self is Kriya, action. Based on his nature the Jivatma, chooses his path to Moksha. Thus evolved the three fold path to Moksha :<blockquote>भक्तिमार्गः ॥ Bhaktimarga is for those in whom Iccha (इच्छा) predominates.</blockquote><blockquote>ज्ञानमार्गः ॥ Jnanamarga is for in those in whom Chit (चित्) predominates.</blockquote><blockquote>कर्ममार्गः ॥ Karmamarga is for those in whom Kriya (क्रिया) predominates.</blockquote>All the three margas, in fact, are one, in which emphasis is laid on one of the three inseparable temperaments. Yoga amply supplies a sadhaka the tools by which the Self can be seen, loved and served. Mukti involves not an alteration of the circumstances surrounding the Jivatma, but the attitude of the Jivatma towards the Self and Non-Self.<ref name=":022" />
 
Along the road - Nivrttimarga, or the returning path, the Jivatma returns from his wanderings in the Samsara and ultimately reaches the destination, the Eternal, all the while paying for the debts he incurred in the Pravrttimarga. To see the Self is Jnana, wisdom; to love the Self is Bhakti, devotion; to serve the Self is Kriya, action. Based on his nature the Jivatma, chooses his path to Moksha. Thus evolved the three fold path to Moksha :<blockquote>भक्तिमार्गः ॥ Bhaktimarga is for those in whom Iccha (इच्छा) predominates.</blockquote><blockquote>ज्ञानमार्गः ॥ Jnanamarga is for in those in whom Chit (चित्) predominates.</blockquote><blockquote>कर्ममार्गः ॥ Karmamarga is for those in whom Kriya (क्रिया) predominates.</blockquote>All the three margas, in fact, are one, in which emphasis is laid on one of the three inseparable temperaments. Yoga amply supplies a sadhaka the tools by which the Self can be seen, loved and served. Mukti involves not an alteration of the circumstances surrounding the Jivatma, but the attitude of the Jivatma towards the Self and Non-Self.<ref name=":022" />
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== Goal of Sanatana Dharma ==
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==Goal of Sanatana Dharma==
 
Recognition of Unity of the Self and leads to the establishment of mutually helpful relations between all separated selves. Every moral precept finds its sanction in this Unity. Universal Love which is an expression of the Unity, is the root of all virtues and its opposite is the root of all vices. Universal Brotherhood has its basis in the Unity; men are divided by their Upadhis, both dense (Sthulasharira) and subtle (Sukshmasharira) but all are rooted in the one Self. Only this teaching advocated by Sanatana Dharma, when realized by one an all can put an end to all strife and serve as a foundation for peace.<ref name=":022" />
 
Recognition of Unity of the Self and leads to the establishment of mutually helpful relations between all separated selves. Every moral precept finds its sanction in this Unity. Universal Love which is an expression of the Unity, is the root of all virtues and its opposite is the root of all vices. Universal Brotherhood has its basis in the Unity; men are divided by their Upadhis, both dense (Sthulasharira) and subtle (Sukshmasharira) but all are rooted in the one Self. Only this teaching advocated by Sanatana Dharma, when realized by one an all can put an end to all strife and serve as a foundation for peace.<ref name=":022" />
    
==Sanatana Dharma Vs Religion==
 
==Sanatana Dharma Vs Religion==
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*A formal process of conversion to Sanatana-dharma is not necessary because the principles, as outlined above, can be practiced by anyone at any time, or to any degree one wishes.
 
*A formal process of conversion to Sanatana-dharma is not necessary because the principles, as outlined above, can be practiced by anyone at any time, or to any degree one wishes.
 
*Anyone can be on the path of Sanatana-dharma merely by adopting this way of life.
 
*Anyone can be on the path of Sanatana-dharma merely by adopting this way of life.
 
*It is not an institution that you need to join that makes you a follower.
 
*It is not an institution that you need to join that makes you a follower.
 
*It is the acceptance of it in your heart and the practices that you adopt.
 
*It is the acceptance of it in your heart and the practices that you adopt.
*However, you can approach a guru of your choice who inspires you and can guide you and then ask for diksha, or initiation, for learning more about the Vedic path in the school of thought or parampara that your guru represents.  
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*However, you can approach a guru of your choice who inspires you and can guide you and then ask for diksha, or initiation, for learning more about the Vedic path in the school of thought or parampara that your guru represents.
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==References==
 
==References==
 
<references />
 
<references />
 
[[Category:Dharmas]]
 
[[Category:Dharmas]]
 
[[Category:About Dharmawiki]]
 
[[Category:About Dharmawiki]]
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