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{{ToBeEdited}}Pada Vichara (Samskrit: पदविचारः) deals with Pada (पदम्) or word. A word is a group of varnas or letters arranged in a certain fixed order giving a certain meaning. The order of the letters in a word cannot be changed or reversed in any way without altering its meaning.<ref name=":7">Chatterjee. Satischandra, (1950 Second Edition) ''The Nyaya Theory of Knowledge, A Critical Study of Some Problems of Login and Metaphysics''. Calcutta: University of Calcutta. (Pages 322 - 335)</ref> Thus what distinguishes a word from other sounds is its possession of meaning.
  
==पदम् ॥ Padam (Word)==
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Words are used for naming, even in everyday life, because of their universal applicability and their convenience owing to simplicity as per Nirukta<ref name=":0">Raja, Kunjunni  K. (1977 Reprint) ''Indian Theories of Meaning.'' Madras: The Adyar Library and Research Centre. </ref><blockquote>संज्ञाकरणं व्यवहारार्थं लोके । तेषां मनुष्यवत् व्याप्तिमत्त्वात् तु शब्दस्याणीयस्त्वात्च शब्देन शब्दानाम् इतरेतरोपदेशः । (Niru. Shas. 1.2)<ref>Nirukta Shastra ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%95%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%B6%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8D/%E0%A4%AA%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%A5%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%A7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4% Adhyaya 1])</ref></blockquote>Bhartrhari refers to this view and says that Vartaksha also held the theory that it is only the sentence that is regularly present in the mind of the hearer.<ref name=":7" />
Pada Vichara (पदविचारः) According to Tarkabhasha by Shri Keshav Mishra, a padam (word) is defined as पदं च वर्णसमूहः Padam (word) is a collection of varnas (letters). Gangesa also in his Tattvachintamani considers the group of words to be a sentence as in वर्णसमूहः पदं ।<ref>Tattvachintamani by Gangesa Upadhyaya ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%9A%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%A8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%A3%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%83/%E0%A4%B6%E0%A4%AC%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%96%E0%A4%A3%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A1%E0%A4% ShabdaKhanda])</ref>.
 
  
A word is a group of varnas or letters arranged in a certain fixed order giving a certain meaning. The order of the letters in a word cannot be changed or reversed in any way without altering its meaning. While a letter is a significant sound, a word is a symbolic sound of a higher order. A varna signifies only a part of the alphabet but the fixed set of varnas in a padam stand for some thing or some idea. Padas are similar to varnas in their ability to be spoken or written and thus are the objects of auditory or visual perception. It should be noted that while varnas are part of alphabet and independent, a word is not a mere collection or aggregation of varnas but a definite whole of letters or syllables having a fixed sequence of arrangement within the Padam. It is the unity of the parts (syllables) forming an object (word) of single cognition.
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==पदलक्षणम् ॥ Characteristics of Words==
===Qualities of Words===
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In '''Tarkabhasha''' of Shri Keshav Mishra (A Nyaya Commentary), padam (word) is defined as पदं च वर्णसमूहः । Padam (word) is a collection of varnas (letters).
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In '''Tattvachintamani''', Gangesa also affirms वर्णसमूहः पदं ।<ref>Tattvachintamani by Gangesa Upadhyaya ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%9A%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%A8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%A3%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%83/%E0%A4%B6%E0%A4%AC%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%96%E0%A4%A3%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A1%E0%A4% ShabdaKhanda])</ref> that Pada is a collection of varnas.
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In '''Tarksamgraha''', Annambhatta describes शक्तं पदम्। अस्मात्पदात् अयमर्थो बोद्धव्य इतीश्वरसङ्केतः शक्तिः॥१॥ (Tark. Samg. 4.1)<ref>Tarkasamgraha ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%B8%E0%A4%99%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%97%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%B9%E0%A4%83/%E0%A4%B6%E0%A4%AC%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%82%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%A3%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8D Shabdanirupanam])</ref>
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A word is that which has significative potency (Sakti). "From this word, this concept should be known - as per the will of Ishvara" to this effect (ईश्वरसङ्केतः) is called Sakti (significative potency).<ref>Mm. S. Kuppuswami Sastri (1951 Second Edition) ''A Primer of Indian Logic according to Annambhatta's Tarkasamgraha.'' Madras: The Kuppuswami Sastri Research Institute (Page 253)</ref>
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In '''Ashtadhyayi''', Panini describes सुप्तिङ्गन्तं पदम्। (1.4.15), thus we see a grammatical lakshana for Pada as that which has the case endings of सुप् and तिङ्ग।
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While a letter is a significant sound, a word is a symbolic sound of a higher order. A varna signifies only a part of the alphabet but the fixed set of varnas in a padam stand for some thing or some idea. Padas are similar to varnas in their ability to be spoken or written and thus are the objects of auditory or visual perception. It should be noted that while varnas are part of alphabet and independent, a word is not a mere collection or aggregation of varnas but a definite whole of letters or syllables having a fixed sequence of arrangement within the Padam. It is the unity of the parts (syllables) forming an object (word) of single cognition.<ref name=":7" /> Summarizing the qualities of words as follows
 
