Jatakarma (जातकर्म)

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Jatakarma (Samskrit: जातकर्म) is the first samskara of a child, performed at the time of birth by the father. The helplessness of the mother and the newborn during her confinement required natural care, from which ceremonies connected with the birth of a child originated.

Jatakarma Samskara

परिचयः ॥ Introduction

The man, who shared the pleasures in the company of his mate, sought to protect her and the baby, during the critical time of birth, from natural and, supernatural dangers. Thus the birth ceremonies had a natural basis in the physical conditions of child-birth. The primitive wonder, supernatural fear and natural care were, in course of time, combined with the cultural devices and aspirations to protect the mother and the child and to consecrate the baby.

वेदेषु जातकर्म विषयाः ॥ Jatakarma in Vedic times

In the Rigveda, the word, "Janman" or birth occurs twice but used in the sense of relations. However, in the Atharvaveda we find a whole sukta (1.11) dedicated for the safe delivery of the child.[1]

वषट्ते पूषन्न् अस्मिन्त्सूतावर्यमा होता कृणोतु वेधाः । सिस्रतां नार्यृतप्रजाता वि पर्वाणि जिहतां सूतवा उ ॥१॥ (Atha. Veda. 1.11.1)

Meaning: O Pusha, spirit of life’s procreation, for the expectant mother, may every thing be good and auspicious in this child birth. May Aryama, creative law of nature, hota, the father, Vedha, the specialist physician, all be good and helpful and auspicious. May the mother give birth to the baby comfortably. May she relax all over her body system.[2]

Further, in the sukta, we find details such as the passage of the delivery, the descent of the placenta in the process of delivering the child showing that Vedic people had advanced knowledge of human biology, for example, in the mantra meaning "the cover of the foetus is not stuck in the flesh, nor in the fat, nor in marrow. Let the thin spotted sheet after birth be out for dogs to eat" tells us that they knew about the layers covering the foetus.[2]

जातकर्म॥ Jatakarma Samskara

उपयुक्तकालः ॥ Suitable Time of Performance

Jatakarma Saṃskāra is performed before the navel string is cut according to Sankhayana (1.24) and Paraskara (1.16.4). Manu mentions that

प्राङ्नाभिवर्धनात्पुंसः जातकर्म विधीयते। मनुस्मृतिः २.२९ । prāṅnābhivardhanātpuṃsaḥ jātakarma vidhīyate। Manusmṛtiḥ 2.29 .

Jātakarma of a male child is ordained before the umbilical cord is cut. Before cutting the navel string there is no Asoucha (impurity) due to birth and Jātakarma has to be performed at that time on a male child.

Other texts (Jaimini and Gobhila grhyasutras) mention that it should be done before the cutting of umbilical cord and prior to feeding the newborn.

The time for the performance of the rite need not be very rigidly described, as it is to be done as soon as the child is born.[3]

संस्कारविधिः ॥ Samskara Vidhi

From the Brhadaranyaka Upanishad (VI.4.24) we come to know of a process of Jatakarma. This was to be performed when the father desired the child for the special purpose of studying the Vedas. The primitive customs were supplemented by the greeting of the child by the father and the whole was given sanctity by the addition of a homa to the ceremony.[3]

In the Grhyasutras this Samskara is fully described. But here, too, the ritual is purely religious, and popular and superstitious elements are hardly given their proper scope. The Dharmasutras and the Smrtis do not give any descriptive details. The mediaeval treatises, however, introduce many preliminary items e.g. the arrangement of the maternity house, ceremony accompanying entry into it, presence of desirable persons near the expectant mother, and some other, observances which are otherwise unknown to earlier sources. The maternity house or Sutika Bhavan is arranged by the selection of a suitable room in the house, which is entered by the expectant mother a day or two before the delivery amidst auspicious sounds of conch shells and musical instruments.[1]

In later times the moment of birth was noted with meticulous care for preparing horoscope, as it was thought to be a determining factor in the life of the child. Then the good news was brought to the father. Different sentiments were expressed at the birth of a boy and a girl, as different prospects were depending on them. The firstborn was liked to be a boy, as he freed the father from all ancestral debts. But for a sensible man a girl was not less meritorious, because her gift in marriage brought merits to the father. After this, the father went to the mother in order to see the 'face of the son', because by looking at the face of the newborn son the father is absolved from all debts and attains immortality.[1]

