Shukra Dhatu (शुक्र धातुः)
Shukra Dhatu is one of the body tissues as per Ayurveda. It is the 7th dhatu in Shariram according to Ayurveda. Since it is developed at the end of dhatu development and nourishment pathway it is called as 7th or the last dhatu. Shukra literally means semen, sperm, clear, lucid, white or spotless. Thus the dhatu which is generated at the end of rigorous metabolic transformations occurring during development of all 7 dhatus and therefore it is more clear or spotless.
Etymology and definition
Shukra dhatu is described to be of two forms in Ayurveda textbooks:
The one that is ejaculated during the process of mating, which is responsible for fertilization of ovum and thus embryogenesis. This is semen in males.
The one that is formed from predecessor the tissue that fills the bony cavities(majja dhatu). This in turn circulates all over the body both in males and females.
क्ली, (शुच क्लेदे + “ऋज्रे न्द्राग्रवज्रेति ।” उणा० २ । २८ । इति रन्प्रत्ययेन साधु ।) मज्जजातधातुः । तत्पर्य्यायः । पुंस्त्वम् २ रेतः ३ बीजम् ४ वीर्य्यम् ५ पौरुषम् ६ तेजः ७ इन्द्रि-यम् ८ अन्नविकारः ९ मज्जारसः १० रोह-णम् ११ बलम् १२ । इति राजनिर्घ ण्टः ॥
Formation of shukra dhatu
During metabolism, the unctuous part of predecessor majja dhatu is transformed into shukra dhatu. The marrow is present in bones. Minute pores are created by the action of vayu and akasha mahabhuta on bones. The shukra dhatu oozes out from these minute pores after action of factors responsible for the metabolism of shukra dhatu (shukra dhatu agni). This process is like water oozing out of new mud pot, shukra also oozes out of these pores. It is then circulated all over the body through channels of transportation of shukra dhatu(shukravahasrotas).[Cha. Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 15/32-33] Thus, shukra dhatu is present all over body.
The second form is present in testicles (vrushana). After maturation, at the time of sexual excitation or urge of ejaculation (vega), the semen (shukra) is discharged through urethra. This process happens just like ghee is melted by heat. [Cha. Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 15/34-35].
Location of Shukra Dhatu
The Channels of transportation and transformation of shukra dhatu (shukravahasrotas) has its roots in testicles and penis. [Cha. Sa. Vimana Sthana 5/8] Sushruta opines that they originate from breast and testicles. There are two vessels to carry Shukra dhatu. [Su. Sa. Sharira Sthana 9/12] There are various other anatomical structures related to shukra dhatu. These can be included in the transport and transformation system of shukra dhatu (shukravaha srotas).
The structures are as described below:
Layer of shukra (shukradhara kala):
Kala is the layer in outer coverings of the body observed in sagittal section. The layer of shukra is the innermost layer that is present in the entire body. Shukra dhatu is distributed all over the body in the same manner that the fat in the milk and juice in the sugar cane plant are distributed. [Cha Sa Chikitsa Sthana 2/46],[Su. Sa. Sharira Sthana 4/20]
Panchabhoutiktwa, of Shukra dhatu
Shukra is constituted by four elements-vayu, agni, prithvi and jala(four mahabhuta) in equal proportion. It is originated from six basic tastes. [Cha.Sa.Sharira Sthana 2/4]
Qualities of best shukra
The pure virile semen (shukra)is unctuous (snigdha), viscous (ghana), slimy (picchila), sweet (madhura). It does not cause a burning sensation in genital tract (avidahi). It looks like white crystal quartz (shukla).[Cha. Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 30/146]
Shukra sarata lakshanas
The persons endowed with the essence of shukra dhatu are gentle (saumya), having charming appearance (saumyaprekshina), beautiful eyes as if filled with milk (kshirapurnalochana) and immensely exhilarated (praharshabahula). Their teeth are unctuous, rounded, firm, even and compact. They have prominent buttocks (large pelvic girdle). They have pleasant, unctuous complexion and voice. They are brilliant. They are liked by women for enjoyment, are strong and endowed with happiness, leisure, health, wealth, honor, and progeny. [Cha. Sa. Vimana Sthana 8/109]
Upadhatu of Shukra dhatu
Ojas is considered as the metabolic byproduct (upadhatu) of shukra.[Sha. Sa. Purva khanda chapter 5] Other scholars opine that as shukra is the essence of all dhatu, there is no metabolic byproduct or waste formed during its formation.
Mala of Shukra dhatu
scholars opine that as shukra is the essence of all dhatu, there is no metabolic byproduct or waste formed during its formation.
Function of shukra dhatu
Shukra bestows courage, ejaculation, lust, strength of the body, pleasure, love, and affection. The main function of shukra is reproduction and embryogenesis. [Su. Sa. Sutra Sthana 15/5]
Causes of vitiation
Causes of vitiation
The following are the causative factors for the vitiation of channels for transport and transformation of shukra dhatu.[Cha. Sa. Vimana Sthana 5/19]
Consumption of incompatible food, excessive consumption of dry, bitter, astringent, salty, sour, hot food.
Anxiety, distress, distrust, apprehension, rage, exorcism.
Causes related to coitus
Excess intercourse, untimely coitus, coitus other than in vagina, or complete abstinence from it(suppression of discharge of semen), unaware of female desire, untimely ejaculation etc.
Excess exercise, senility, improper usage of surgical instruments, alkali (kshara), heat or cautery (agni), emaciation due to other diseases, repression of natural urges, injury, morbidity causing vitiation of dhatus, doshas individually or collectively reaching reproductive system (retovahasrotas) leads to acute disorders of the shukra (semen). [Cha. Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 30/139]
Importance of Shukra dhatu in preservation of health and wellness
Aphrodisiac therapies (vajikarana) produces lineage of progeny, quick sexual stimulation, enables one to perform sexual act with the women uninterruptedly and promote corpulence and infallible and indestructible semen. [Cha. Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 1/1/9-10] This is one of the most important measures to promote sexual health and prevent diseases.