#It consists of varnas in a fixed order
 
#It consists of varnas in a fixed order
#its essential nature lies in its meaning
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#Its essential nature lies in its meaning
 
#Meaning of the word and object it signifies have a relationship
 
#Meaning of the word and object it signifies have a relationship
 
#Different relationships (of word and object) gives different meanings of a particular word.
 
#Different relationships (of word and object) gives different meanings of a particular word.
===Kinds of Meanings of Words===
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==Meanings of Words==
Logically a word is a sound that bears a certain meaning. A word may have different meanings according to the various ways in which it is related to the object. On the whole we see at least four different kinds of meaning of a word as per Naiyyayikas and Alamkarikas. The relation between a word and its meaning may be either Sanketa, Lakshana or Vyanjana; Sanketa is the direct relation between a word and its meaning, such that the knowledge of the word leads immediately to the knowledge of its relation to the meaning. Lakshana is the indirect or implied meaning in which we should understand a word when its direct or primary meaning is inconsistent with other words or the context. Thus such a Lakshana word means an object when it is directly related to some other aspect of the object other than its primary meaning. Naiyyayikas admit only Sanketa and Lakshana kinds of meanings. The Alamkarikas consider another kind of meaning namely Vyanjana. This stands for such meanings of words which are neither directly or indirectly related to them, but are only suggested by them.
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Logically a word is a sound that bears a certain meaning. A word may have different meanings according to the various ways in which it is related to the object. On the whole we see at least four different kinds of meaning of a word as per Naiyayikas and Alamkarikas. Many commentaries of Nyaya have explained various aspects of dhvani, shabda, pada and vakya. In this article the commentaries of Sabdasakti-Prakashika of Jagadisa Tarkalankara and Siddhanta Muktavali by Visvanatha Panchanana have been used to present different concepts of Pada.
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=== शक्तिः ॥ Word - Meaning Relationship ===
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The relation between a word and the meaning it represents is called Shakti according to Siddhanta Muktavali.<ref name=":7" /><blockquote>शक्तिश्च पदेन सह पदार्थस्य सम्बन्ध:।  सा चाऽस्माच्छब्दादयमर्थो बोद्धव्य इतीश्वरेच्छारूप:। (Sidd. Mukt. Shabdakhanda)<ref name=":1">Nyayasiddhanta Muktavali ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%A8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%B8%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A7%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%95%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%B2%E0%A5%80 Full Text])</ref></blockquote>Sakti or the inherent potency of a word describes that 'from this sabda this meaning has to be understood as per divine will'. It is eternal and unchanging.
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* '''Sanketa''' : Sanketa is the direct relation between a word and its meaning, such that the knowledge of the word leads immediately to the knowledge of its relation to the meaning. It is of the following two ways
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** '''Vachakas''' : Sanketa or direct relation between word and its meaning is eternal, natural, established by divine order and is unchanging is called '''Sakti''' or significative potency of the word. Example, relation between the word Jar and object Jar is direct and eternal.
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** '''Paaribhashikas''' : Sanketa or direct relation between word and its meaning is not eternal, conventional, established by technical usage of mankind and is changing in different contexts by the will of authority defining that "such and such word stands for this" is called '''Paribhasha'''. Example, word 'article' in grammar, 'premise' in logic, 'category' in philosophy
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* '''Lakshana''': Lakshana is the indirect or implied meaning in which we should understand a word when its direct or primary meaning is inconsistent with other words or the context. Thus such a Lakshana word means an object when it is directly related to some other aspect of the object other than its primary meaning. Thus the secondary meaning is suggested through its association with the primary meaning. Example, take the expression गङ्गायां घोषः । the house is ''on Ganga''. As per the primary meaning, '<nowiki/>''the house is located on the current of water of river Ganga'<nowiki/>'', which is not a possibility which can exist. So we consider not its primary meaning of '<nowiki/>''the curr'''<nowiki/>'''ent of water of river''<nowiki/>' but in '''<nowiki/>'''the secondary meaning of '<nowiki/>''the bank of the river Ganga''<nowiki/>'.Thus<nowiki/> we see that the secondary meaning called '''Lakshana''', गङ्गातटे घोषः । the house is on the banks of Ganga, has an indirect meaningful relationship with Ganga. There are three kinds of Lakshana
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** Jahallakshana, when no part of the primary meaning is retained, e.g., "the scaffolds cry out"
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** Ajahallakshana, when a word is also retained in the implied meaning, e.g., a blue jar - meaning a jar with the attribute of blueness.
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** Jahadajahallakshana, a part of the primary meaning is retained, e.g., 'this is that man' - meaning the identity of the man leaving out the attributes of 'this' and 'that'.  
  