ऋणमस्मिन्सन्नयति अमृतत्वं च गच्छति। पिता पुत्रस्य जातस्य पश्येच्चेञ्जीवितो मुखम्।।[1] जातं कुमारं स्वं दृष्ट्वा स्नात्वाऽनीय गुरुम् पिता। नान्दी श्राद्धावसाने तु जातकर्म समाचरेत् ॥ (Viramitrodaya)

Summary: Having seen the face of the child, he bathed with his clothes on invited the elders and performed the Nandi-shraddha and Jatakarma ceremonies.[1] This shraddha is performed to please the ancestors. Such were observed by Nanda at the birth of Krishna.

Special rites were prescribed if the child died in the birth. If the delivery was safe and the child was born alive a fire was lightened in the room to warm utensils and to smoke the child and the mother. This fire was kept burning for the days. Grains of rice and seeds of mustard were thrown into it with appropriate formulas to drive away various kinds of evil spirits. The Sutika fire was regarded impure and it disappeared on the tenth day when the grhya fire came into use after the purification of the mother and the child was performed.[1]

Dr. Deshpande summarizes the following classification of the vidhis involved in Jatakarma as per Brhdaranyaka Upanishad which is the source of all Sutra Samskara vidhis[3].

  1. Homa: The samskara involves a preliminary homa with different oblations and mantras peculiar to each shaka of the Veda.
  2. Whispering in the child’s ear: the father utter "Vak (speech)" three times in the right ear of the child Paraskara named this recitation as "Aayushya". It is a rite where the father blesses the child that he has strong limbs and a long life along with the recitation of certain mantras.
  3. Medhajanana: Feeding the child with honey and clarified butter: Mentioned in nearly all Sutra texts, this rite is very popular. The father should give the child a mixture of curds, honey and ghee using a gold piece (a ring) while reciting prescribed mantras.
  4. Namakarana i.e., naming the child is further described below. The child is given a nakshatranama, name coined according to the nakshatra in which the child is born. Many opine that this Namakarana vidhi is different from the actual Samaskara performed after the eleventh day (after Jaata-Asoucha) following the purificatory rites.
  5. Stanapratidhana (giving the breast to the newborn): the father hands over the child to the mother and gives it the breast, with the recitation of mantras (given in Brhd. Upan (6.4.26) and sutra texts).
  6. Measures to keep off evil are described in Yajurveda sutras. Removal of evil "eye" (Drsta kaadhane) is one popular rite practiced even today.

नक्षत्रनाम ॥ Nakshatra-nama

जातं वात्सप्रेण अभिमृश्य उत्तरेण यजुषा उपस्थे आधाय उत्तराभ्याम् अभिमन्त्रणम् मूर्धनि अवघ्राणं दक्षिणे कर्णे जापः। आपस्तम्बगृह्यसूत्रम्, १५.१ ॥ jātaṃ vātsapreṇa abhimṛśya uttareṇa yajuṣā upasthe ādhāya uttarābhyām abhimantraṇam mūrdhani avaghrāṇaṃ dakṣiṇe karṇe jāpaḥ. Āpastambagṛhyasūtram, 15.1 ॥

As soon as the (male) child is born the father should recite the Vātsaprānuvāka, i.e. "divaspari . . .", and touch (at the end of the Mantra), should take him into the lap while reciting the Yajus "asminnaham", recite two Mantras, viz., "aṅgādaṅgāt" and "aśmā bhava", for him and smell his head and the same Mantras are to be repeated in the right ear.

नक्षत्रनाम च निर्दिशति; तद्रहस्यं भवति । आपस्तम्बगृह्यसूत्रम्, १५.२, ३ ॥ nakṣatranāma ca nirdiśati; tadrahasyaṃ bhavati। Āpastambagṛhyasūtram, 15.2, 3 ॥

The father pronounces the Nakṣatranāma (name coined after the name of the birth star) also in the right ear secretly.

