Healthy food habits (आहारविधिः)

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The term Ahara (आहारः) in Samskrit refers to the food or diet. Any food that is consumed to gain energy or to continue the survival is called as Ahara in Ayurveda. Anna (अन्नम्), Bhojana (भोजनम्), Ashana (अशनम्) are some synonyms commonly used to refer Ahara in Ayurveda. Ahara has been identified as that entity which is responsible for sustenance of life of a person. It provides nourishment, strength, health and at the same time can cause various diseases if not consumed in an appropriate way. Thus, it is counted as the first among 3 supporting pillars of life i.e. Trayopasthambhas (त्रयोपस्तंभाः).

भोजनार्थे योग्य कालः॥ Bhojana kala

Acharya Vagbhata in Ashtanga hrudayam (अष्टाङ्गहृदयम्) explains the right time to have food. It is recommended that one should have food when he experiences following signs in body.[1]

  • When bodily wastes like stools and urine have been passed out of body
  • Belching that might occur is clear and there is no regurgitation with it
  • When person has good appetite and desire to eat
  • When there is unobstructed flow of vata
  • Body feels light

दिनचर्यायाम् भोजनस्य कालः ॥ Bhojan kala in daily routine

Dinacharya refers to the ideal daily regime of the person which can maintain his health and wellness. The daily routine explained by Ayurveda scholars includes diet as an integral part of it. The right time of having food is mentioned after having explained all the cleansing process right up to the bath. Thus most importantly food is to be taken only after the wastes generated from previous day's metabolism are removed, body is cleansed and good appetite is observed.

आहार परिणमनम् वा पाचनम्॥ Digestion and transformation of food

Parinamana (परिणमनम्) means digestion and transformation. It is also called as Pachanam (पाचनम्). Ahara taken by a person is processed by Agni (अग्निः) located in koshta (कोष्ठम् equivalent to gastrointestinal tract or gut). After this process, the processed part is divided into 2 parts. One part is known as sara (सारम्) i.e. essence and the other part is known as kitta (किट्टम्) i.e. waste. The rasa dhatu (रस धातुः) formed after the digestion process is called as sara (सारम्) of Ahara. On the other hand, vit (विट् feces) and mutram (मूत्रम् Urine) are formed as kitta (किट्टम् wastes) of ahara according to the Ayurveda. Thus Rasa is known as sara while vit and mutra are known as kitta of ahara.

विण्मूत्रमाहारमलः सारः प्रागीरितो रसः ॥ (Sush. Samh. 46.528)[2]

viṇmūtramāhāramalaḥ sāraḥ prāgīrito rasaḥ ॥ (Sush. Samh. 46.528)

All this transformation of food occurs in 3 steps. These are the transient phases of food during digestion inside the koshtha (कोष्ठम् Gut). The entire process in discussed in depth in ayurveda treatises. At the end of 3 phases the digestion is supposed to be complete. In a nutshell, ahara after digestion becomes rasa dhatu which is then circulated all over the body and performs the function of nourishment. The wastes generated in formation of rasa dhatu are feces and urine which are excreted out of the body through proper channels. Agni plays the vital role in this entire process. Any disturbances in agni result in alteration in quality of rasa dhatu and wastes like vit and mutram. Changes in quality of these components lay foundation for development of any illness. Thus parinamana (परिणमनम्) or pachanam (पाचनम्) of ahara has been given tremendous importance in Ayurveda.

आहार परिणमन कालः ॥ Ahara parinaman kala

Ahara parinaman kala means the time required for complete digestion and transformation of the food. In Ashtanga Hrudayam , Acharya Vagbhata has explained that there are varied opinions of scholars about this time. Few scholars suggest that the food is transformed completely in a ahoratra (24 hours/ 1 daytime+ 1 night-time) while some opine that it takes 6 days to get transformed. There are other scholars of opinion that the food gets transformed completely and reaches upto the last dhatu in the sequence i.e. Shukra after a period of a month (28 days).[3] Thus Ahara is transformed into Rasa dhatu in a period of a day while it takes a period of almost a week or a month to show its effect on the last Shukra dhatu. This knowledge is applied while deciding a timeline for treatment, diet and planning other treatment modalities.