Abhidhaa : Primary meaning
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* '''Vyanjana''' : This stands for such meanings of words which are neither directly or indirectly related to them, but are only suggested by them. Thus the sentence गङ्गायां घोषः । the house is o''n Ganga'' is taken to mean that the house has the suggested qualities of Coolness (शीतलत्वम्) and Sacredness (पावनत्वम्) that is associated with the river Ganga.
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Naiyayikas admit only Sanketa and Lakshana kinds of meanings of words, they include Vyanjana within Sakti and Lakshana. They also different from Vedantins who admit that not only words, sentences also may have secondary meanings or Lakshana. The Alamkarikas consider the third kind of meaning namely Vyanjana. The Vyangyartha or suggested meaning of a word arises from its primary and secondary meanings and is not separate from them according to Naiyayikas. The alamkarikas however differ from Naiyayika views. Thus we have four kinds of terms namely
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* Abhidhaa/Vachaka/Mukhyartha/Sakyartha denotes the primary meaning of a word
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* Paaribhaashika padas denoting the technical meaning of a word
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* Lakshana indicates the secondary meaning of a word
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* Vyanjana denotes the suggested meaning
  
Paribhaasha : Technical meaning
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=== शक्तिग्रहोपायनिरूपणम् ॥ Learning the Meanings of Words ===
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Now, that classification of meanings is understood, the next question to be answered is how do we grasp the meanings of words (शक्तिग्रह:)? How does a child understand that "this word means this"? According to Vishvanatha Panchanana Bhatt, Saktigraha or grasping the significative meaning of a word is by five ways<ref name=":7" /><ref>Swami Madhavananda, (1954 Second Edition) ''Bhasa-Pariccheda with Siddhanta Muktavali by Visvanatha Nyaya-Panchanana. (English Translation)'' Almora: Advaita Ashram (Pages 149 - 154)</ref>  <blockquote>शक्तिग्रहं व्याकरणोपमानकोशाप्तवाक्याद्व्यवहारतश्च। (Sidd. Mukt. Shabdakhanda)<ref name=":1" /></blockquote>The elders say that there are five different ways in which the knowledge of denotative meaning of a word is grasped. Briefly discussed they are
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# धातुप्रकृतिप्रत्ययादीनां शक्तिग्रहो व्याकरणाद्भवति। From the vyakarana aspects such as Dhatu (verbal roots), Prakrti and Pratyaya (suffixes) the meaning of the word is apprehended. 
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# उपमानाद्यथा शक्तिग्रहः..। Through comparisons (upamanas) the meaning of the word is apprehended. 
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# कोषाद् । Through Dictionaries the meaning of the words are learnt. 
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# आप्तवाक्याद् । From the different usages of words by trustworthy persons, as from the statement such as यथा कोकिल: पिकशब्दवाच्य इत्यादिशब्दात् । the word 'pika' signifies a cuckoo. 
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# व्यवहारादपि। From the usage also the meaning is apprehended. For instance, an elderly person giving directions says, 'bring the jar,' and hearing this another person brings a jar. A boy watching this concludes that the act of bringing a jar is the result of the words uttered by the elderly person. From the expressions such as, 'remove the jar,' and 'bring the cow,' he understands the process of inclusion and exclusion of functions. 
