Ahara (आहारः)

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The term Ahara (आहारः) in Samskrit refers to the food or diet. Any food that is consumed to gain energy or to continue the survival is called as Ahara in Ayurveda. Anna, Bhojana, Ashana are some synonyms commonly used to refer Ahara in Ayurveda. Ahara has been identified as that entity which is responsible for sustenance of life of a person. It provides nourishment, strength, health and at the same time can cause various diseases if not consumed in an appropriate way. Thus, it is counted as the first among 3 supporting pillars of life i.e. Trayopasthambhas.


In Samkskrit, Ahara is the term made of 3 roots, आङ् + हृ + घञ्.

पुं, (आङ् + हृ + घञ् ।) द्रव्यगलाधःकरणं । (Shabdakalpadruma)

This altogether indicates that Ahara means to ingest/take inside something through mouth and throat. Thus ahara refers to food.

Bhojana, Jemana, Bhakshana. Ashana, Swadana are some common synonyms for Ahara. (तत्पर्य्यायः । जग्धिः २ भोजनं ३ जेमनं ४लेपः ५ निघषः ६ न्यादः ७ । इत्यमरः ॥ जमनं ८ विघषः ९ इति तट्टीका ॥ प्रत्यवसानं १० भक्षणं ११ अशनं १२ ॥ इति रत्नमाला ॥ अभ्यवहारः १३ स्वदनं १४ निगरः १५ । इति राजनिर्घण्टः ॥ अस्य गुणाः । सद्यस्तृप्तिजनकत्वं । बलकारित्वं । देहधारकत्वञ्च । इति राजवल्लभः ॥) Shabdakalpadruma

Importance of Ahara

Ahara has been acclaimed for its role in every aspect of persons life in Charaka Samhita. Acharya Charaka has described the multivariate importance of Ahara or Annam in the verse below.

प्राणाः प्राणभृतामन्नमन्नं लोकोऽभिधावति| वर्णः प्रसादः सौस्वर्यं जीवितं प्रतिभा सुखम्॥

तुष्टिः पुष्टिर्बलं मेधा सर्वमन्ने प्रतिष्ठितम्| लौकिकं कर्म यद्वृत्तौ स्वर्गतौ यच्च वैदिकम्॥

कर्मापवर्गे यच्चोक्तं तच्चाप्यन्ने प्रतिष्ठितम्॥ (Char. Samh. 27.349-51)[1]

prāṇāḥ prāṇabhr̥tāmannamannaṁ loko'bhidhāvati| varṇaḥ prasādaḥ sausvaryaṁ jīvitaṁ pratibhā sukham॥

tuṣṭiḥ puṣṭirbalaṁ medhā sarvamanne pratiṣṭhitam| laukikaṁ karma yadvr̥ttau svargatau yacca vaidikam॥

karmāpavarge yaccoktaṁ taccāpyanne pratiṣṭhitam॥ (Char. Samh. 27.349-51)

Meaning: The source of life for all living beings is food and thus all the world seeks (runs behind) food. Complexion, clarity, good voice, long life, understanding, happiness, satisfaction, growth, strength and intelligence are all established in food (can be attained by eating right food). Whatever is beneficial for worldly happiness, whatever pertains to the vedic sacrifices leading to higher abode and whatever actions lead to spiritual salvation are said to be established through food.[2]

आहारः प्रीणनः सद्यो बलकृद्देहधारकः ॥ आयुस्तेजःसमुत्साहस्मृत्योजोग्निविवर्धनः ॥ (Sush. Samh. 24.68-69)[3]

āhāraḥ prīṇanaḥ sadyo balakr̥ddehadhārakaḥ ॥ āyustejaḥsamutsāhasmr̥tyojognivivardhanaḥ ॥ (Sush. Samh. 24.68-69)

Meaning: Ahara is nourishing, instantly energizing and body bearer. It promotes longevity, energy, freshness, memory, ojas and Agni.

At the same time, Ayurveda acharyas have also identified the nuisance value of ahara if it is not consumed methodically. It is because of some inappropriate practices of consuming food, it can also become a cause for disease development and thus might create trouble. Acharya Charaka has pointed out this interesting aspect of Ahara by comparing it with liquor and poison by showing the similarity between them skillfully in the verse below.

किन्तु मद्यं स्वभावेन यथैवान्नं तथा स्मृतम्| अयुक्तियुक्तं रोगाय युक्तियुक्तं यथाऽमृतम्॥

प्राणाः प्राणभृतामन्नं तदयुक्त्या निहन्त्यसून्| विषं प्राणहरं तच्च युक्तियुक्तं रसायनम्॥ (Char. Samh. 24. 59-60)[4]

kintu madyaṁ svabhāvena yathaivānnaṁ tathā smr̥tam| ayuktiyuktaṁ rogāya yuktiyuktaṁ yathā'mr̥tam|॥

prāṇāḥ prāṇabhr̥tāmannaṁ tadayuktyā nihantyasūn| viṣaṁ prāṇaharaṁ tacca yuktiyuktaṁ rasāyanam॥ (Char. Samh. 24. 59-60)

Meaning: (Ayurveda has identified alcoholic drinks or fermented preparations as one of the medicinal formulations e.g. Asavas and Arishtas. Thus how Madyam can be utilised as medicine and when it can give trouble was well-known to Ayurveda scholars which they skillfully applied in practice of medicine. The same applies to use of poison. In this reference this verse has been added) But liquor by nature is similar to the food. It causes disorders when consumed improperly; while it is like amritam (elixir) when consumed properly. Food is like the vitality of life for the human beings; but the same may be fatal if ingested improperly. The poison is fatal, but it can be rasayana if used sensibly.[5]

Annamaya deha

Ayurveda lays great emphasis on selection and consumption of Ahara for maintenance of health and well-being. It is considered to be the most important factor in one' life responsible for longevity, strength and health. Not just that but Ayurveda scholars have opined that Deha or Shariram is made up of ahara (food). All the body components and elements are originated from and maintained through food. And therefore one needs to be extra cautious while taking food. Food should not be consumed out of affection (without mindfulness) or without having knowledge of the food that is being consumed since food taken in this way might prove harmful. Thus it is recommended that ahara should be consumed after properly assessing or understanding its nature.