आहारस्य अजीर्णे सामान्यहेतवः ॥ Factors that affect proper digestion of food

Ayurveda acharyas have identified few factors that can potentially disturb the process of Ahara parinamanam.[4] These factors are mentioned below,

  • Atyambupanaअत्यम्बुपानम्
  • Vishamashanam विषमाशनम्
  • Vega sandharana सन्धारणम्
  • Swapnaviparyaya स्वप्नविपर्ययम्
  • Psycholagical status of person who takes food: ईर्ष्याभयक्रोधपरिक्षतेन लुब्धेन शुग्दैन्यनिपीडितेन | प्रद्वेषयुक्तेन च सेव्यमानमन्नं

It is opined that, when a person consumes food in this manner, however wholesome suitable and light food it might be but, it does not get digested and transformed properly even of it taken on right time. Therefore it is highly recommended to avoid these factors that impede the ahara parinamana and lay foundation for illness.

आहारपरिणामकराः भावाः ॥ Aharaparinamakara bhava

Ahara parinamana refers to the digestion of food and its transformation into rasa dhatu which then further provides nutrition to entire body. If the digestion and transformation of food is not proper, the undigested form of food in the rasa dhatu (रस धातुः) can cause multiple diseases. Aharaparinamkara Bhavas (आहारपरिणामकराः भावाः) are the factors responsible for transformation of food into bio-available nutrients which are capable of building and repairing body tissues. These factors are responsible for proper digestion of food so that most of the nutrients from that food required by body are absorbed and utilized. If function of any one of these factors is disturbed, the food undergoing the process of digestion is not processed well and instead of fulfilling the nutritional requirements of body, the improperly digested food becomes the cause for multiple ailments. Therefore Ayurveda lays high importance on well regulated functioning of all these food transforming factors to achieve health and well-being.

आहारपरिणामकरास्त्विमे भावा भवन्ति| तद्यथा- ऊष्मा, वायुः, क्लेदः, स्नेहः, कालः, समयोगश्चेति ॥ (Char. Samh. 6.14)[5] āhārapariṇāmakarāstvime bhāvā bhavanti| tadyathā- ūṣmā, vāyuḥ, kledaḥ, snehaḥ, kālaḥ, samayogaśceti ॥ (Char. Samh. 6.14)

Meaning: Factors responsible for transformation of the food are, Ushma (Heat), Vayu (Air), Kleda (Moisture), Sneha (oiliness or lubrication), Kala (time) and Samayoga (appropriate combination of all these factors for every individual).

Ushma (उष्मा) means heat is responsible for digestion, Vayu (वायुः) helps move the food forward in digestive system, kleda (क्लेदः) helps in loosening the bulk of food, sneha (स्नेहः) softens the food consumed, kala (कालः) is required to complete this process and produce the desirable outcome from it, samayoga(समयोगः) means appropriate combination of these factors helps to establish equilibrium in the formed Dhatus.

सम्यक् परिणमतस्य आहारस्य लाभाः ॥ Significance of proper digestion of food to obtain good health, strength and long life

Ahara is indispensable for survival and maintenance of shariram in this loka (world). Thus it is highly regarded. However, Ahara can not be utilized as it is by body building tissues. In order to acquire all the benefits from ahara i.e. longevity, strength, lusture, nourishment, growth, ojas, health and well-being, it is necessary that ahara gets completely digested and transformed properly into rasa dhatu. [6][7][8][9][10] The completely transformed ahara can become the part of this body provided it is of the similar properties and not contrary to that of body tissues. And when such ahara similar in quality to that of body tissues nourishes the body components, all the desired benefits from ahara can be obtained.

परिणमतस्त्वाहारस्य गुणाः शरीरगुणभावमापद्यन्ते यथास्वमविरुद्धाः; विरुद्धाश्च विहन्युर्विहताश्च विरोधिभिः शरीरम् (Char. Samh. 6.16)[11] pariṇamatastvāhārasya guṇāḥ śarīraguṇabhāvamāpadyante yathāsvamaviruddhāḥ; viruddhāśca vihanyurvihatāśca virodhibhiḥ śarīram (Char. Samh. 6.16)

On the contrary when the transformed ahara possesses qualities that are opposite in nature of that of body tissues which build strength, it can not nourish and replenish dhatus but lead to disease development. Thus proper pachanam (पाचनम्) of ahara is highly important in order to stay healthy, fit and strong. This pachanam is controlled by multiple factors. The portion size or quantity of food is one of those. Ayurveda acharyas have also described other factors that should be closely monitored to reap the superior goodness from Ahara in all aspects of life . These factors are called as Ashta Ahara vidhi visheshayatanas (अष्टौ आहारविधि विशेषायतनानि). [12]

