Difference between revisions of "Manvantaras (मन्वन्तराणि)"

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|Svayambhuva (स्वायंभुवः)
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|स्वायम्भुवमनुः ॥ Svayambhuva Manu
 
|Brahma|| Yajna (avatar) |Yajna (Avatar of Vishnu)
 
|Brahma|| Yajna (avatar) |Yajna (Avatar of Vishnu)
 
|Marichi, Atri, Angira, Pulaha, Kratu, Pulastya and Vashishta
 
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|Agni||Rochana
 
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|Urja, Stambha, Prana, Brhaspati, Datta, Atri, Cyavana
 
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|Pramada and other sons of Vashishta
 
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|Tamasa (तामसः)
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|तामसमनुः ॥ Tamasa Manu
 
|Priyavrata
 
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|रैवतमनुः ॥ Raivata Manu Adhyaya 5
 
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|Chakshusha (चाक्षुषः)
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|चाक्षषमनुः ॥ Chakshusha Manu
 
|Chakshus||Mantradyumna
 
|Chakshus||Mantradyumna
 
|Havishmat, Viiraka, Sumedhas, Anuttama, Madhu, Atinaaman, Sahishnu
 
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|Sraddhadeva or Vaivasvata (वैवस्वतः) Adhyaya 13
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|वैवस्वतमनुः ॥ Vaivasvata Manu or Sraddhadeva Adhyaya 13
 
|Vivasvaan and Samjna||Purandara (the present Indra)
 
|Vivasvaan and Samjna||Purandara (the present Indra)
 
|Kasyapa, Atri, Visvamitra, Vashishta, Gautama, Jamadagni and Bharadvaja
 
|Kasyapa, Atri, Visvamitra, Vashishta, Gautama, Jamadagni and Bharadvaja
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|Savarni (सावर्णिः)
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|सावर्णिकमनुः ॥ Savarni Manu
 
|Vivasvaan and Chaya|| Mahabali |Bali  
 
|Vivasvaan and Chaya|| Mahabali |Bali  
 
|Galava, Parasurama, Asvatthama, Krpa, Rshyashringa, Badarayana
 
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|Daksha Savarni (दक्षसावर्णिः)
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|Varuna
 
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||Adbhuta
 
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|Upasloka||Shambhu
 
|Upasloka||Shambhu
 
|Havishmat, Sukrti, Satya, Jaya, Murti and others
 
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|धर्म्मसावर्णिकमनुः ॥ Dharma Savarni Manu
 
|||Vaidhrta
 
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|Aruna and others
 
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|Deva Savarni (देवसावर्णिः)
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|Agnibahu, Suchi, Suddha, Magadha and others
 
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== Duties of Manus and their Functionaries ==
 
== Duties of Manus and their Functionaries ==
The Manus, sons of Manus, the Saptarshis, Indras and group of Devatas - all these five categories of functionaries are under the control of the Supreme Being. Directed by the forms of Mahavishnu (in each Manvantara) such as Yajna and others, Manu and others perform their designated work in the world.
+
There are five categories of functionaries under the control of the Supreme Being.  
 +
# The Manu
 +
# Sons of Manu
 +
# Saptarshis
 +
# Indras
 +
# Devata Group
 +
Directed by the forms of Mahavishnu (in each Manvantara) such as Yajna and others, Manu and others perform their designated work in the world.
  
At the beginning of each new Krtayuga, when Kala swallows the vedas, Manus are instructed by the forms of Mahavishnu in the path of Dharma, characteriszed by four feet (tapas, soucha, daya and satya). Thus the Manus themselves controlled in mind, following the dharma or eternal law, propagate the dharmik path all over the world during their period.
+
At the beginning of each new Krtayuga, when Kala swallows the vedas, Manus are instructed by the forms of Mahavishnu in the path of Dharma, characterized by four feet (tapas, soucha, daya and satya). Thus the Manus themselves controlled in mind, following the dharma or eternal law, propagate the dharmik path all over the world during their period.
  
 
Manu's sons themselves and through their descendents protect the path of Dharma to the end of their Manvantara. The Devatas eligible for the share of yajnas enjoy their position. Indra, supported by Mahavishnu, enjoys the leadership of the Devatas, the affluence and becomes the protector of the three worlds, by sending the rains.
 
Manu's sons themselves and through their descendents protect the path of Dharma to the end of their Manvantara. The Devatas eligible for the share of yajnas enjoy their position. Indra, supported by Mahavishnu, enjoys the leadership of the Devatas, the affluence and becomes the protector of the three worlds, by sending the rains.