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Contextual usage and Synonymous words also lend their might in apprehending a word's meaning. Sometimes where there is a contradiction it is discarded and alternate ways are tried. A detailed discussion being out of scope it may suffice to outline the different methods of apprehending the meanings of words.
  
Lakshana : Secondary meaning
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That there are so many different ways of knowing the meanings of words proves that the relation between words and their meanings is not a natural but a conventional relation. 
  
Vyanjana : Suggested meaning
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=== Determination of the Meaning ===
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शक्तं पदम्। तच्चतुर्विधम्। क्वचिद्यौगिकं, क्वचिद्रूढं, क्वचिद्योगरूढं क्वचिद्यौगिकरूढम्। (Sidd. Mukt. Shabdakhanda)<ref name=":1" />
  
 
== References ==
 
== References ==
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<references />

Revision as of 10:44, 22 May 2020

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Pada Vichara (Samskrit: पदविचारः) deals with Pada (पदम्) or word. A word is a group of varnas or letters arranged in a certain fixed order giving a certain meaning. The order of the letters in a word cannot be changed or reversed in any way without altering its meaning.[1] Thus what distinguishes a word from other sounds is its possession of meaning. Words are used for naming, even in everyday life, because of their universal applicability and their convenience owing to simplicity as per Nirukta[2]

संज्ञाकरणं व्यवहारार्थं लोके । तेषां मनुष्यवत् व्याप्तिमत्त्वात् तु शब्दस्याणीयस्त्वात्च शब्देन शब्दानाम् इतरेतरोपदेशः । (Niru. Shas. 1.2)[3]

Bhartrhari refers to this view and says that Vartaksha also held the theory that it is only the sentence that is regularly present in the mind of the hearer.[1]

पदलक्षणम् ॥ Characteristics of Words

In Tarkabhasha of Shri Keshav Mishra (A Nyaya Commentary), padam (word) is defined as पदं च वर्णसमूहः । Padam (word) is a collection of varnas (letters).

In Tattvachintamani, Gangesa also affirms वर्णसमूहः पदं ।[4] that Pada is a collection of varnas.

In Tarksamgraha, Annambhatta describes शक्तं पदम्। अस्मात्पदात् अयमर्थो बोद्धव्य इतीश्वरसङ्केतः शक्तिः॥१॥ (Tark. Samg. 4.1)[5]

A word is that which has significative potency (Sakti). "From this word, this concept should be known - as per the will of Ishvara" to this effect (ईश्वरसङ्केतः) is called Sakti (significative potency).[6]

In Ashtadhyayi, Panini describes सुप्तिङ्गन्तं पदम्। (1.4.15), thus we see a grammatical lakshana for Pada as that which has the case endings of सुप् and तिङ्ग।

While a letter is a significant sound, a word is a symbolic sound of a higher order. A varna signifies only a part of the alphabet but the fixed set of varnas in a padam stand for some thing or some idea. Padas are similar to varnas in their ability to be spoken or written and thus are the objects of auditory or visual perception. It should be noted that while varnas are part of alphabet and independent, a word is not a mere collection or aggregation of varnas but a definite whole of letters or syllables having a fixed sequence of arrangement within the Padam. It is the unity of the parts (syllables) forming an object (word) of single cognition.[1] Summarizing the qualities of words as follows

  1. It consists of varnas in a fixed order
  2. Its essential nature lies in its meaning
  3. Meaning of the word and object it signifies have a relationship
  4. Different relationships (of word and object) gives different meanings of a particular word.