आहारशक्तिः॥ Aharashakti

Ayurveda believes that, Bala (बलम् Strength) and Ayu (आयुः longevity) of a person are dependent on one's ahara. Therefore assessing one's food (intake) capacity could be a good criterion to assess one's strength and longevity as well. Thus, assessment of this parameter is one part of clinical examination of a patient which a Ayurveda practitioner performs.[13] It is believed that, not just the food intake capacity but also the capacity to digest the consumed food is also equally important to get rough idea of one's strength and longevity.[14] Ayurveda gives high importance to the digestion and transformation of ingested food and therefore is is considered as the integral part of examination of a patient.

आहारस्य योग्या मात्रा॥ Ahara matra

The portion size or quantity of ahara taken at a time is called as Ahara matra (मात्रा). The right quantity of ahara is believed to be crucial for smooth digestion and formation of good quality of rasa dhatu. There are certain factors that can help to decide the right quantity for given. The guna or innate property of food article, constitution of the individual, agni of the person, proportion of the solids-liquids are some of the important factors. How one can decide if he has consumed food in right amount can be decided by guidelines given by Ayurveda treatises. Some of them are mentioned below.

अग्निनुसारिणि मात्रा॥ Based on agni

The quantity of the food to be taken should be decided based on the strength of the agni (अग्निः) of the individual. This is the ideal approach. This simply means one should consume as much food as one can properly digest and does not suffer from any digestion related issues thereafter.

मात्राशी स्यात्| आहारमात्रा पुनरग्निबलापेक्षिणी| (Char. Samh. 5.3) [15] mātrāśī syāt| āhāramātrā punaragnibalāpekṣiṇī| (Char. Samh. 5.3)

द्रव्यानुसारिणि मात्रा॥ Based on property of food article

The food articles that are guru (heavy for digestion or take long time to get digested) should be taken half their satiety level experienced by the consumer while foods that are laghu (light on digestion) can be taken upto the satisfaction.

गुरूणामर्धसौहित्यं लघूनां तृप्तिरिष्यते | द्रवोत्तरो द्रवश्चापि न मात्रागुरुरिष्यते (Sush. Samh. 46.495) [16] gurūṇāmardhasauhityaṁ laghūnāṁ tr̥ptiriṣyate | dravottaro dravaścāpi na mātrāgururiṣyate (Sush. Samh. 46.495)

कुक्षिविभागानुसारिणि मात्रा॥ Based on volume or quantity

Ayurveda acharyas give guidelines for deciding right quantity or portion of food that is being consumed. This has been described on the basis of physical form of food and the space available within imaginary partitions inside the stomach. If we consider that the stomach is divided into 3 parts then, for solid food and liquids one compartment each is to be utilized while a sufficient space i.e. one third space is to be kept vacant for movement of doshas which participate in the process of digestion.[17] Moral of the entire consideration is that one should not over-stuff the stomach with food. solids and liquids both should be taken in balanced proportion and at the same time some part of your stomach should be kept empty to facilitate easy digestion.

देह-प्रकृतिनुसारिणि मात्रा॥ Prakrti and ahara matra

Different doshas have different impact on the status of the agni. This decides the appetite of the person and how much one can eat. Thus while describing prakrti, Ayurveda treatises mention about the appetite pattern of individuals having specific dosha's dominance due to prakrti (प्रकृतिः). The relation of dosha prakruti and appetite is given below.

  • Kapha (कफ)- The people with kapha prakrti eat alpa (अल्पम् less). [18]
  • Pitta (पित्त)- Those with Pitta dominant constitution eat a lot and also frequently.[19]
  • Vata (वात)- Those with vata dominant constitution tend to eat less and in small quantities.[19]

सम्यक मात्रया भुक्तस्य लक्षणानि॥ How do I understand I have eaten in right quantity?

Ayurveda acharyas have given some simple clues to understand whether the person has eaten in right quantity. Since every individuals capacity to eat is different and it varies based on multiple factors, the hints to understand right quantity for everyone are based on symptoms the person experiences and not in weight or any measures. According to Acharya Charaka, the person has eaten the food in right quantity when it,

  • Does not cause undue pressure on stomach
  • Does not cause obstruction in the proper functioning of the circulatory system
  • Does not exert any pressure on the sides of the chest
  • Does not leave a feeling of excessive heaviness in the abdomen,
  • Pacifies the sense organs and energizes them
  • Pacifies hunger and quenches thirst
  • Does not result in difficulty in performing activities such as standing, sitting, walking, exhaling, inhaling, laughing, and talking
  • Appears to be easy to digest when taken in the morning and evening hours.