Revision as of 10:10, 12 June 2019

Manvatara (Samskrit : मन्वन्तरम्) is a cyclic unit of macrocosmic time period consisting of 71 Mahayugas. It is called Manvantara as Manu is the ruler of the earth on behalf of Brahma, in each of these periods. Fourteen such Manvantaras make up one Kalpa or a day in the life of Brahma. One of the five characteristics of the Puranas is that it should contain the details of the Manvantaras. Hence Puranas are the source of this information and the list of Manus from a few Puranas will be presented in the following sections. Astronomy also describes the time periods of Manvantaras.

Manus in Bhagavata Purana

Bhagavata Purana (12.7.15) mentions that each Manvantara is presided over by a Manu as its head, a group of Devatas (Manu's sons), an Indra, Sapta Rshis, and an incarnation of Sri MahaVishnu.

मन्वन्तरं मनुर्देवा मनुपुत्राः सुरेश्वराः । ऋषयोंऽशावताराश्च हरेः षड्‌विधमुच्यते ॥ १५ ॥ (Bhag. Pura. 12.7.15)[1]

In the Bhagavata Purana, Skanda 8 a detailed description of Manus, the associated devatas, Manu's sons, Indra, Vishnu and Saptarshis of each Manvantara are given in Adhyayas 1, 5 and 13. In a few instances the names of the Saptarishis are filled in from the Harivamsha. They are summarized in the table below.

Manus, Indras, Saptarshis and Mahavishnu names in different Manvantaras according to Bhagavata Purana
No Manu Son of Indra Saptarshis Mahavishnu Remarks
1 स्वायम्भुवमनुः ॥ Svayambhuva Manu Brahma Yajna (Avatar of Vishnu) Marichi, Atri, Angira, Pulaha, Kratu, Pulastya and Vashishta Yajna Matsyavatara
2 स्वारोचिषमनुः॥ Svarochisha Manu Agni Rochana Urja, Stambha, Prana, Brhaspati, Datta, Atri, Cyavana Vibhu (Son of Vedasiras and Tushita)
3 उत्तममनुः ॥ Uttama Manu (Auttami) Priyavrata Satyajit Pramada and other sons of Vashishta Satyasena (Son of Dharma and Sunrta)
4 तामसमनुः ॥ Tamasa Manu Priyavrata Trishikha Jyoti, Dhaama, Prthu, Kavya, Chaitra, Agni, Dhanada and Pivara. Hari (Son of Harimedhas and Harini) Gajendra Moksham
5 रैवतमनुः ॥ Raivata Manu Adhyaya 5 Priyavrata Vibhu Hiranyaroma, Vedasiras, Urdhvabahu, and others Vaikuntha (Son of Subhra and Vikuntha) Stories of Hiranyaksha and Hiranyakasipu
6 चाक्षषमनुः ॥ Chakshusha Manu Chakshus Mantradyumna Havishmat, Viiraka, Sumedhas, Anuttama, Madhu, Atinaaman, Sahishnu Ajita (Son of Vairaaja and Sambhuti) Samudra Manthana and Devasura sangrama
7 वैवस्वतमनुः ॥ Vaivasvata Manu or Sraddhadeva Adhyaya 13 Vivasvaan and Samjna Purandara (the present Indra) Kasyapa, Atri, Visvamitra, Vashishta, Gautama, Jamadagni and Bharadvaja Vamana (Kasyapa and Aditi) The Present Manvantara
8 सावर्णिकमनुः ॥ Savarni Manu Vivasvaan and Chaya Bali Galava, Parasurama, Asvatthama, Krpa, Rshyashringa, Badarayana Sarvabhauma (Son of Devaguhya and Sarasvatii)
9 दक्षसावर्णिकमनुः ॥ Daksha Savarni Manu Varuna Adbhuta Dyutimat Rshabha (son of Ayushmat and Ambudhara)
10 ब्रह्मसावर्णिकमनुः ॥ Brahma Savarni Manu Upasloka Shambhu Havishmat, Sukrti, Satya, Jaya, Murti and others Visvaksena (Son of Vishvasrj (Prajapati) and Visuchi
11 धर्म्मसावर्णिकमनुः ॥ Dharma Savarni Manu Vaidhrta Aruna and others Dharmasetu (Aaryaka and Vaidhrta)
12 रुद्रसावर्णिकमनुः ॥ Rudra Savarni Manu Rtadhaman Tapomurti, Tapasvin, Agnidhraka and others Svadhaman (Son of Satyasahas and Soonrta)
13 देवसावर्णिकमनुः ॥ Deva Savarni Manu (Rouchya) Divaspati Nirmoka, Tattvadarsin and others Son of Devahotra and Brhati
14 इन्द्रसावर्णिकमनुः ॥ Indra Savarni or Bhoutya (भौत्यः) Suchi Agnibahu, Suchi, Suddha, Magadha and others Brhadbhanu (Satraayana and Vitaanaa)

Manus in Vishnu Purana

The following is the list of Manus and the Indras of one Kalpa given as per Vishnupurana (3.1)[2]. Agni Purana also gives a similar list.[3][4]