एवं च कृत्वाऽन्नमया एव देहे सर्वे भावाः॥ न रागान्नाप्यविज्ञानादाहारानुपयोजयेत्|

परीक्ष्य हितमश्नीयाद्देहो ह्याहारसम्भवः ॥ (Char. Samh. 28.41)[6]

Meaning: Therefore all body components have their origin in food. One should not take food with greed and ignorance. One should consume wholesome food after evaluation as the body is formed from food.

Pancha-aharaguna or Panchabhautikatwa of ahara and deha


भौमाप्याग्नेयवायव्याः पञ्चोष्माणः सनाभसाः|

पञ्चाहारगुणान्स्वान् स्वान् पार्थिवादीन् पचन्त्यनु||५९||

पञ्चभूतात्मके देहे ह्याहारः पाञ्चभौतिकः |

विपक्वः पञ्चधा सम्यग्गुणान् स्वानभिवर्धयेत् ||५२६|| (Su.Su.46.526)

त्रयोपस्तंभाः॥ Trayopastambha

Ayurveda has put forward the concept of 3 supporting pillars of life. These are called as 3 upastambhas.[7] [8] It is stated that, strength, immunity and growth of any individual is dependent on well-regulated support of 3 factors namely Ahara (food), nidra (sleep) and observance of bramhacharya (celibacy/control of senses). These are called supports or pillars of one’s Ayu or life.

त्रय उपस्तम्भा इति- आहारः, स्वप्नो, ब्रह्मचर्यमिति; एभिस्त्रिभिर्युक्तियुक्तैरुपस्तब्धमुपस्तम्भैः शरीरं बलवर्णोपचयोपचितमनुवर्तते यावदायुःसंस्कारात् संस्कारमहितमनुपसेवमानस्य, य इहैवोपदेक्ष्यते॥ (Char Samh 11.35)[7]

traya upastambhā iti- āhāraḥ, svapno, brahmacaryamiti; ebhistribhiryuktiyuktairupastabdhamupastambhaiḥ śarīraṁ balavarṇopacayopacitamanuvartate yāvadāyuḥsaṁskārāt saṁskāramahitamanupasevamānasya, ya ihaivopadekṣyate॥ (Char Samh 11.35)[7]

Meaning: Three supporting pillars of life: Ahara (food), nidra (sleep) and observance of bramhacharya ( celibacy/control of senses). By the wisdom of well regulated support of these three pillars one can get body with strength, good complexion and proper growth and this continues throughout life, provided person does not get involved in regimens which are detrimental for health, these are discussed in this chapter.[9]

Thus, Ahara plays integral role in one’s health and wellness and therefore it is regarded as one of the 3 supports of life.  

Role of Ahara

Ayurveda has recognized the role of Ahara in various aspects of life.

हिताहारोपयोग एक एव पुरुषवृद्धिकरो भवति, अहिताहारोपयोगः पुनर्व्याधिनिमित्तमिति ॥ (Char Samh 25.31)[10]

hitāhāropayoga eka eva puruṣavr̥ddhikaro bhavati, ahitāhāropayogaḥ punarvyādhinimittamiti ॥ (Char Samh 25.31)

Meaning: Hita Ahara (Favorable/suitable Food) is identified as the one and only source of Purusha Vrddhi (Growth of body-mind-energy system of a person).

This statement underlines the importance of Ahara in nourishment of not only physical body but also manas (mind). Ahara has also been identified as one of the extremely important causative factor for disease development. The origin, sustenance and destruction of life is rooted in Ahara. It is Ahara which causes growth, generates strength, health, wellness when consumed appropriately, on the other hand, inappropriately consumed food leads to illness. [11] Thus, role of ahara in all these aspects of life, health and well-being is discussed step-wise in brief.

In Sharira vruddhi

Shariram (Physical body) of a person is made up of Ahara. Therefore Sharira vrddhi (physical growth), strength building can be achieved essentially through ahara. Ahara undergoes the process of digestion and it is transformed into Rasa dhatu. This Rasa dhatu which is the essence of ahara is then circulated through various channels in the body to provide nourishment to each and every body component. Thus nourishment & growth of body, sustenance of metabolic functions and preservation of life is accomplished by Ahara through Rasa dhatu. [12] Owing to this, the root of living beings, their balam (strength) and Varnam (Complexion) appears to be in Ahara. All these vital activities are carried out by Ahara with the help of its Rasa. Guna, Veerya and vipaka. These properties are based on dravya i.e. ingredient or substance which is consumed as a food. Therefore, what food you select and consume is extremely important. Physical body appears good when it is in proper shape and size. The disproportionate increase or reduction in size and shape of the body is unpleasant and leads to illness as well. Thus obesity and emaciation (frail/lean body structure) both conditions are displeasing to the person. Ayurveda too opines that such body types are unfavorable and suggests that Ahara is one of the extremely significant causative factors in this which needs to be properly addressed. The other important factor is Nidra.[13] Overall, for the growth of the physical body known as Sharira in Ayurveda, the role of Ahara was well known to the Ayurveda scholars and thus it has been counted as one among the factors responsible for Sharira Vrddhi (physical growth). These factors are collective known as Sharira Vrddhikara Bhavas. At this place it is once again communicated that not just any ahara but Aharasampat i.e good quality of Ahara is responsible for body growth.

कार्त्स्न्येन शरीरवृद्धिकरास्त्विमे भावा भवन्ति; तद्यथा- कालयोगः, स्वभावसंसिद्धिः, आहारसौष्ठवम्, अविघातश्चेति ॥ (Char Samh 6.12)[14]

kārtsnyena śarīravr̥ddhikarāstvime bhāvā bhavanti; tadyathā- kālayogaḥ, svabhāvasaṁsiddhiḥ, āhārasauṣṭhavam, avighātaśceti ॥ (Char Samh 6.12)

Role of ahara in agni strength

Ayurveda shastra gives immense importance to the status of Agni in a person. Agni is believed to be the moola (base/root) of the life like that of Ahara. Ahara taken from outside is converted in the form of energy by Agni and this energy is responsible for all vital functions of our body. If the agni is in a balanced state, the person would be healthy and would lead a long, healthy, happy life. On the other hand, the any vitiation or disturbances in agni the entire metabolism of the body is disturbed resulting in illness and poor quality of life. Once the function of agni stops, the life ends. Thus Agni is critical for one's life. It the cause of health, nourishment, strength, lusture, ojas, teja (energy) and prana (life energy).[15] One can also find that the similar description on impact of Ahara on Life is noted in Ayurveda treatises.[1] [3] [10] [11] [13] Therefore it is clear that Agni and Ahara both impact the life equally in every aspect. Their targets are similar also because agni and ahara are basically interdependent. Ahara can not impact life without process of agni neither agni can help individual without ahara. These two components control each other and bring about the final effect. How food controls the strength of agni has been explained in Ayurveda with a simple example. Agni can become strong and steady when it is offered Ahara which is nourishing and suitable with a tinge of unctuousness like the wood-fire becomes strong and steady with the help of heart wood / hard wood coated with some unctuous material.

