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== परिचयः ॥ Introduction ==
 
== परिचयः ॥ Introduction ==
 
===ब्राह्मणः ॥ Brahmana===
 
===ब्राह्मणः ॥ Brahmana===
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According to the Bhagavata Purana, Scriptural study and others (such as teaching, performance of yajnas, dana and acceptance of gifts) six (in all) are prescribed for the Brahmanas. Non-acceptance of gifts is laid down for the other (Kshatriyas). (AITM, Vol.9, P.964)
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विप्रस्याध्ययनादीनि षडन्यस्याप्रतिग्रहः । viprasyādhyayanādīni ṣaḍanyasyāpratigrahaḥ । (Bh. Pu. Skanda 7, Adhyaya 11, Verse 14).
 +
 
According to Manusmrti, the duties prescribed for a brahmana include<blockquote>अध्यापनं अध्ययनं यजनं याजनं तथा । दानं प्रतिग्रहं चैव ब्राह्मणानां अकल्पयत् । । १.८८ । ।<ref name=":02">Manusmrti, [https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%A8%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%83%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%83/%E0%A4%AA%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%A5%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%A7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%83 Adhyaya 1]</ref></blockquote><blockquote>adhyāpanaṁ adhyayanaṁ yajanaṁ yājanaṁ tathā ।dānaṁ pratigrahaṁ caiva brāhmaṇānāṁ akalpayat । । 1.88 । ।</blockquote>Meaning: For the Brāhmaṇas he ordained teaching, studying, sacrificing and officiating at sacrifices, as also the giving and accepting of gifts (1.88).<ref name=":12">Ganganath Jha (1920-39), Manusmrti ([https://archive.org/details/in.gov.ignca.8241/page/n5 Vol.3]), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited.</ref>
 
According to Manusmrti, the duties prescribed for a brahmana include<blockquote>अध्यापनं अध्ययनं यजनं याजनं तथा । दानं प्रतिग्रहं चैव ब्राह्मणानां अकल्पयत् । । १.८८ । ।<ref name=":02">Manusmrti, [https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%A8%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%83%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%83/%E0%A4%AA%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%A5%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%A7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%83 Adhyaya 1]</ref></blockquote><blockquote>adhyāpanaṁ adhyayanaṁ yajanaṁ yājanaṁ tathā ।dānaṁ pratigrahaṁ caiva brāhmaṇānāṁ akalpayat । । 1.88 । ।</blockquote>Meaning: For the Brāhmaṇas he ordained teaching, studying, sacrificing and officiating at sacrifices, as also the giving and accepting of gifts (1.88).<ref name=":12">Ganganath Jha (1920-39), Manusmrti ([https://archive.org/details/in.gov.ignca.8241/page/n5 Vol.3]), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited.</ref>
  

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Brahmana Dharma (Samskrit: ब्राह्मणधर्मः)

परिचयः ॥ Introduction

ब्राह्मणः ॥ Brahmana

According to the Bhagavata Purana, Scriptural study and others (such as teaching, performance of yajnas, dana and acceptance of gifts) six (in all) are prescribed for the Brahmanas. Non-acceptance of gifts is laid down for the other (Kshatriyas). (AITM, Vol.9, P.964)

विप्रस्याध्ययनादीनि षडन्यस्याप्रतिग्रहः । viprasyādhyayanādīni ṣaḍanyasyāpratigrahaḥ । (Bh. Pu. Skanda 7, Adhyaya 11, Verse 14).

According to Manusmrti, the duties prescribed for a brahmana include

अध्यापनं अध्ययनं यजनं याजनं तथा । दानं प्रतिग्रहं चैव ब्राह्मणानां अकल्पयत् । । १.८८ । ।[1]

adhyāpanaṁ adhyayanaṁ yajanaṁ yājanaṁ tathā ।dānaṁ pratigrahaṁ caiva brāhmaṇānāṁ akalpayat । । 1.88 । ।

Meaning: For the Brāhmaṇas he ordained teaching, studying, sacrificing and officiating at sacrifices, as also the giving and accepting of gifts (1.88).[2] Talking of the importance of adhering to the Brahmana Varna Dharma, Manusmrti says,