Meanings of Words

Logically a word is a sound that bears a certain meaning. A word may have different meanings according to the various ways in which it is related to the object. On the whole we see at least four different kinds of meaning of a word as per Naiyayikas and Alamkarikas. Many commentaries of Nyaya have explained various aspects of dhvani, shabda, pada and vakya. In this article the commentaries of Sabdasakti-Prakashika of Jagadisa Tarkalankara and Siddhanta Muktavali by Visvanatha Panchanana have been used to present different concepts of Pada.

शक्तिः ॥ Word - Meaning Relationship

The relation between a word and the meaning it represents is called Shakti according to Siddhanta Muktavali.[1]

शक्तिश्च पदेन सह पदार्थस्य सम्बन्ध:। सा चाऽस्माच्छब्दादयमर्थो बोद्धव्य इतीश्वरेच्छारूप:। (Sidd. Mukt. Shabdakhanda)[7]

Sakti or the inherent potency of a word describes that 'from this sabda this meaning has to be understood as per divine will'. It is eternal and unchanging.

  • Sanketa : Sanketa is the direct relation between a word and its meaning, such that the knowledge of the word leads immediately to the knowledge of its relation to the meaning. It is of the following two ways
    • Vachakas : Sanketa or direct relation between word and its meaning is eternal, natural, established by divine order and is unchanging is called Sakti or significative potency of the word. Example, relation between the word Jar and object Jar is direct and eternal.
    • Paaribhashikas : Sanketa or direct relation between word and its meaning is not eternal, conventional, established by technical usage of mankind and is changing in different contexts by the will of authority defining that "such and such word stands for this" is called Paribhasha. Example, word 'article' in grammar, 'premise' in logic, 'category' in philosophy
  • Lakshana: Lakshana is the indirect or implied meaning in which we should understand a word when its direct or primary meaning is inconsistent with other words or the context. Thus such a Lakshana word means an object when it is directly related to some other aspect of the object other than its primary meaning. Thus the secondary meaning is suggested through its association with the primary meaning. Example, take the expression गङ्गायां घोषः । the house is on Ganga. As per the primary meaning, 'the house is located on the current of water of river Ganga', which is not a possibility which can exist. So we consider not its primary meaning of 'the current of water of river' but in the secondary meaning of 'the bank of the river Ganga'.Thus we see that the secondary meaning called Lakshana, गङ्गातटे घोषः । the house is on the banks of Ganga, has an indirect meaningful relationship with Ganga. There are three kinds of Lakshana
    • Jahallakshana, when no part of the primary meaning is retained, e.g., "the scaffolds cry out"
    • Ajahallakshana, when a word is also retained in the implied meaning, e.g., a blue jar - meaning a jar with the attribute of blueness.
    • Jahadajahallakshana, a part of the primary meaning is retained, e.g., 'this is that man' - meaning the identity of the man leaving out the attributes of 'this' and 'that'.
  • Vyanjana : This stands for such meanings of words which are neither directly or indirectly related to them, but are only suggested by them. Thus the sentence गङ्गायां घोषः । the house is on Ganga is taken to mean that the house has the suggested qualities of Coolness (शीतलत्वम्) and Sacredness (पावनत्वम्) that is associated with the river Ganga.