दीप्तो यथैव स्थाणुश्च बाह्योऽग्निः सारदारुभिः | सस्नेहैर्जायते तद्वदाहारैः कोष्ठगोऽनलः ॥ (Asht. Hrud. 10.79)[16]

Thus it is always believed in Ayurveda that, not just the food but its digestion and transformation also should be given equal importance while considering health and illness.

In Balam Vruddhi

Balam in Samskrit refers to the strength of the body. It also indicates ability of the body or part of the body, to protect oneself against various harmful factors. As mentioned in previous sections, Ayurveda has given immense importance to Ahara and agni to acquire and maintain balam. [1] [3] [15] Grossly, Balam is the product of the strength of all the dhatus (body tissues).[17] Therefore strength and quality of each dhatu contributes in balam which in turn depends on the ahara. Ultimately, Ahara becomes one of the crucial contributing factors in building and maintaining strength. Ahara is thus listed on eamong the crucial factors for building strength. These factors are called as Balavrddhikara bhavas in Ayurveda.

बलवृद्धिकरास्त्विमे भावा भवन्ति| तद्यथा- बलवत्पुरुषे देशे जन्म बलवत्पुरुषे काले च, सुखश्च कालयोगः, बीजक्षेत्रगुणसम्पच्च, आहारसम्पच्च, शरीरसम्पच्च, सात्म्यसम्पच्च, सत्त्वसम्पच्च, स्वभावसंसिद्धिश्च, यौवनं च, कर्म च, संहर्षश्चेति ॥ (Char. Samh. 6.13)[18]

Fundamentally there are 3 types of balam based on its source viz Sahaja (Natural, Present right from the birth), Kalaja (Present due to particular season and age) and Yuktikrita (Obtained by deliberate efforts to acquire strength like use of diet, exercise, medicines). Ahara is believed to develop Yuktikruta type of Balam. This means with proper application of knowledge about which food should be taken and how it should be consumed, one can certainly increase the strength. E.g Inclusion of ghee, milk, meat and certain strength building recipes in diet under a Vaidya's supervision can help one build strength and stamina. [19] [20]

In Prevention of diseases

Ahara is one of the highly important factors from one's life that is responsible for maintenance of health and wellbeing. The entire theory of disease development and health in Ayurveda is based on the effect of food and lifestyle factors on various body components. Therefore, the role of aahara in prevention of diseases has also been identified by Ayurveda. Various Ayurveda scholars at multiple places in literature have clearly stated that the one who consumes the appropriate and suitable food regularly can stay away form diseases and live a healthy life.

नित्यं हिताहारविहारसेवी समीक्ष्यकारी विषयेष्वसक्तः |

दाता समः सत्यपरः क्षमावानाप्तोपसेवी च भवत्यरोगः॥ (Asht. Hrud. 4.36)[21]

The qualities of food that should be looked for while selecting the daily food have been mentioned by ayurveda scholars. Ahara which is nutritious, right in quantity, snigdha (having appropriate amount of fats) and madhura rasa dominant is believed to be beneficial to build and maintain strong health.[22] Such ahara should be consumed on daily basis or in other words, the food that is recommended to be consumed on daily basis should have these qualities.

In development of diseases

Ahara (Diet) and Vihara (lifestyle) affects health of an individual. The causes of disease development are believed to be rooted in irregularities and mistakes of ahara and vihara. When these factors are of the gunas (nature) similar to doshas (causing their aggravation) while opposite in gunas (nature) of that of dhatus (causing their depletion) diseases develop.[23] This is regarded as the basis of knowledge about disease development and management according to Ayurveda. Therefore the role of ahara in diseases has been reiterated and emphasized multiple times in various context in Ayurveda literature. Acharya Charaka has opined that, the origin of life and diseases is Ahara i.e. food. Wholesome and unwholesome food articles are responsible for happiness and sorrow respectively.

आहारसम्भवं वस्तु रोगाश्चाहारसम्भवाः| हिताहितविशेषाच्च विशेषः सुखदुःखयोः ॥ (Char. Samh. 28.45)[24]

Also, at some instances Ahara has been considered as the sole responsible factors in disease development and thus it has been advised to always eat wholesome food mindfully.

विविधादशितात् पीतादहिताल्लीढखादितात् | भवन्त्येते मनुष्याणां विकारा य उदाहृताः॥

तेषामिच्छन्ननुत्पत्तिं सेवेत मतिमान् सदा | हितान्येवाशितादीनि न स्युस्तज्जास्तथाऽऽमयाः॥ (Char. Samh. 28.23-24)[25]

Meaning: The diseases mentioned here (in this chapter) occur due to consumption of different types of unwholesome food articles viz eatables, drinkables. linctuses and chewables. Therefore the wise person who desires to avoid their occurrence should always eat only wholesome food (eatables, drinkables, chewables and linctuses) so as to keep check on such illnesses.

Intrauterine growth of fetus dependent on mothers ahara

तदेवं गर्भस्य सम्पत्तिमभिधाय यथा तस्य कुक्षौ वृद्धिः स्यात्तथा वक्ति----बीजात्मकैर्महाभूतैः सूक्ष्मैः सत्वानुगैश्च सः|

मातुश्चाहाररसजैः क्रमात्कुक्षौ विवर्द्धते||२|| A.H.Sha.1.2

Seasonal ahara

According to Ayurveda, diet and daily activities of an individual are responsible to maintain or disturb the internal balance of bodily elements. Thus, if one can modify diet and lifestyle or activities according to changes in external environment, one can achieve good health and wellness.