आचारः परमो धर्मः श्रुत्युक्तः स्मार्त एव च । तस्मादस्मिन्सदा युक्तो नित्यं स्यादात्मवान्द्विजः । । १.१०८ । ।[1]

ācāraḥ paramo dharmaḥ śrutyuktaḥ smārta eva ca । tasmādasminsadā yukto nityaṁ syādātmavāndvijaḥ । । 1.108 । ।

Meaning: Morality (Right Behaviour) is highest Dharma; that which is prescribed in the shruti and laid down in the Smrti. Hence the twice-born person, desiring the welfare of his soul, should be always intent upon Right Behaviour (1.108). It says, the Brahmana studying these institutes, and (thence) discharging all prescribed duties, is never defiled by dosha (accusation) of commission (or omission), proceeding from mind, speech or body (1.104). The Brahmana who departs from Right Behaviour, does not obtain the fruit of the Veda; he however who is equipped with Right Behaviour obtains the full reward (1.109).[2]

इदं शास्त्रं अधीयानो ब्राह्मणः शंसितव्रतः । मनोवाग्गेहजैर्नित्यं कर्मदोषैर्न लिप्यते । । १.१०४ । ।

आचाराद्विच्युतो विप्रो न वेदफलं अश्नुते । आचारेण तु संयुक्तः सम्पूर्णफलभाज्भवेत् । । १.१०९ । ।[1]

idaṁ śāstraṁ adhīyāno brāhmaṇaḥ śaṁsitavrataḥ । manovāggehajairnityaṁ karmadoṣairna lipyate । । 1.104 । ।

ācārādvicyuto vipro na vedaphalaṁ aśnute । ācāreṇa tu saṁyuktaḥ sampūrṇaphalabhājbhavet । । 1.109 । ।

Modes of Subsistence

The Manusmrti elaborates on the modes of subsistence prescribed for a brahmana stepping into the second phase of life - the Grhasthashrama as follows:

अध्यापनम् अध्ययनं यजनं याजनं तथा । दानं प्रतिग्रहं चैव ब्राह्मणानाम् अकल्पयत् । । १.८८ । ।[3]

adhyāpanam adhyayanaṁ yajanaṁ yājanaṁ tathā । dānaṁ pratigrahaṁ caiva brāhmaṇānām akalpayat । । 1.88 । ।

Meaning: Studying, teaching, performing a sacrifice (either for oneself or for others), giving and accepting charity; these six are the responsibilities assigned to brahmanas (Manu Smrt. 1.88)[4] Talking of the importance of adhering to the Brahmana varna dharma, Manusmrti says,

आचारः परमो धर्मः श्रुत्युक्तः स्मार्त एव च । तस्मादस्मिन्सदा युक्तो नित्यं स्यादात्मवान्द्विजः । । १.१०८ । ।[3]

ācāraḥ paramo dharmaḥ śrutyuktaḥ smārta eva ca । tasmādasminsadā yukto nityaṁ syādātmavāndvijaḥ । । 1.108 । ।

Meaning: The Shrutis and Smrtis say that code of conduct is the highest duty; hence brahmanas must always be ready in adering to it (Manu Smrt. 1.108)[4] It says, a Brahmana who studies the shastras faithfully, according to the rules, is never tainted by sins arising from thoughts, words or deeds (Manu Smrt. 1.104). While, the one who deflects from his prescribed duties, doesn't obtain the fruit prescribed in the vedas; one who adheres to the code of conduct partakes in the fruit (Manu Smrt. 1.109)[4]

इदं शास्त्रम् अधीयानो ब्राह्मणः शंसितव्रतः । मनोवाग्गेहजैर्नित्यं कर्मदोषैर्न लिप्यते । । १.१०४ । ।

आचाराद्विच्युतो विप्रो न वेदफलम् अश्नुते । आचारेण तु संयुक्तः सम्पूर्णफलभाग्भवेत् । । १.१०९ । ।[3]

idaṁ śāstram adhīyāno brāhmaṇaḥ śaṁsitavrataḥ । manovāggehajairnityaṁ karmadoṣairna lipyate । । 1.104 । ।

ācārādvicyuto vipro na vedaphalam aśnute । ācāreṇa tu saṁyuktaḥ sampūrṇaphalabhāgbhavet । । 1.109 ।

विहितोपजीविकाः ॥ Prescribed Modes of Subsistence

  • It is said that a brahmana may subsist by Rta (truth), and Amrta (ambrosia), or by Mrta (death) and by Pramrta (what causes many deaths); or even by (the mode) called Satyanrta (a mixture of truth and falsehood), but never by Shvavrtti (a dog’s mode of life). [v.4.4.]