Naiyayikas admit only Sanketa and Lakshana kinds of meanings of words, they include Vyanjana within Sakti and Lakshana. They also different from Vedantins who admit that not only words, sentences also may have secondary meanings or Lakshana. The Alamkarikas consider the third kind of meaning namely Vyanjana. The Vyangyartha or suggested meaning of a word arises from its primary and secondary meanings and is not separate from them according to Naiyayikas. The alamkarikas however differ from Naiyayika views. Thus we have four kinds of terms namely

  • Abhidhaa/Vachaka/Mukhyartha/Sakyartha denotes the primary meaning of a word
  • Paaribhaashika padas denoting the technical meaning of a word
  • Lakshana indicates the secondary meaning of a word
  • Vyanjana denotes the suggested meaning

शक्तिग्रहोपायनिरूपणम् ॥ Learning the Meanings of Words

Now, that classification of meanings is understood, the next question to be answered is how do we grasp the meanings of words (शक्तिग्रह:)? How does a child understand that "this word means this"? According to Vishvanatha Panchanana Bhatt, Saktigraha or grasping the significative meaning of a word is by five ways[1][8]

शक्तिग्रहं व्याकरणोपमानकोशाप्तवाक्याद्व्यवहारतश्च। (Sidd. Mukt. Shabdakhanda)[7]

The elders say that there are five different ways in which the knowledge of denotative meaning of a word is grasped. Briefly discussed they are

  1. धातुप्रकृतिप्रत्ययादीनां शक्तिग्रहो व्याकरणाद्भवति। From the vyakarana aspects such as Dhatu (verbal roots), Prakrti and Pratyaya (suffixes) the meaning of the word is apprehended.
  2. उपमानाद्यथा शक्तिग्रहः..। Through comparisons (upamanas) the meaning of the word is apprehended.
  3. कोषाद् । Through Dictionaries the meaning of the words are learnt.
  4. आप्तवाक्याद् । From the different usages of words by trustworthy persons, as from the statement such as यथा कोकिल: पिकशब्दवाच्य इत्यादिशब्दात् । the word 'pika' signifies a cuckoo.
  5. व्यवहारादपि। From the usage also the meaning is apprehended. For instance, an elderly person giving directions says, 'bring the jar,' and hearing this another person brings a jar. A boy watching this concludes that the act of bringing a jar is the result of the words uttered by the elderly person. From the expressions such as, 'remove the jar,' and 'bring the cow,' he understands the process of inclusion and exclusion of functions.

Contextual usage and Synonymous words also lend their might in apprehending a word's meaning. Sometimes where there is a contradiction it is discarded and alternate ways are tried. A detailed discussion being out of scope it may suffice to outline the different methods of apprehending the meanings of words.

That there are so many different ways of knowing the meanings of words proves that the relation between words and their meanings is not a natural but a conventional relation.

Determination of the Meaning

शक्तं पदम्। तच्चतुर्विधम्। क्वचिद्यौगिकं, क्वचिद्रूढं, क्वचिद्योगरूढं क्वचिद्यौगिकरूढम्। (Sidd. Mukt. Shabdakhanda)[7]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Chatterjee. Satischandra, (1950 Second Edition) The Nyaya Theory of Knowledge, A Critical Study of Some Problems of Login and Metaphysics. Calcutta: University of Calcutta. (Pages 322 - 335)
  2. Raja, Kunjunni K. (1977 Reprint) Indian Theories of Meaning. Madras: The Adyar Library and Research Centre.
  3. Nirukta Shastra (Adhyaya 1)
  4. Tattvachintamani by Gangesa Upadhyaya (ShabdaKhanda)
  5. Tarkasamgraha (Shabdanirupanam)
  6. Mm. S. Kuppuswami Sastri (1951 Second Edition) A Primer of Indian Logic according to Annambhatta's Tarkasamgraha. Madras: The Kuppuswami Sastri Research Institute (Page 253)
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Nyayasiddhanta Muktavali (Full Text)
  8. Swami Madhavananda, (1954 Second Edition) Bhasa-Pariccheda with Siddhanta Muktavali by Visvanatha Nyaya-Panchanana. (English Translation) Almora: Advaita Ashram (Pages 149 - 154)