तस्याशिताद्यादाहाराद्बलं वर्णश्च वर्धते| यस्यर्तुसात्म्यं विदितं चेष्टाहारव्यपाश्रयम्|| (Char. Samh. 5.3)

tasyāśitādyādāhārādbalaṁ varṇaśca vardhate| yasyartusātmyaṁ viditaṁ ceṣṭāhāravyapāśrayam|| (Char. Samh. 5.3)

Meaning: A person who knows the rutusatmya (getting accustomed to changes in diet and behavior according to seasons), practices such habits timely, and whose diet consists of various types of food articles (with properties such as ashita, pitta lidha and khadita), has his strength and luster enhanced, and he leads a healthy, long life.

Season specific diet recommendations are given by Ayurveda scholars in the adhyaya of Rutucharya.[26]

Guidelines on selection of food items are based on the taste of food. The tastes that are to be deliberately included or excluded from diet in a particular season have been explicitly mentioned by Ayurveda treatises. These recommendations are given in order to maintain the equilibrium of doshas, dhatus and malas in body in spite of change in the external environment. The guidelines given are in general applicable to all provided the person following those is healthy and devoid of any other disease. [27] In case of existing diseases or any kind of already present illness, selection of food as per season should be done after taking advice of a qualified vaidya.

The general guidelines on selection or exclusion of food as per rutu (seasons) can be found in Rutucharya.

Ahara types

Various properties of Ahara have been mentioned in Ayurveda classics. These properties are described in terms of Panchamahabhutas, rasa and veerya of Ahara. While describing the properties, some types of Ahara have also been mentioned. Ahara is divided into 4 categories based on its form and method of consumption.[28] These types of ahara are as follows,

  1. Bhakshya : Food that can be eaten with mastication i.e. Hard and solid food
  2. Bhojya : What may be eaten without masticaiton i.e. Solid food
  3. Lehya : What can be licked i.e. Semisolid food
  4. Peya : What can be drunk i.e. Liquids

In this way, food articles on the basis of their physical nature have been divided into 4 types. Along with that, Ahara can also be categorized on the basis of its dominant properties e.g dominant mahabhuta or dominant rasa etc. These types have significance from the point of view of digestion, transformation and end effects of it in the person who consumes it.

Types of aharadravyas

Although the ahara is categorised in 4 types based on its physical form, it can be divided in 2 groups depending on the properties of it core ingredients. These properties of ingredients are important because those decide the fate of this ahara and its effect on person's body after consumption. Also, this understanding helps to decide the appropriate quantity or portion of this ahara to be taken at a time in a person. Guru and Laghu are these 2 chief properties.


The term Laghu means light or small. The ingredients which are easy for digestion and help to create the feeling of lightness, buoyancy in a body are identified as Laghu. Examples of such food articles are Rice, Green gram etc.[29] Even if one consumes excess quantity of Laghu food articles, it does not cause as much trouble as the guru ahara can.


Guru indicates that food article having this property will take more time to get completely digested. The agni (digestive fire) has to process it with more efforts than Laghu food. Such food articles should be consumed in less quantity for better digestion and avoid untoward side effects. Various milk products, starch rich food articles,black grams, meat etc fall under Guru category. Therefore it is necessary to control the portion of such food stuffs. [29]

Various properties and types of Ahara considered by Ayurveda

Ayurveda classics thoroughly discuss about Ahara and its effects on person. Ahara has been studied in multiple aspects by Ayurveda scholars. As a result, Ahara is classified into various types which actually describe its nature and help to understand its probable effect on body.[30] Ayurveda vaidyas consider all these points while assessing patinets' current diet, health and then recommending a specific diet plan for an individual.

  1. 2 types- based on origin-Sthavara (Vegetarian), Jangama (Non-vegetarian)
  2. 6 types- based on Rasa- Madhura (Sweet), Amla (Sour), Lavana (Salty), Katu (Pungent), Titkta (Bitter), Kashaya (Astringent)
  3. 20 types- Based on properties like Hot, Cold, Unctuous, Dry, Soft, Hard etc
  4. Infinite types - Based on combinations, processing techniques etc.

Best Quality of Ahara

Ahara can have different qualities depending on its ingredients, processing method, taste and texture etc. However, among all other qualities the best quality of Ahara is believed to be its capability to provide satisfaction i.e. satiety. Satiety is also defined as absence of hunger.

तृप्तिराहारगुणानां [31]

Thus the food or ahara that fulfills one's hunger completely so that after eating that food no more feeling of hunger is experienced and the person is satisfied completely is said to be the best quality of Ahara. The ahara which is capable of fulfilling the nutritional needs as well as is desirable for that person can possess this quality.

Ahara related basic guidelines and their effects on Body

Ahara is believed to be the best among those things which are essential for maintenance of livelihood. Since it is such an extremely important lifestyle factors, there are some rules related to its consumption and some basic guidelines.[31] Some of those are listed below,

  1. Eating in excess quantity of Ahara is the chief cause of Ama generation (Foundational stone for disease development)
  2. Eating in quantity as per one's Agni's strength is the best way to kindle the digestive fire i.e. Agni
  3. Eating food that is compatible for one's body type and suitable or habitual to one is the best practice one can adopt
  4. Eating on right time (timely eating) is the best method to stay healthy
  5. Eating once a day is best for smooth digestive functioning
  6. Staying food deprived or empty stomach is life threatening or reduces life span
  7. Guru Ahara eating is the chief cause for indigestion
  8. Eating unbalanced food (Only one rasa dominant or only one type of food) is the prime cause of malnourishment
  9. Overeating (taking next food before the previous one is digested) is the primary cause of dysfunction of grahani (chief digestive organ)
  10. Untimely eating is the leading cause of agni disturbances/ irregularities
  11. Eating Viruddha ahara (incompatible food) is the primary cause of developing nindita rogas e.g. Obesity, gigantism, dwarfism, pigmentation disorders etc

Ahara vargas

Ayurveda samhitas have categorized food items into various groups. Primarily the food is divided into liquid foods (Drava dravya) and solid foods (ahara dravya).[32] Ahara dravyas (solid food) is further categorised into 8 groups and Drava drvyas (liquid food) divided into 4 groups. Altogether 12 groups of food items have been listed in Ayurveda and those are as follows.[32][33]

Categorization of Food items
Sr No Ahara Dravyas Drava dravyas
1 Shooka Dhanya (शूकधान्य) Toya varya
2 Shimbi Dhanya (शमीधान्य) Ksheera varga
3 Mansa varga Ikshu varga
4 Phala varga Taila varga
5 Shaka varga Madya varga
6 Krutanna varga
7 Harita / Aharayogi varga

Various food articles have been grouped under these 12 categories. Their properties, effect on health and well-being have been critically studied and described in Ayurveda treatises.