स्वायंभुवो मनुः पूर्वं परः स्वारोचिषस्तथा । उत्तमस्तामसश्चैव रैवतश्चाक्षुषस्तथा ॥ ३,१.६ ॥ (Vish. Pura. 3.1.6)

svāyaṁbhuvō manuḥ pūrvaṁ paraḥ svārōciṣastathā । uttamastāmasaścaiva raivataścākṣuṣastathā ॥ 3,1.6 ॥ (Vish. Pura. 3.1.6)

षडेते मनवोतीताः सांप्रतं तु रवेः सुतः । वैवस्वतेयं यस्त्वेतत्मप्तमं वर्ततेन्तरम् ॥ ३,१.७ ॥ (Vish. Pura. 3.1.7)

ṣaḍētē manavōtītāḥ sāṁprataṁ tu ravēḥ sutaḥ । vaivasvatēyaṁ yastvētatmaptamaṁ vartatēntaram ॥ 3,1.7 ॥ (Vish. Pura. 3.1.7)

No Manvantara/Manu Indra
1 Svayambhuva (स्वायंभुवः) Yajna (Avatar of Vishnu) (यज्ञःस्वायंभुवेन्तरे।... 3.1.36)
2 Svarochisha (स्वारोचिषः) Vipaschit (विपश्चित्तत्र देवेन्द्रो... 3.1.10)
3 Uttama (उत्तमः) Sushanti (सुशान्तिर्नाम देवेन्द्रो... 3.1.13)
4 Tamasa (तामसः) Shibi or Shatakratu (शिविरिन्द्रस्तथा... 3.1.17)
5 Raivata (रैवतः) Vibhu (र्विभुश्च तत्रेन्द्रो... 3.1.20)
6 Chakshusha (चाक्षुषः) Manojava (मनोजवस्तथैवेन्द्रो... 3.1.26)
7 Vaivasvata (वैवस्वतः) Purandara (the present Indra) (पुरन्दराय त्रैलोक्यं... 3.1.43)
8 Savarni (सावर्णिः) Bali (बलिरिन्द्रो भविष्यति... 3.2.18)
9 Daksha Savarni (दक्षसावर्णिः) Adbhuta (भविष्यति अद्भुतो... 3.2.22)
10 Brahma Savarni (ब्रह्मसावर्णिः) Shanti (शान्तिर्नाम... 3.2.26)
11 Dharma Savarni (धर्मसावर्णिः) Vrsha (श्चेन्द्रश्च वै वृषः ...3.2.30)
12 Rudra Savarni (रुद्रसावर्णिः) Rtudhama (ऋतधामा च तत्रेन्द्रो...3.2.32)
13 Rauchya Savarni (रौच्य) Divaspati (दिवस्पतिर्महावीर्यस्तेषामिन्द्रो... 3.2.39)
14 Bhautya (भौत्यः) (alternatively भौमः।Bhauma) Suchi (शुचिरिन्द्रः... 3.2.42)

Duties of Manus and their Functionaries

There are five categories of functionaries under the control of the Supreme Being.

  1. The Manu
  2. Sons of Manu
  3. Saptarshis
  4. Indras
  5. Devata Group

Directed by the forms of Mahavishnu (in each Manvantara) such as Yajna and others, Manu and others perform their designated work in the world.

At the beginning of each new Krtayuga, when Kala swallows the vedas, Manus are instructed by the forms of Mahavishnu in the path of Dharma, characterized by four feet (tapas, soucha, daya and satya). Thus the Manus themselves controlled in mind, following the dharma or eternal law, propagate the dharmik path all over the world during their period.

Manu's sons themselves and through their descendents protect the path of Dharma to the end of their Manvantara. The Devatas eligible for the share of yajnas enjoy their position. Indra, supported by Mahavishnu, enjoys the leadership of the Devatas, the affluence and becomes the protector of the three worlds, by sending the rains.

Mahavishnu, in every Yuga, assuming various forms of rshis, siddhas teaches the paths of Jnana, Karma and Yoga. Carrying out the work of creation, in the form of Prajapati, he also protects the people from adharma. Possessing different characteristics, in the form of Kala (time), he destroys all. (Bhag. Pura. 8.14)[5]

References

  1. Bhagavata Purana (Skanda 12 Adhyaya 7)
  2. Vishnupurana (Amsha 3 Adhyaya 1)
  3. Agni Purana (Adhyaya 150)
  4. Shastri, J. L., Bhatt. G. P., Gangadharan, N. (1998) The Agni Purana. Delhi : Motilal Banarsidass Pvt. Ltd. (Page 428)
  5. Tagare, G. V. and Shastri, J. L. The Bhagavata Purana, Part 3 (Skandas 7 to 9). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass