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Pitrvamsha (पितृवंशः)

Pitrvamsha (Samskrit: पितृवंशः) refers to the lineage of ancestors. Manusmrti talks about this lineage of ancestors leading up to the origin of human clan.

विषयविस्तारः ॥ Subject Matter

According to Manusmrti, there are various lineages of forefathers. They are the sons of sages like Marichi who are children of Manu, the son of Hiranyagarbha. So, from the sages like Marichi came the forefathers, from the forefathers the Devatas and Manavas. From the Devatas, the whole world, both the movable and the immovable came into existence (Manu Smrt. 3.194 and 201).[1]

मनोर्हैरण्यगर्भस्य ये मरीच्यादयः सुताः । तेषां ऋषीणां सर्वेषां पुत्राः पितृगणाः स्मृताः || ३.१९४ ||

ऋषिभ्यः पितरो जाताः पितृभ्यो देवमानवाः । देवेभ्यस्तु जगत्सर्वं चरं स्थाण्वनुपूर्वशः || ३.२०१ ||[2]

manorhairaṇyagarbhasya ye marīcyādayaḥ sutāḥ । teṣāṁ r̥ṣīṇāṁ sarveṣāṁ putrāḥ pitr̥gaṇāḥ smr̥tāḥ || 3.194 ||

r̥ṣibhyaḥ pitaro jātāḥ pitr̥bhyo devamānavāḥ । devebhyastu jagatsarvaṁ caraṁ sthāṇvanupūrvaśaḥ || 3.201 ||

The Vedas call fathers as Vasus, grandfathers as Rudras, and the great-grandfathers as Adityas.[1]

वसून्वदन्ति तु पितॄन्रुद्रांश्चैव पितामहान् । प्रपितामहांस्तथादित्यान्श्रुतिरेषा सनातनी || ३.२८४ ||[2]

vasūnvadanti tu pitr̥̄nrudrāṁścaiva pitāmahān । prapitāmahāṁstathādityānśrutireṣā sanātanī || 3.284 ||

It says,

विराट्सुताः सोमसदः साध्यानां पितरः स्मृताः । अग्निष्वात्ताश्च देवानां मारीचा लोकविश्रुताः || ३.१९५ ||

दैत्यदानवयक्षाणां गन्धर्वोरगरक्षसाम् । सुपर्णकिन्नराणां च स्मृता बर्हिषदोऽत्रिजाः || ३.१९६ ||[2]

virāṭsutāḥ somasadaḥ sādhyānāṁ pitaraḥ smr̥tāḥ । agniṣvāttāśca devānāṁ mārīcā lokaviśrutāḥ || 3.195 ||

daityadānavayakṣāṇāṁ gandharvoragarakṣasām । suparṇakinnarāṇāṁ ca smr̥tā barhiṣado'trijāḥ || 3.196 ||

Meaning: Somasads, the sons of Virat, are the forefathers of the Sadhyas, and the Agnishvattas, children of Marichi, are known as the forefathers of the deities (Manu Smrt. 3.195). The Barhishads, born of Atri, are the forefathers of the Daityas, Danavas, Yakshas, Gandharvas, Snake-deities, birds and Kinnaras (Manu Smrt. 3.196)[1]

The Manusmrti also elborates the lineage of ancestores of each of the four Varnas. It says,

सोमपा नाम विप्राणां क्षत्रियाणां हविर्भुजः । वैश्यानां आज्यपा नाम शूद्राणां तु सुकालिनः || ३.१९७ ||

सोमपास्तु कवेः पुत्रा हविष्मन्तोऽङ्गिरःसुताः । पुलस्त्यस्याज्यपाः पुत्रा वसिष्ठस्य सुकालिनः || ३.१९८ ||[2]

somapā nāma viprāṇāṁ kṣatriyāṇāṁ havirbhujaḥ । vaiśyānāṁ ājyapā nāma śūdrāṇāṁ tu sukālinaḥ || 3.197 ||

somapāstu kaveḥ putrā haviṣmanto'ṅgiraḥsutāḥ । pulastyasyājyapāḥ putrā vasiṣṭhasya sukālinaḥ || 3.198 ||

Meaning : The Somapas are forefathers of the Brahmanas, the Havirbhujs are of the Kshatriyas, the Ajyapas are of the Vaishyas and the Sukalins are of the Shudras. The Somapas are the sons of Bhrigu, the Havishmantas are the children of Angira, the Ajyapas are the offspring of Pulastya and the Sukalins are the progeny of Vasishtha (Manu Smrt. 3.197 and 3.198). It further says that the Agnidagdhas, the Anagnidagdhas, the Kavyas, the Barhishads, the Agnishvattas, and the Saumyas, are the forefathers of the Brahmanas (Manu Smrt. 3.199) And that, these are some of the clans of forefathers and there exist in this world countless sons and grandsons of these forefathers. (Manu Smrt. 3.200).[1]

अग्निदग्धानग्निदग्धान्काव्यान्बर्हिषदस्तथा । अग्निष्वात्तांश्च सौम्यांश्च विप्राणां एव निर्दिशेत् || ३.१९९ ||

य एते तु गणा मुख्याः पितॄणां परिकीर्तिताः । तेषां अपीह विज्ञेयं पुत्रपौत्रं अनन्तकम् || ३.२०० ||[2]

agnidagdhānagnidagdhānkāvyānbarhiṣadastathā । agniṣvāttāṁśca saumyāṁśca viprāṇāṁ eva nirdiśet || 3.199 ||

ya ete tu gaṇā mukhyāḥ pitr̥̄ṇāṁ parikīrtitāḥ । teṣāṁ apīha vijñeyaṁ putrapautraṁ anantakam || 3.200 ||

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Pt. Girija Prasad Dvivedi (1917), The Manusmriti, Lucknow: Naval Kishore Press.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Manusmrti, Adhyaya 3