Factors to be considered while selecting food articles

The food articles should be selected on the basis of certain factors so that they do not disturb the equilibrium of body components. These factors are Desha, Kala and one's body (physical constitution of individual). Desha refers to the geographical condition/land while Kala means season. The food article that possess qualities which will balance the disturbances created by external factors like desha, kala and also which are suitable to maintain balance of bodily components should be selected. This helps in maintaining health and well-being.

देशकालात्मगुणविपरीतानां हि कर्मणामाहारविकाराणां च क्रियोपयोगः [१] सम्यक्, सर्वातियोगसन्धारणम्, असन्धारणमुदीर्णानां च गतिमतां, साहसानां च वर्जनं, स्वस्थवृत्तमेतावद्धातूनां साम्यानुग्रहार्थमुपदिश्यते||८|| (Cha.Sha.6.8)

Viruddha ahara

The concept of Viruddha Ahara is exclusively found in Ayurveda. Viruddha Ahara literally means incompatible food. The food that after getting digested is transformed into such a form that is antagonistic to dhatus (body tissues) and thus can cause range of diseases, is known as Viruddha ahara. The effects of Viruddha ahara are believed to be comparable to those of toxins.[34] Viruddha ahara is believed to create such a disequilibrium in the body components that it becomes extremely difficult for a physician to treat the imbalance. This disequilibrium is described in the terms of doshas in Ayurveda.

यत् किञ्चिद्दोषमास्राव्य न निर्हरति कायतः |

आहारजातं तत् सर्वमहितायोपपद्यते ॥ (Char. Samh. 26.85)[35]

Since dhatus are the building blocks and functional units, the substances having opposite nature to dhatus will be responsible for disturbing and destroying the structure and function of dhatus. This ultimately affect the life and thus death is also mentioned as one of the extremely dangerous effects of Viruddha ahara. Viruddha ahara is not a specific substance of food ingredient. It could be a combination of 2 individually safe substances, or a wrong time/place/quantity for eating a specific food article. 18 types of viruddha ahara have been described in Ayurveda. [36] Getting one's lifestyle and diet analysed by a registered Vaidya (Ayurveda expert), identifying the incompatible foods and avoiding them is essential step in preventive medicine as disease management.

Gramya Ahara

Gramya Ahara (ग्राम्य आहारः।) is a special category of such dietary habits and food stuffs, that adversely and directly affect one's strength, immunity, health and well-being. Ayurveda scholars were able to identify those dietary factors as well as lifestyle components which when consumed and practiced over time, can lead to all types of illnesses due to their direct effect of Dhatus (धातवः। vital body tissues). such dietary factors are known as Gramya Ahara while such lifestyle factors are called as Gramya vihara (ग्राम्य विहारः।). Ayurveda acharyas have advised each and every individual to refrain from such practices if one wants to achieve the best possible life.

Pathya- Apathya

Any Ayurveda treatment is incomplete without guidance on what to eat and what is to be avoided. These do's and dont's related to diet are termed as Pathya (Do's) and Apathya (Dont's). Diet that is suitable for maintaining healthy status of individual is called as Pathyam while the diet which is responsible for creating imbalances in body, causing harm to various channels of transporting body components and development of diseases is called as Apathyam.[37]

पथ्यं-पथो अनपेतं यध्यच्चोक्तं मनसःप्रियम॥ (Char.Samh. 25.45)[38]

pathyaṁ pathō'napētaṁ yadyaccōktaṁ manasaḥ priyam|

Meaning: The dietary articles and activities that do not adversely affect the body systems and are liked by the mind are regarded as pathya (wholesome).

Although Pathya changes as per the individual's Prakrti (constitution), diseases, region, season, balam (strength) and multiple other factors, there are few food articles that are considered as 'Pathya' in general for any individual healthy or diseased. Same is the case for Apathya category of Ahara. Few pathya and apathya ahara substances are listed below as examples from food groups described in Ayurveda. Acharya Charaka says that the substances included in Pathya category are always beneficial for a person who consumes them while those in Apathya category are harmful than other substances of same category for anyone who consumes them.[39]

Pathya and Apathya in Ahara vargas (Food groups)
Ahara vargas (Food groups) Pathya Apathya
Shooka Dhanya (शूकधान्य) Lohitashali Yavaka
Shimbi Dhanya (शमीधान्य) Mudga Masha
Lavana varga Saindhava Ushara
Phala varga Mrudvika Nikucha
Dugdha varga Gavya dugdha Avi Dugdha
Matsya varga Rohit Chilichim

Factors that can change the outcomes of favorable and unfavorable food

When the food is selected with caution based on the needs and suitability, it should ideally produce favorable effects and well-being. Similarly when any unsuitable food is consumed it should lead to adverse outcomes. However, that is not the case always. Not the the food article but also the some other associated factors are found equally important for the final outcome of the food displayed on body. Ayurveda acharyas have identified these factors discerningly and described their role in deciding the final outcome with examples.[40] The factors that decide the final outcome of ahara are as follows,

  • Matra : Quantity/portion of food
  • Kala : Time (Season/whether) of consumption of a specific food article
  • Kriya : Food processing technique
  • Bhumi : Region (Regional food diversity/culture suited to the local environment)
  • Deha : Body type / size/ weight
  • Dosha : dominant dosha or dosha status specific to individual, disease, co-morbiditites
  • Avastha of Purusha : Age and pattern of doshas, dhatus specific to every age

Bhojana kala

Acharya Vagbhata in Ashtanga hrudayam explains the right time to have food. It is recommended that one should have food when he experiences following signs in body.[41]

  • When bodily wastes like stools and urine have been passed out of body
  • Belching that might occur is clear and there is no regurgitation with it
  • When person has good appetite and desire to eat
  • When there is unobstructed flow of vata
  • Body feels light

Bhojan kala in daily routine/ dinacharya

Dinacharya refers to the ideal daily regime of the person which can maintain his health and wellness. The daily routine explained by Ayurveda scholars includes diet as an integral part of it. The right time of having food is mentioned after having explained all the cleansing process right up to the bath. Thus most importantly food is to be taken only after the wastes generated from previous day's metabolism are removed, body is cleansed and good appetite is observed.