Such a quantity of food helps in enhancing strength and complexion, gets absorbed better and nourishes the body.[20]

आहार-अनुपानम्॥ Ahara anupana

Anupana is the exclusive concept from pharmacology and dietetics in Ayurveda. The term anupana refers to adjuvant or vehicle or carrier or a drug/food. It is usually a liquid which is given just after or along with some drug/food. Ahara anupana thus refers to the adjuvant of a food article which is deliberately introduced in order to get maximum benefits from that food and reduce its unwanted effects on one's health.

In charaka Samhita, the right anupana of ahara is said to be opposite in properties of that food but at the same time it should not be opposite (incompatible) to the dhatus. Such anupana is believed to increase energy levels, provide nourishment and strength in body on taking that food. It helps in proper digestion and transformation of that food in one's body so that one can get maximum benefits from it. [21] Subsequently it helps to fulfill the nutritional requirements of the body through the particular diet.

अनुपानं हितं युक्तं तर्पयत्याशु मानवम्|

सुखं पचति चाहारमायुषे च बलाय च||३२६||

Meaning: The right anupana of ahara energizes the person. It helps in smooth digestion of the food and ultimately increases strength and longevity.

Few examples of aharanupana are given in the classical literature. Selection of these anupanas are based on the properties of that food, the health condition or desired health effect for that person etc. For vata dominant conditions and food, anupana that is snigdha (unctuous) and ushna (hot) in properties is chosen. Various types of fermented preparations made from herbs can prove to be good choice of anupana. However this is to be started under the guidance a qualified Vaidya in order to avoid untoward side effects.

अष्टौ आहारविधि विशेषायतनानि॥ Ashta Ahara vidhi vishesha ayatanani

Ahara is the chief source of nourishment for sustenance of life. It provides the strength , energy, and nutrition necessary for smooth functioning of entire body-mind system. However, all these benefits from ahara can be obtained when it is consumed in a specific manner. According to Ayurveda, How we eat is equally important as What we eat. The method of eating has significant impact on the final outcome of consuming a specific food. Therefore, Ayurveda also gives significant importance to the methods of eating which can be considered as the basic dietetic rules.

There are few factors which need to be considered before taking the food in order to obtain maximum benefits from the food that is being consumed. There are 8 such factors and those are collectively known as Ashta Ahara vidhi visheshayatanani in Ayurveda.

तत्र खल्विमान्यष्टावाहारविधिविशेषायतनानि भवन्ति; तद्यथा- प्रकृतिकरणसंयोगराशिदेशकालोपयोगसंस्थोपयोक्त्रष्टमानि (भवन्ति) ॥ (Char. Samh. 1.21)[22] tatra khalvimānyaṣṭāvāhāravidhiviśeṣāyatanāni bhavanti; tadyathā- prakr̥tikaraṇasaṁyogarāśideśakālopayogasaṁsthopayoktraṣṭamāni (bhavanti) ॥ (Char. Samh. 1.21)

The meaning of the term ‘Ashta Ahara vidhi visheshayatanani’

Th can be split into 5 parts as below

  • Ashta (अष्ट)- Means number 8
  • Ahara (आहार)- Food
  • Vidhi (विधिः)- Method or manner
  • Vishesha (विशेषः)- Specific effect i.e. beneficial or harmful
  • Ayatanani (आयतनानि)- Seat/ grounds/ responsible factors

Collectively it can be understood as ‘the method of eating food based on 8 specific grounds’

Therefore, in order to understand or select the right way to consume food for any person, it is necessary to consider these 8 factors. When food is taken considering these factors, one can get all desired benefits from right chosen food without getting any untoward effects. Prakriti (प्रकृतिः), Karana (करण), Samyoga (संयोगः), Rashi (राशि), Desha (देश), Kala (काल), Upayoga-samstha (उपयोगसंस्था) and Upyokta (उपयोक्ता) are these 8 factors.