ऋतामृताभ्यां जीवेत्तु मृतेन प्रमृतेन वा । सत्यानृताभ्यां अपि वा न श्ववृत्त्या कदा चन । । ४.४ । ।[5]

r̥tāmr̥tābhyāṁ jīvettu mr̥tena pramr̥tena vā । satyānr̥tābhyāṁ api vā na śvavr̥ttyā kadā cana । । 4.4 । ।

  • By Rta shall be understood the gleaning of corn; by Amrta, what is given unasked; by Mrta, food obtained by begging and agriculture is declared to be Pramrta. [v.4.5.] But trade and (money-lending) are Satyanrta, even by that one may subsist. Service is called Shvavritti; therefore one should avoid it. [v.4.6.]

ऋतं उञ्छशिलं ज्ञेयं अमृतं स्यादयाचितम् । मृतं तु याचितं भैक्षं प्रमृतं कर्षणं स्मृतम् । । ४.५ । ।

सत्यानृतं तु वाणिज्यं तेन चैवापि जीव्यते । सेवा श्ववृत्तिराख्याता तस्मात्तां परिवर्जयेत् । । ४.६ । ।[5]

r̥taṁ uñchaśilaṁ jñeyaṁ amr̥taṁ syādayācitam । mr̥taṁ tu yācitaṁ bhaikṣaṁ pramr̥taṁ karṣaṇaṁ smr̥tam । । 4.5 । ।

satyānr̥taṁ tu vāṇijyaṁ tena caivāpi jīvyate । sevā śvavr̥ttirākhyātā tasmāttāṁ parivarjayet । । 4.6 । ।

  • He may either possess enough to fill a granary, or a store filling a grain-jar; or he may collect what suffices for three days, or make no provision for the morrow. [v.4.7.]Moreover, among these four Brahmana householders, each later(-named) must be considered more distinguished, and through his virtue to have conquered the world more completely. [v.4.8.]One of these follows six occupations, another subsists by three, one by two, but the fourth lives by the Brahmasattra. [v.4.9.]

कुसूलधान्यको वा स्यात्कुम्भीधान्यक एव वा । त्र्यहैहिको वापि भवेदश्वस्तनिक एव वा । । ४.७ । ।

चतुर्णां अपि चैतेषां द्विजानां गृहमेधिनाम् । ज्यायान्परः परो ज्ञेयो धर्मतो लोकजित्तमः । । ४.८ । ।

षट्कर्मैको भवत्येषां त्रिभिरन्यः प्रवर्तते । द्वाभ्यां एकश्चतुर्थस्तु ब्रह्मसत्त्रेण जीवति । । ४.९ । ।[5]

kusūladhānyako vā syātkumbhīdhānyaka eva vā । tryahaihiko vāpi bhavedaśvastanika eva vā । । 4.7 । ।

caturṇāṁ api caiteṣāṁ dvijānāṁ gr̥hamedhinām । jyāyānparaḥ paro jñeyo dharmato lokajittamaḥ । । 4.8 । ।

ṣaṭkarmaiko bhavatyeṣāṁ tribhiranyaḥ pravartate । dvābhyāṁ ekaścaturthastu brahmasattreṇa jīvati । । 4.9 । ।

उपजीविकानियमाः ॥ Rules Regarding Subsistence

First and foremost, a Brahmana is adviced to seek a means of subsistence which either causes no, or at least little pain (to others), and live (by that) except in times of distress. [v.4.2.]