Panchakarmas after ahara

Dhumapana- A.H.S.21.6- Madhyaam dhooma

Ahara parinaman kala

Ahara parinaman kala means

A.H.SHA. 3.65-66

इदानीं परिणतिकालमाहारस्य निरुपयन्नाह

केचिदाहुरहोरात्रात्षाडहादपरे, परे||६५||

मासेन याति शुक्रत्वमन्नं पाकक्रमादिभिः|६६|

Ahara sara and mala

विण्मूत्रमाहारमलः सारः प्रागीरितो रसः |५२८| S.u.su. 46.528

Ashta Ahara vidhi vishesha ayatanani

Ahara is the chief source of nourishment for sustenance of life. It provides the strength , energy, and nutrition necessary for smooth functioning of entire body-mind system. However, all these benefits from ahara can be obtained when it is consumed in a specific manner. According to Ayurveda, How we eat is equally important as What we eat. The method of eating has significant impact on the final outcome of consuming a specific food. Therefore, Ayurveda also gives significant importance to the methods of eating which can be considered as the basic dietetic rules.

There are few factors which need to be considered before taking the food in order to obtain maximum benefits from the food that is being consumed. There are 8 such factors and those are collectively known as Ashta Ahara vidhi visheshayatanani in Ayurveda.

तत्र खल्विमान्यष्टावाहारविधिविशेषायतनानि भवन्ति; तद्यथा- प्रकृतिकरणसंयोगराशिदेशकालोपयोगसंस्थोपयोक्त्रष्टमानि (भवन्ति) ॥ (Char. Samh. 1.21)[42]

The meaning of the term ‘Ashta Ahara vidhi visheshayatanani’

Th can be split into 5 parts as below

  • Ashta- Means number 8
  • Ahara- Food
  • Vidhi- Method or manner
  • Vishesha- Specific effect i.e. beneficial or harmful
  • Ayatanani- Seat/ grounds/ responsible factors

Collectively it can be understood as ‘the method of eating food based on 8 specific grounds’

Therefore, in order to understand or select the right way to consume food for any person, it is necessary to consider these 8 factors. When food is taken considering these factors, one can get all desired benefits from right chosen food without getting any untoward effects. Prakriti, Karana, Samyoga, Rashi, Desha, Kala, Upayoga-samstha and Upyokta are these 8 factors.

8 factors to be considered while taking food are as below

  1. Prakriti- Qualitative characteristic of food
  2. Karana- Processing of food
  3. Samyoga- Combination/ mixing
  4. Rashi- The Quantity
  5. Desha- Habitat
  6. Kala- Time & Seasonal variation
  7. Upayoga-Samstha- Classical Ayurvedic Rules of eating
  8. Upayokta -The person who takes the food/ User

The right way to eat any food presented in front of you should be decided after considering these 8 factors to get best possible benefits from it.

This includes points like the quantity to be consumed, accompaniments to be chosen while taking that food, time to eat that food etc. This provides guideline for healthy eating practices. It is believed that, food consumed after considering these factors and implementing these rules provides all benefits and does not become the cause for ailments. On the other hand, food can be the cause for multiples diseases when it is consumed without considering these factors.

Ahara phala souththava hetu

Cha.Vi 2.4

न च केवलं मात्रावत्त्वादेवाहारस्य कृत्स्नमाहारफलसौष्ठवमवाप्तुं शक्यं, प्रकृत्यादीनामष्टानामाहारविधिविशेषायतनानां प्रविभक्तफलत्वात्||४||


Aharavidhi in Ayurveda refers to the code of eating food. It includes guidelines on eating food for getting best results from food that is consumed. These guidelines are advantageous for healthy as well as sick individuals. These should be followed even if the best suitable food is to be consumed which is supposed to give favorable outcomes.[43] The basic guidelines are given below,

  • Eat when fresh and hot
  • Eat unctuous food (food articles that lack unctuousness or fats are prohibited)
  • Eat in appropriate quantity
  • Consume food when the previous food is digested
  • Take the food which is not contradictory in veerya (potency and thermal energy) i.e fulfilling basic needs of the body
  • Eat at right place (in terms of hygiene, environment, availability etc)
  • Eat when all necessary accessories for eating are available
  • Do not eat at a very fast pace or very slowly
  • While eating one should try not to talk and laugh
  • Concentrate on food while eating and pay due regard to oneself

Ahara matra

Based on property of food article

गुरूणामर्धसौहित्यं लघूनां तृप्तिरिष्यते |

द्रवोत्तरो द्रवश्चापि न मात्रागुरुरिष्यते ||४९५|| Su.Su.46/495

मात्राशी स्यात्|

आहारमात्रा पुनरग्निबलापेक्षिणी||३|| (Cha.Su. 5.3)

Based on volume or quantity

Ayurveda acharyas give guidelines for deciding right quantity or portion of food that is being consumed. This has been described on the basis of physical form of food and the space available within imaginary partitions inside the stomach. If we consider that the stomach is divided into 3 parts then, for solid food and liquids one compartment each is to be utilized while a sufficient space i.e. one third space is to be kept vacant for movement of doshas which participate in the process of digestion.[44] Moral of the entire consideration is that one should not over-stuff the stomach with food. solids and liquids both should be taken in balanced proportion and at the same time some part of your stomach should be kept empty to facilitate easy digestion.

Prakruti and ahara matra

Kapha- alpa- A.H.SHA.3.101

Pitta- Prabhuta ashana pana , dandashuka Cha vi. 8.97

Vata- Laghu ahara Cha vi 8.98

How do I understand I have eaten in right quantity?

Ayurveda acharyas have given some simple clues to understand whether the person has eaten in right quantity. Since every individuals capacity to eat is different and it varies based on multiple factors, the hints to understand right quantity for everyone are based on symptoms the person experiences and not in weight or any measures. According to Acharya Charaka, the person has eaten the food in right quantity when it,

  • Does not cause undue pressure on stomach
  • Does not cause obstruction in the proper functioning of the circulatory system
  • Does not exert any pressure on the sides of the chest
  • Does not leave a feeling of excessive heaviness in the abdomen,
  • Pacifies the sense organs and energizes them
  • Pacifies hunger and quenches thirst
  • Does not result in difficulty in performing activities such as standing, sitting, walking, exhaling, inhaling, laughing, and talking
  • Appears to be easy to digest when taken in the morning and evening hours.