The name runs like this:

Birth-star Name related to Star

Rohiṇī Rauhiṇaḥ

Revatī Raivataḥ

Maghā Māghaḥ

Such a name has to be kept a secret, i.e. should not be pronounced loudly. Śatapathabrāhmaṇam ( ordains that a name should be given to the male child as soon as he is born:

तस्मात् पुत्रस्य जातस्य नाम कुर्यात् । tasmāt putrasya jātasya nāma kuryāt ।

Vedāṅgajyotiṣam (Ṛgveda 25-28) enumerates twenty eight Nakṣatras (stars), including Abhijit and their Devatas (Gods) and adds that in Yajñas (Sacrifices) the Yajamāna (Sacrificer) has to bear the Nakṣatranāma:

नक्षत्रदेवता ह्येता एताभिर्यज्ञकर्मणि। यजमानस्य शास्त्रज्ञैः नाम नक्षत्रजं स्मृतम्॥

nakṣatradevatā hyetā etābhiryajñakarmaṇi।

yajamānasya śāstrajñaiḥ nāma nakṣatrajaṃ smṛtam॥

These are the deities of Nakṣatras (stars) useful in Yajñas. Scholars say that the Nakṣatranāma of Yajamāna has to be employed in Yajñas.

The Nakṣatranāma has to be kept secret in order to avoid Abhicāra (magical practice) against the person. The commentary on Khādiragṛhyasūtram (2.3.32) explains the above said concept, i.e. Yajñakarma and Abhicāra –

वैदिककर्मार्थमेतत्। नामापरिज्ञाने अभीचाराद्यसिद्धिः फलम्।

vaidikakarmārthametat। nāmāparijñāne abhicārādyasiddhiḥ phalam।

This [Nakṣatranāma] is meant for Vedic rites. If the name [to be used in Vedic rites] is not known, the result is that Abhicāra etc. would not be successful.

Purpose of the Samskara

The Garbhadhana rite, which precedes this Jatakarman is a rite for securing a particular kind of a son or a daughter, who would study one or two or three Vedas or who would be very learned if the child be daughter (Brhd. Upan. 6.4.12-18). And a particular Jatakarman is to be performed for that child that, has been brought into this world for this purpose. That explains the whispering of the word ‘Vak’ into the ear, which means speech, i.e. the sacred speech or Veda. This whispering in the ear, is a way of greeting the child, is quite appropriate to greet the child with the word Vak, when the child was hoped to be specially well-versed in the. Vedas.[3]

Social Perspectives

Protecting the expectant mother and child is the primarily expressed in all the rituals associated with Jatakarma. Selecting an auspicious time she enters the previously prepared Sutika bhavan. Having worshipped the devatas, brahmanas and the cows, amidst the sounds of conchshells and other musical instruments she is prepared on a strong mental note for delivering the child. She is supported and accompanied by women who gave birth previously and who were capable of bearing hardships, are of pleasing manners and reliable. They cheered up the woman, and prepared her for safe delivery by means of useful ointment and regulations about diet and living. When the time for actual delivery came, they made the mother lie on her back. Some rites were then performed for the protection of the house from evil spirits. The place was anointed to ward off demons. Fire, water, staff, lamp, weapons, mace and mustard seeds were kept in the house as described in Markandeya purana (quoted in Viramitrodaya). Turyanti plants were also placed before the mother to ward off evil spirits.[1]

Medical Perspectives

The Medhajanana ceremony speaks of the high concern of the Hindus about the intellectual well-being of the child, which they thought their first business with it. The Vyahrtis uttered on this occasion were symbolical of intelligence; they were recited with the great' Gayatri mantra which contains prayer for stimulating talent. The substances, with which the child was fed, were also conducive to mental growth, According to SuSruta, the following are the properties of ghee: It is producer of beauty; it is greasy and sweet' it is remover of hysteria, headache, epilepsy, fever, indigestion, excess of bile; it is increaser of digestion, memory, intellect, talent, lustre, good sound, semen and life. The properties of honey “and gold are equally favourable to the mental progress of the child.

Jatakarma described in Ayurveda

Jatakarma is that samskara in early human life which helps the newborn baby to smoothly transcend from life inside the womb to the life outside the womb. After birth of a baby, the change is not just in the outside environment but, baby's dependency on mother for survival also changes. The child remains only partially dependent on mother post birth who was completely dependent on mother for past 9 months. Therefore the Jatakarma has been advised in this phase of transition which facilitates baby's smooth transition into the outside world, a completely new environment for the baby.