अद्रोहेणैव भूतानां अल्पद्रोहेण वा पुनः । या वृत्तिस्तां समास्थाय विप्रो जीवेदनापदि । । ४.२ । ।[5]

adroheṇaiva bhūtānāṁ alpadroheṇa vā punaḥ । yā vr̥ttistāṁ samāsthāya vipro jīvedanāpadi । । 4.2 । ।

For the purpose of gaining bare subsistence, let him accumulate property by (following those) irreproachable occupations (which are prescribed for) his (caste), without (unduly) fatiguing his body. [v.4.3.]

यात्रामात्रप्रसिद्ध्यर्थं स्वैः कर्मभिरगर्हितैः । अक्लेशेन शरीरस्य कुर्वीत धनसंचयम् । । ४.३ । ।[5]

yātrāmātraprasiddhyarthaṁ svaiḥ karmabhiragarhitaiḥ । akleśena śarīrasya kurvīta dhanasaṁcayam । । 4.3 । ।

A Brahmana shall not name his family and (Vedic) gotra in order to obtain a meal; for he who boasts of them for the sake of a meal, is called by the wise a foul feeder (vantasin). [v.3.109.]

न भोजनार्थं स्वे विप्रः कुलगोत्रे निवेदयेत् । भोजनार्थं हि ते शंसन्वान्ताशीत्युच्यते बुधैः । । ३.१०९ । ।[6]

na bhojanārthaṁ sve vipraḥ kulagotre nivedayet । bhojanārthaṁ hi te śaṁsanvāntāśītyucyate budhaiḥ । । 3.109 । ।

At the same time, it is also adviced that he who maintains himself by picking up grains and ears of corn, must be always intent on (the performance of) the Agnihotra, and constantly offer those Ishtis only, which are prescribed for the days of the conjunction and opposition (of the moon), and for the solstices. [v.4.10.] Let him never, for the sake of subsistence, follow the ways of the world; let him live the pure, straightforward, honest life of a Brahmana. [v.4.11.]And he who desires happiness is adviced to strive after a perfectly contented disposition and control himself; for happiness has contentment for its root, the root of unhappiness is the contrary (disposition). [v.4.12.]

वर्तयंश्च शिलोञ्छाभ्यां अग्निहोत्रपरायणः । इष्टीः पार्वायणान्तीयाः केवला निर्वपेत्सदा । । ४.१० । ।

न लोकवृत्तं वर्तेत वृत्तिहेतोः कथं चन । अजिह्मां अशथां शुद्धां जीवेद्ब्राह्मणजीविकाम् । । ४.११ । ।

संतोषं परं आस्थाय सुखार्थी संयतो भवेत् । संतोषमूलं हि सुखं दुःखमूलं विपर्ययः । । ४.१२ । ।[5]

vartayaṁśca śiloñchābhyāṁ agnihotraparāyaṇaḥ । iṣṭīḥ pārvāyaṇāntīyāḥ kevalā nirvapetsadā । । 4.10 । ।

na lokavr̥ttaṁ varteta vr̥ttihetoḥ kathaṁ cana । ajihmāṁ aśathāṁ śuddhāṁ jīvedbrāhmaṇajīvikām । । 4.11 । ।

saṁtoṣaṁ paraṁ āsthāya sukhārthī saṁyato bhavet । saṁtoṣamūlaṁ hi sukhaṁ duḥkhamūlaṁ viparyayaḥ । । 4.12 । ।

10.9 Self-reliance

Let him carefully avoid all undertakings (the success of) which depends on others; but let him eagerly pursue that (the accomplishment of) which depends on himself. [v.4.159.]

Everything that depends on others (gives) pain, everything that depends on oneself (gives) pleasure; know that this is the short definition of pleasure and pain. [v.4.160.]

When the performance of an act gladdens his heart, let him perform it with diligence; but let him avoid the opposite. [v.4.161.]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Manusmrti, Adhyaya 1
  2. 2.0 2.1 Ganganath Jha (1920-39), Manusmrti (Vol.3), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Manusmrti, Adhyaya 1
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Pt. Girija Prasad Dvivedi (1917), The Manusmriti, Lucknow: Naval Kishore Press.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Manusmrti, Adhyaya 4.
  6. Manusmrti, Adhyaya 3.