Such a quantity of food helps in enhancing strength and complexion, gets absorbed better and nourishes the body.[45]

Ahara anupana

Anupana is the exclusive concept from pharmacology and dietetics in Ayurveda. The term anupana refers to adjuvant or vehicle or carrier or a drug/food. It is usually a liquid which is given just after or along with some drug/food. Ahara anupana thus refers to the adjuvant of a food article which is deliberately introduced in order to get maximum benefits from that food and reduce its unwanted effects on one's health.

In charaka Samhita, the right anupana of ahara is said to be opposite in properties of that food but at the same time it should not be opposite (incompatible) to the dhatus. Such anupana is believed to increase energy levels, provide nourishment and strength in body on taking that food. It helps in proper digestion and transformation of that food in one's body so that one can get maximum benefits from it. [46] Subsequently it helps to fulfill the nutritional requirements of the body through the particular diet.

अनुपानं हितं युक्तं तर्पयत्याशु मानवम्|

सुखं पचति चाहारमायुषे च बलाय च||३२६||

Meaning: The right anupana of ahara energizes the person. It helps in smooth digestion of the food and ultimately increases strength and longevity.

Few examples of aharanupana are given in the classical literature. Selection of these anupanas are based on the properties of that food, the health condition or desired health effect for that person etc. For vata dominant conditions and food, anupana that is snigdha (unctuous) and ushna (hot) in properties is chosen. Various types of fermented preparations made from herbs can prove to be good choice of anupana. However this is to be started under the guidance a qualified Vaidya in order to avoid untoward side effects.


Ayurveda believes that, Bala (Strength) and Ayu (longevity) of a person are dependent on one's ahara. Therefore assessing one's food (intake) capacity could be a good criterion to assess one's strength and longevity as well. Thus, assessment of this parameter is one part of clinical examination of a patient which a Ayurveda practitioner performs.[47] It is believed that, not just the food intake capacity but also the capacity to digest the consumed food is also equally important to get rough idea of one's strength and longevity.[48] Ayurveda gives high importance to the digestion and transformation of ingested food and therefore is is considered as the integral part of examination of a patient.

Metal for vessel to store specific aharadravyas

Ayurveda gives keen attention to not just the food and methods to consume it but also to the method of serving it and storing it. It is believed that all these factors contribute in the final effect of the food that is being consumed. It is known that, material of the container in which the food is served and stored affects the quality of the food. In Sushruta Samhita, one can find the guidelines on the selection of vessel for storage of a specific type of a food recipe. For example ghee (clarified butter of cow milk) is advised to be stored in a vessel made up of black iron while rice gruel is to be stored in a vessel of silver. It is said that when these food articles are stored and served in such specific metal's vessel they give add-on health benefits. [49]

Type of container to store specific food articles
Sr No Food Articles Material/type of the vessel
1 Ghrutam (Ghee) Black iron
2 Peya (Rice gruel), Liquids, Juices/Soups Silver
3 Fruits and other solid foods Plant leaves
4 Dried and marinated food Gold
5 Spicy, Salty, Sour Stone
6 Milk, Water Copper
7 Alcohol, Sour/fermented drinks Clay/Mud, Glass
8 Raga, Shadava, Sattaka (Traditional sour preparations-) Vaidurya (types of a precious stone)

Arrangement of food stuffs in a plate

In most of the cultures across Bharata, traditionally the food is served in a plate in a specific manner. There exists a sequence and specific place in in a plate for a specific food article. The roots of this type of serving food are found to be in the classical treatises on Ayurveda. In Sushruta Samhita, the arrangement of food articles in a plate has been clearly mentioned.[49] This description on food arrangement also throws light on the variety of food articles on ancient Bharatiya's plate, traditional balanced diet and probabaly a secret to good health from ancient wisdom. According to Ayurveda the food should be arranged and served in the following manner.

On a clean, presentable, big size plate,

  • Soup/Dal, curry, rice, broth should be placed at the front end of plate
  • Solid food should be placed at the front place near soups
  • Fruits, vegetables, meat is to be served on the right hand side of the person on a plate
  • Other liquids, pickles, gruels should be served on the left hand side on the plate
  • Sweets, confectioneries should be served in the middle on the plate.

In this way the food articles should be arranged and served on plate.

Factors that affect proper digestion of food


अत्यम्बुपानाद्विषमाशनाद्वा सन्धारणात् स्वप्नविपर्ययाच्च |

कालेऽपि सात्म्यं लघु चापि भुक्तमन्नं न पाकं भजते नरस्य ||५००||

ईर्ष्याभयक्रोधपरिक्षतेन लुब्धेन शुग्दैन्यनिपीडितेन |

प्रद्वेषयुक्तेन च सेव्यमानमन्नं न सम्यक् परिणाममेति ||५०१||

Aharaparinamakara bhava

Ahara parinamana refers to the digestion of food and its transformation into rasa dhatu which then further provides nutrition to entire body. If the digestion and transformation of food is not proper, the undigested form of food in the rasa dhatu can cause multiple diseases. Aharaparinamkara Bhavas are the factors responsible for transformation of food into bio-available nutrients which are capable of building and repairing body tissues. These factors are responsible for proper digestion of food so that most of the nutrients from that food required by body are absorbed and utilized. If function of any one of these factors is disturbed, the food undergoing the process of digestion is not processed well and instead of fulfilling the nutritional requirements of body, the improperly digested food becomes the cause for multiple ailments. Therefore Ayurveda lays high importance on well regulated functioning of all these food transforming factors to achieve health and well-being.

आहारपरिणामकरास्त्विमे भावा भवन्ति| तद्यथा- ऊष्मा, वायुः, क्लेदः, स्नेहः, कालः, समयोगश्चेति ||१४|| (Cha.Sha.6.14)

Meaning: Factors responsible for transformation of the food are, Ushma (Heat), Vayu (Air), Kleda (Moisture), Sneha (oiliness or lubrication), Kala (time) and Samayoga (appropriate combination of all these factors for every individual).

Ushma means heat is responsible for digestion, Vayu helps move the food forward in digestive system, kleda helps in loosening the bulk of food, sneha softens the food consumed, kala is required to complete this process and produce the desirable outcome from it, samayoga means appropriate combination of these factors helps to establish equilibrium in the formed Dhatus.