Ayurveda scholars at first have advised to resuscitate the newborn baby by various methods like making sounds in the baby's ears, clearing his mouth and airways, keeping a cotton socked in ghee over head etc.[4]All these measures mentioned here serve as primitive resuscitating measures practiced since thousands of years to make baby cry and kickstart his respiration and other systems properly. Also keeping cotton socked in ghee over head could have served the purpose of preventing hypothermia or heat loss from head, largest surface of baby's body. When the baby used to get stabilized by these methods the umbilical cord used to be cut and tied. Once these preliminary measures are done, Jatakarma samskara was performed. Jatakarma samskara or vidhi includes certain rituals and procedures that include exclusive methods like giving medicinal linctus to a newborn for health, nourishment, longevity and wellbeing.


Once the newborn baby is resuscitated i.e. once he cries and his umbilical cord is cut Jatakarma procedures can be performed.

अतोऽनन्तरं जातकर्म कुमारस्य कार्यम्|

तद्यथा- मधुसर्पिषी मन्त्रोपमन्त्रिते यथाम्नायं प्रथमं प्राशितुं दद्यात्|

स्तनमत ऊर्ध्वमेतेनैव विधिना दक्षिणं पातुं पुरस्तात् प्रयच्छेत्|

अथातः शीर्षतः स्थापयेदुदकुम्भं मन्त्रोपमन्त्रितम्||४६|| (Char. Samh. 8.46)[5]

Meaning: Thereafter, birth-rites of the child should be performed per vedic rituals, which are as follows: first of all, honey and ghee duly “consecrated” with vedic mantras (chanted by brahmanas or priests) should be anointed to the child. Breast milk should first be fed from the right breast, and should be done so after performing the rituals mentioned above. An earthen pot filled with water should be consecrated with mantras and kept near the head of the child.[6]

Thus Jatakarma includes,

  • Giving baby a lehana (linctus) made up of honey and ghee as per Charaka, Other Ayurveda scholars have advised using Suvarna bhasma (gold bhasma) and some specific herbs in this linctus.[7] Making baby lick the paste made up of herbs, honey , ghee and gold is known as Suvarnaprashana and is popular Ayurveda therapeutic procedure which is practiced in current times as well.
  • Breast feeding preferably from the right side first.
  • Placing a pot filled with water consecrated by certain mantras near baby.
  • Mantras are chanted during the entire process. Use of Mantra in Jata Karma gives psychological support to parents especially mother.


Suvarnaprashana (a type of medicine) given to baby under jatakarma samskara, derives its name from the chief ingredient of it, the Suvarna Bhasma (gold). The other ingredients are honey and ghee. Since the mixture is in the form of linctus and the baby is supposed to lick it, it is called as Suvarnaprashanama. It serves the purpose of both nutrition and immunization.

विघृष्य धौते दृषदि प्राङ्मुखी लघुनाऽम्बुना

आमथ्य मधुसर्पिभ्यां लेहयेत् कनकं शिशुम् ॥ सुवर्णप्राशनम् ह्येतत् मेधाग्निबलवर्धनम् |

आयुष्य मङ्गल पुण्यं वृष्य वर्ण्यं ग्रहापहम् ॥ मासात् परसमेधावी व्याधिभिर्न च धृष्यते |

षड्‍ भिः मासैः श्रुतधरः सुवर्णप्राशनाद्भवेत्॥ (Kash. Samh. Sutra 18.26-27)[8]

Meaning: The gold is thoroughly cleaned and rubbed over a washed flat surface of the with a little water. The rubbed gold particles are then mixed with honey and ghee and the mixture is given to the baby as a linctus. This is called as Suvarna prashana. It increases Medha (intellectual power), Agni (digestive fire), balam (strength). It acts as a potion which enhances longevity, auspiciousness, virtue and vitality. It improves complexion, removes infliction of mind by evil forces.

  • Honey and ghee are rich sources of carbohydrate and fat respectively which can provide adequate energy even in a minute quantity. [9]
  • Honey has antimicrobial properties and according to Ayurveda, it helps to clear the slimy secretions stuck to the walls of oral cavity and throat owing to its 'Chhedana' property. [9]
  • Ghee increases samriti medha (intellect), kaanti (complexion), voice, ojas, strength. [9]
  • Ghee is also known to be detoxifying and protecting in nature.[9]
  • Use of gold (suvara-prashan) increases intellect, digestive and metabolic power, strength, aayusha(provide longevity), improves complexion and protects from external inflictions. [9]