8 factors to be considered while taking food are as below

  1. Prakriti- Qualitative characteristic of food
  2. Karana- Processing of food
  3. Samyoga- Combination/ mixing
  4. Rashi- The Quantity
  5. Desha- Habitat
  6. Kala- Time & Seasonal variation
  7. Upayoga-Samstha- Classical Ayurvedic Rules of eating
  8. Upayokta -The person who takes the food/ User

The right way to eat any food presented in front of you should be decided after considering these 8 factors to get best possible benefits from it.

This includes points like the quantity to be consumed, accompaniments to be chosen while taking that food, time to eat that food etc. This provides guideline for healthy eating practices. It is believed that, food consumed after considering these factors and implementing these rules provides all benefits and does not become the cause for ailments. On the other hand, food can be the cause for multiples diseases when it is consumed without considering these factors.

Best and worst practices related to food intake

Ahara is believed to be the best among those things which are essential for maintenance of livelihood. Since it is such an extremely important lifestyle factors, there are some rules related to its consumption and some basic guidelines.[23] Some of those are listed below,

  1. Eating in excess quantity of Ahara is the chief cause of Ama generation (Foundational stone for disease development)
  2. Eating in quantity as per one's Agni's strength is the best way to kindle the digestive fire i.e. Agni
  3. Eating food that is compatible for one's body type and suitable or habitual to one is the best practice one can adopt
  4. Eating on right time (timely eating) is the best method to stay healthy
  5. Eating once a day is best for smooth digestive functioning
  6. Staying food deprived or empty stomach is life threatening or reduces life span
  7. Guru Ahara (heavy to digest) eating is the chief cause for indigestion
  8. Eating unbalanced food (Only one rasa dominant or only one type of food) is the prime cause of malnourishment
  9. Overeating (taking next food before the previous one is digested) is the primary cause of dysfunction of grahani (chief digestive organ)
  10. Untimely eating is the leading cause of agni disturbances/ irregularities
  11. Eating Viruddha ahara (incompatible food) is the primary cause of developing nindita rogas e.g. Obesity, gigantism, dwarfism, pigmentation disorders etc

आहारविधिः॥ How to eat

Aharavidhi in Ayurveda refers to the code of eating food. It includes guidelines on eating food for getting best results from food that is consumed. These guidelines are advantageous for healthy as well as sick individuals. These should be followed even if the best suitable food is to be consumed which is supposed to give favorable outcomes.[24] The basic guidelines are given below,

  • Eat when fresh and hot
  • Eat unctuous food (food articles that lack unctuousness or fats are prohibited)
  • Eat in appropriate quantity
  • Consume food when the previous food is digested
  • Take the food which is not contradictory in veerya (वीर्यम् potency and thermal energy) i.e fulfilling basic needs of the body
  • Eat at right place (in terms of hygiene, environment, availability etc)
  • Eat when all necessary accessories for eating are available
  • Do not eat at a very fast pace or very slowly
  • While eating one should try not to talk and laugh
  • Concentrate on food while eating and pay due regard to oneself

आहारद्रव्याणां धारणार्थे पात्राणि॥ Metal for vessel to store specific aharadravyas

Ayurveda gives keen attention to not just the food and methods to consume it but also to the method of serving it and storing it. It is believed that all these factors contribute in the final effect of the food that is being consumed. It is known that, material of the container in which the food is served and stored affects the quality of the food. In Sushruta Samhita, one can find the guidelines on the selection of vessel for storage of a specific type of a food recipe. For example ghee (clarified butter of cow milk) is advised to be stored in a vessel made up of black iron while rice gruel is to be stored in a vessel of silver. It is said that when these food articles are stored and served in such specific metal's vessel they give add-on health benefits. [25]

Type of container to store specific food articles
Sr No Food Articles Material/type of the vessel
1 Ghrutam (घृतम् Ghee) Black iron
2 Peya (पेया Rice gruel), Liquids, Juices/Soups Silver
3 Fruits and other solid foods Plant leaves
4 Dried and marinated food Gold
5 Spicy, Salty, Sour Stone
6 Milk, Water Copper
7 Alcohol, Sour/fermented drinks Clay/Mud, Glass
8 Raga, Shadava, Sattaka (राग, षाडव, स्सट्टक- Traditional sour preparations-) Vaidurya (वैडूर्य types of a precious stone)

भोजनपात्रे विविधानां आहारद्रव्याणां स्थापन/स्थानम्॥ Arrangement of food stuffs in a plate

In most of the cultures across Bharata, traditionally the food is served in a plate in a specific manner. There exists a sequence and specific place in in a plate for a specific food article. The roots of this type of serving food are found to be in the classical treatises on Ayurveda. In Sushruta Samhita, the arrangement of food articles in a plate has been clearly mentioned.[25] This description on food arrangement also throws light on the variety of food articles on ancient Bharatiya's plate, traditional balanced diet and probably a secret to good health from ancient wisdom. According to Ayurveda the food should be arranged and served in the following manner.