Significance of proper digestion of food to obtain good health, strength and long life

परिणमतस्त्वाहारस्य [१] गुणाः शरीरगुणभावमापद्यन्ते यथास्वमविरुद्धाः; विरुद्धाश्च विहन्युर्विहताश्च विरोधिभिः शरीरम्||१६|| (cha.Sha.6.16)

शरीरगुणाः [१] पुनर्द्विविधाः सङ्ग्रहेण- मलभूताः, प्रसादभूताश्च|

तत्र मलभूतास्ते ये शरीरस्याबाधकराः स्युः| cha sha 6.17

Ahara as medicine

Cha. Su. 11.54

युक्तिव्यपाश्रयं- पुनराहारौषधद्रव्याणां योजना,

Ahara as the only only medicine to regain strength after recovery from diseases

भेषजक्षपिते पथ्यमाहारैरेव बृंहणम्|


अभ्यङ्गोत्सादनैः स्नानैर्निरूहैः सानुवासनैः|

तथा स लभते शर्म युज्यते चायुषा चिरम्||२३|| Cha.Su. 16.22-23

Can someone suffer from disease if

न च केवलं हिताहारोपयोगादेव सर्वव्याधिभयमतिक्रान्तं भवति, सन्ति ह्यृतेऽप्यहिताहारोपयोगादन्या रोगप्रकृतयः, तद्यथा- कालविपर्ययः, प्रज्ञापराधः, शब्दस्पर्शरूपरसगन्धाश्चासात्म्या इति|

Effect or function of ahara in management of diseases

अनया चोक्त्या आहारः शरीरगतानां भावानां समानगुणानां गुणद्वारेण वर्द्धनहेतुः,विपरीत गुणानां च क्षयहेतुः इति प्रतिपादयति ----

यथास्वं ते च पुष्णन्ति पक्वा भूतगुणान् पृथक्|

पार्थिवाः पार्थिवानेव शेषाः शेषांश्च देहगान्||६०|| A.H.SHA.3.60

Specific recipes in specific diseases

Shirororogas- Ghrutapura, sanyawa S.u.Ut.26

आहारश्च विधातव्यो वातपित्तविनाशनः ||३७||

मधुमस्तकसंयावघृतपूरैश्च भोजनम् |३८|

मधुमस्तकाः रवजुकाः, संयावः कण्डकघृतैश्चातुर्जातककर्पूरसुगन्धः लप्सिकेति लोके, घृतपूरः ‘घेवर’ इति प्रसिद्धः||३६-३७||

Jwara- Soups-

मुद्गान्मसुरांश्चणकान् कुलत्थान् समकुष्ठकान् ||१५०||

आहारकाले यूषार्थं ज्वरिताय प्रदापयेत् |१५१| Su.Ut.39

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Charaka Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 27 Sutras 349-51)
  2. Available from charakasamhitaonline.com
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Sushruta Samhita (Chikitsasthanam Adhyaya 24 Sutra 68-69)
  4. Charaka Samhita (Chikitsasthanam Adhyaya 24 Sutram 59-60)
  5. Available from charakasamhitaonline.com
  6. Charaka Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 28 Sutram 41)
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Charaka Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyayam 11 Sutram 35)
  8. Ashtanga Hrudayam (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 7 Sutra 52)
  9. Charaka samhita online (Sutra Sthanasutra Chapter 11.The Three Desires of Life and important triads sutram 35)
  10. 10.0 10.1 Charaka Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 25 Sutra 31)
  11. 11.0 11.1 Sushruta Samhita (Sutrasthnam Adhyaya 46 Sutra 3)
  12. Sushruta Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 14 Sutra 3)
  13. 13.0 13.1 Charaka Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 21 Sutra 51)
  14. Charaka Samhita (Sharirasthanam Adhyaya 6 Sutra 12)
  15. 15.0 15.1 Charaka Samhita (Chiktsasthanam Adhyaya 15 Sutra 3-4)
  16. Ashtanga Hrudayam (Chikitsasthanam Adhyaya 10 Sutra 79)
  17. Sushrut Samhita (Sutrastanam Adhyaya 15 Sutra 19)
  18. Charaka Samhita (Sharirasthanam Adhyaya 6 Sutra 13)
  19. Charaka Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 11 Sutram 36)
  20. Ashtanga Hrudayam (Sharirasthanam Adhyaya 3 Sutra 78)
  21. Ashtanga Hrudayam (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 4 Sutram 36)
  22. Sushruta Samhita (Chikitsasthanam Adhyaya 24 Sutram 98)
  23. Ashtanga Hrudayam (Sharirasthanam Adhyaya 3 Sutram 44)
  24. Charaka Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 28 Sutra 45)
  25. Charaka Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 28 Sutras 23-24)
  26. Ashtanga Hrudayam (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 3 Sutra 2)
  27. Commentary of Arundatta On Ashtanaga Hrudayam (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 3 Sutram 57)
  28. Dalhana Commentary On Sushruta Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 14 Sutram 3)
  29. 29.0 29.1 Charaka Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 5 Sutram 5)
  30. Charaka Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 25 Sutra 36)
  31. 31.0 31.1 Charaka Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 25 Sutram 40)
  32. 32.0 32.1 Ashtanga Hrudayam (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 5, 6)
  33. Charaka Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 26 Sutras 6-7)
  34. Ashtanga Hrudayam (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 7 Sutram 29)
  35. Charaka Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 26 Sutra 85)
  36. Charaka Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 26 Sutra 81)
  37. Ashtanga Hrudayam (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 7 Sutra 40-42)
  38. Charaka Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 25 Sutra 45)
  39. Charaka Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 25 Sutra 38)
  40. Charaka Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 25 Sutra 30-32)
  41. Ashtanga Hrudayam (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 8 Sutram 55)
  42. Charaka Samhita (Vimanasthanam Adhyaya 1 Sutram 21)
  43. Charaka Samhita (Vimanasthanam Adhyaya 1 Sutram 24)
  44. Charaka Samhita (Vimanasthanam Adhyaya 2 Sutram 3)
  45. Charaka Samhita (Vimanasthanam Adhyaya 2 Sutram 6)
  46. Charaka Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 27 Sutra 319-26)
  47. Charaka Samhita (Vimanasthanam Adhyaya 8 Sutra 94)
  48. Charaka Samhita (Vimanasthanam Adhyaya 8 sutra 120)
  49. 49.0 49.1 Sushruta Samhita (Sutrasthanam Adhyaya 46 Sutras 449-457)