Since Suvarna prashana is in the form of energy feed given for the first time after birth, it initiates gastrointestinal reflex in the newborn. In neonatal care, passing stools and urine by a baby within a day after birth is considered highly important for health. This can be achieved with the help of feed of suvarnaprashana. This feed is given in the form of lintus and thus newborn baby's rooting and sucking reflex can be assessed at the time of suvarnaprashana. Presence of these reflexes at birth is crucial for baby to take the breast feeding which is the only source for nourishment till 6 months of the age. [10]


Rakshavidhi is an integral part of Jatakarma samskara mentioned in Ayurveda.[11] The term Rakshavidhi indicates practices or procedures performed to protect a newborn child and also his/her mother. Ayurveda acharyas have given immense attention and importance to the newborn baby's protection. This includes protection from insects, microbes and also evil forces that have capacity to inflict the baby's manas (mind) as per Ayurveda. The Rakshavidhi starts right from the birth of the baby and at every stage of childhood samskara it has been given first place. It is similar to modern day disinfection or sterilization methods in the objective but the methods differ. Ayurveda advocates use of certain herbs and food ingredients to be spread or kept near child in order to prevent infection and infliction of child's body-mind from external harmful factors. Following are the measures that are collectively called as Rakshavidhi,[12]

  • The place of delivery and newborn baby's room should be surrounded by the branches of khadira (Acacia catechu Willd.), karkandhu (Zyzyphus nummularia W.&A.), pilu (Salvadora persica Linn.), and parushaka (Grewiaasiatica Linn.) plants.
  • Sarshapa (Brassica nigra Linn - mustard seeds), atasi (Linum ustatissimum Linn.),and tandula kanakanika (pieces of broken rice) should be spread all over the floors in the maternity home.
  • The sacrificial ritual of offering rice to fire should be performed every morning and evening till the naming ceremony for the child is complete.
  • At the door-sill, a wooden pestle should be kept obliquely.
  • A potli (bag) containing various herbs like vacha (Acorus calamus Linn.), kushtha (Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke.), choraka (Ksaumaka -?-), hingu (Ferula narthex Boiss.), sarshapa (Brassica nigra Koch.), atasi (Linum usitatissimum Linn.), lashuna (Alium sativum Linn.), kanakanika (-?-) and other drugs known to be repellents of evil spirits should be tied to the door-sill, and to the necks of the mother and the child , and should also be put into cooking utensils, water jars, bed, and on either side of the door panels
  • There should be a fire lighted constantly with the fire woods of kanakanika (-?-), and tinduka (Diospyros peregrine Gurke.) at the fireplace within the maternity home.
  • The attending women (of the qualities mentioned earlier) should keep vigilance of the maternity home for ten to twelve days. The whole house should be kept busy with people who are pious, affectionate and happy, and kept engaged with gifts, encouraging blessings, praise, song, music food and drinks.
  • In order to bestow auspicious blessings on the mother and the child, brahmins well versed in Atharva Veda should perform ritual sacrifices in the sacred fire two times a day.

These are, rituals and measures that need to be put in place to protect the mother and the child.

Applied aspects of Jatakarma samskara

Jatakarma Samskar is performed right after the birth of the baby and thus the procedures and rituals performed under it provide a vaidya present at that time to examine the baby and assess his growth directly for the first time. As per the western medicine Rooting and sucking reflexes in a child are primitive reflexes present at birth normally and which when abnormal suggest dysfunction of nervous system.[13] Thus lehana/Suvanraprashana and breast feeding advised under jatakarma provide an opportunity to check these reflexes of a baby and assess his health.

First feed given in the form of suvarnaprashana to the child initiates gastrointestinal movements and activates the gut. Moreover the ingredients of Suvarnaprashana and breast milk generated during this period have such medicinal properties that those help to enhance immunity e.g. Honey. Honey has antimicrobial properties and is a source of carbohydrates. Ghee is a rich source of fat. Thus the mixture of ghee and honey can provide adequate energy quickly in a minute quantity. [14]

Breast feeding given on the first day ensures proper nutrition and protective immunoglobulin present in colostrum is received by the newborn which aids in enhancing immune responses.