On a clean, presentable, big size plate,

  • सूद, सूपौदनम्- Soup/Dal, curry, rice, broth should be placed at the front end of plate
  • सुसंस्कृतान प्रदेहान्- Solid food should be placed at the front place near soups
  • फलानि, भक्ष्याः- Fruits, vegetables, meat is to be served on the right hand side of the person on a plate
  • प्रद्रवाणि- रसाः, पानीयम्, पानकं, पयः- Other liquids, pickles, gruels should be served on the left hand side on the plate
  • गुडविकारान्, राग, षाडव, सट्टकान्- Sweets, confectioneries should be served in the middle on the plate.

In this way the food articles should be arranged and served on plate.

आहारस्योपरि अर्हाणि पञ्चकर्माणि॥ Panchakarmas after ahara

Panchakarmas (पञ्चकर्माणि) are the shodhana karmas (शोधन कर्माणि cleansing therapies) described in Ayurveda. They are used in specific dosha dominant illnesses where the basic dosha pacifying medicines wont prove effective enough to manage the illness. Also these procedures are implemented under medical supervision in specific health conditions in eligible individuals at appropriate time. There are stringent rules regarding their implementation. In almost all the panchakarmas and associates procedures, there are specific rules regarding ahara. Usually the chief panchakarmas are not done after the intake of food. Also there exists a specific diet plan which should be followed before and after panchakarmas. However, there exists one type of minor procedure under upakarmas (उपकर्माणि - minor cleansing therapies) which is advised to be carried out after having food and it is known as Dhumapana (धूमपानम्). Dhumapana involves inhaling and exhaling the medicated smoke for cleansing excess kapha and vata accumulated in upper body. One of the type of it is Madhyama (मध्यम - moderate) Dhumapana. It is advised that one can take this kind of dhumapana after having food.[26] There are other suitable times for dhumpana mentioned also.


  1. Ashtanga Hrudayam (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 8 Sutram 55)
  2. Sushruta Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 46 Sutra 528)
  3. Ashtanga Hrudayam (Sharirasthanam Adhyaya 3 Sutra 65-66)
  4. Sushruta Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 46 Sutra 500-501)
  5. Charaka Samhita (Sharirasthanam Adhyaya 6 Sutra 14)
  6. Charaka Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 27 Sutras 349-51)
  7. Sushruta Samhita (Chikitsasthanam Adhyaya 24 Sutra 68-69)
  8. Charaka Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 25 Sutra 31)
  9. Sushruta Samhita (Sutrasthnam Adhyaya 46 Sutra 3)
  10. Charaka Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 21 Sutra 51)
  11. Charaka Samhita (Sharirasthanam Adhyaya 6 Sutra 16-17)
  12. Charaka Samhita (Vimanasthanam Adhyaya 2 Sutra 4)
  13. Charaka Samhita (Vimanasthanam Adhyaya 8 Sutra 94)
  14. Charaka Samhita (Vimanasthanam Adhyaya 8 sutra 120)
  15. Charaka Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 5 sutra 3)
  16. Sushruta Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 46 Sutram 495)
  17. Charaka Samhita (Vimanasthanam Adhyaya 2 Sutram 3)
  18. Ashtanga Hrudayam (Sharirasthanam Adhyaya 3 Sutra 101)
  19. 19.0 19.1 Charaka Samhita (Vimanasthanam Adhyaya 8 Sutra 97-98 )
  20. Charaka Samhita (Vimanasthanam Adhyaya 2 Sutram 6)
  21. Charaka Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 27 Sutra 319-26)
  22. Charaka Samhita (Vimanasthanam Adhyaya 1 Sutram 21)
  23. Charaka Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 25 Sutram 40)
  24. Charaka Samhita (Vimanasthanam Adhyaya 1 Sutram 24)
  25. 25.0 25.1 Sushruta Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 46 Sutras 449-457)
  26. Ashtanga Hrudayam (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 21 Sutra 6)