Concept of Immunization in ancient India

The modern studies have proved that, the immune system of a child is relatively immature at birth. It evolves through exposure to multiple foreign challenges in childhood, youth and then mature d at adulthood (including pregnancy) which ultimately shows decline in old age. Newborn baby comes from a womb of mother which is a relatively sterile environment. After birth the child is exposed to multiple microbes rapidly. The first major exposure is during passage through the birth canal and then the exposure goes on widening when the newborn baby makes oral, skin or respiratory contact with the exterior. Then onwards the exposure to microbes is continuous. With this, gradually newborn develops immunity. It is known that newborns especially the infants have impaired neutrophil function which play important role in immune defense mechanism thus putting the child at risk of bacterial infections. Apart from that, classical monocytes and macrophages are also immature in preterm and newborn children. As a result, the processes of tissue repair, eliminating potential pathogens entering into the body and secreting bioactive molecules for immune defense are also below par. [15] Thus it is clear that the innate immunity is muted at birth. This makes newborn relatively susceptible to bacterial and viral infections. This is the reason why a child receives multiple vaccination in today's time right from his birth up till his immune system becomes mature at a certain age. Vaccinations are mainly intended for passive protection or to stimulate immune system development in a child.

If we observe the childhood samskaras mentioned in Ayurveda we can see that Ayurveda acharyas have laid high emphasis on protecting the child at every stage during any samskara right from the jatakarma samskara.[11] [8][5] [16][17][18] It is thus clear that ancient Ayurveda scholars were well aware of the weak immune status of the children and their susceptibility to the infections. To overcome this deficiency and support the child to grow healthy they must have recommended use of Suvarnaprashana and Rakshavidhi right under the Jatakarma samskara. According to Ayurveda, Suvarnaprashana increases intelligence, strength and longevity. It also has a power to prevent infliction of the manas by evil powers and thus it protects not only child's physical health but also preserves mental health.[8] Rakshavidhi mentioned in Charaka Samhita is a clear indicator that newborn needs to be protected with all possible methods and utmost care is to be given to ensure child's safety so as to lower the chances of over exposure to the environmental harmful factors that might otherwise cause serious diseases and even prove fatal for a child who has weaker immune system. Although the vaccination schedule for children is to be followed by every individual as a law of land, these samskaras can provide additional benefit of preserving mental health and also enhancing strength, immunity, intelligence and vigor.


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Pandey, Raj Bali. (1949) Hindu Samskaras, A Socio-religious study of the Hindu Sacraments. Banaras: Vikrama Publications. (Pages 116-129)
  2. 2.0 2.1 Dr. Tulsi Ram (2013) Atharvaveda, Vol 1. Delhi: Vijaykumar Govindram Hasanand. (Pages 21 - 23)
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Deshpande, Kamalabai (1936) The Child in Ancient India. Poona: Aryasamskrti Press (Pages 60-99)
  4. Charaka Samhita (Sharirasthanam Adhyaya 8 Sutra 42-43)
  5. 5.0 5.1 Charak Samhita (Sharirasthanam Adhyaya 8 Sutra 46)
  6. Available from charakasamhitaonline.com
  7. Monika Swami, Kanchan Swami, K. Shankar Rao, Concept of Swarnaprashana(Gold drops) As Jatakarma Samskara,IRJAY, January : 2021 Vol-4, Issue-1; 137-143
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Kashyapa Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 18.Sutra 26-27)
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Singh Karam et.al, An approach to Samskara in Ayurveda. International Journal of Ayurvedic Medicine, 2012, 3(3)
  10. Kaur, Charanpreet & Mukesh, Chandra & Sharma, Mukesh. (2016). A Study to Assess the Sucking Reflex of Neonates Born at Selected Hospitals. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 5. 6-391.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Charaka Samhita (Sharirasthanam Adhyaya 8 Sutra 47)
  12. Available from charakasamhitaonline.com
  13. Yoo H, Mihaila DM. Rooting Reflex. [Updated 2021 May 1]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557636/
  14. Panchal K, Baldaniya H. Concept of Sanskara and its relation to developmental milestone.International Journal of Applied Research 2017; 3(3): 422-426
  15. Simon AK, Hollander GA, McMichael A. Evolution of the immune system in humans from infancy to old age. Proc Biol Sci. 2015;282(1821):20143085. doi:10.1098/rspb.2014.3085
  16. Ashtanga Hrudayam (Uttratantram Adhyaya 1 Sutra 21,24-28
  17. Kashyapa Samhita (Khilsthanam Adhyaya 12 Sutra 5)
  18. Kashyapa Samhita (Khilasthanam Adhyaya 12 Sutra 7)