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Sanatana Dharma (सनातनधर्मः)

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The Sanatana Dharma (Samskrit : सनातनधर्मः) also termed lately as Hindu Dharma is founded on the concepts of Dharma, Karma, and Brahma constitute the tripod of Sanatana Dharma (Hindu Dharma), which is Anadi (अनादिः । beginningless। beginningless), Anantha (अनन्तः। endless), and therefore Sanatana (सनातनः। eternal, everlasting). With its rich connotations, Dharma is not translatable to any other language.<ref>Mandagadde, Rama Jois. (1997) ''Dharma : The Global Ethic'' Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan</ref>
One of the most remarkable things in Sanatana Dharma, is the way in which it has laid down a complete scheme of Knowledge and then crowned it with a Philosophy philosophy composed of six faces, but governed by one idea and leading to one goal. No such comprehensive and orderly view of human knowledge is elsewhere to be found. Dharma is not merely a set of beliefs having no necessary connection with the daily life of humanity, but it is the very set of principles of a healthy and beneficent life, which we call a [[Dharmik Lifestyle Dharmika Jivana Vidhana (धार्मिकजीवनविधानम्)|Dharmik lifestyleDharmika Jivana Vidhana]].<ref name=":0022">''Sanatana Dharma : An Advanced Textbook of Hindu Religion and Ethics''. (1903) Benares : The Board of Trustees, Central Hindu College</ref>==Defining Sanatana Dharma==The term Sanatana Dharma, definitely grounded in and distinctively Hindu, belonging to Bharatavarsha, unites under its fold the most divergent forms of thought and philosophies, yet exclusive enough to leave outside it forms of thought which are non-Hindu. Its directives are towards building up a character - pious, dutiful, strong, self reliant, upright, righteous, gentle and well-balanced - a character which will be that of a good man and a good citizen.<ref name=":022" /><blockquote>''The word Hindu (in the form 'Hidu') appears to have been applied by the Persian Emperors Darius (522 - 486 B. C.) and Xerxes (486 - 465 B. C.) to the territory and people to west and to the east of the great river, Sindhu, while the Greeks referred to the people in the same region as 'Indoi' from which comes the word 'Indian'.''<ref name=":0">Kane, Pandurang Vaman. (1962) ''History of Dharmasastra (Ancient and Medieval Religious and Civil Law). Volume 5 Part 2.'' Poona : Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute</ref></blockquote>Sanatana Dharma reflects the timelessness of the spiritual and theological practices prevalent in Bharatavarsha even in the present day. Sanatana Dharma eternally holds All together. But it should be noted that the words Sanatana dharma do not mean that Dharma always stands still or is immutable. It means that our culture is timeless with a long tradition behind it but does not mean that Dharma permits no change.<ref name=":0" />
== Defining Sanatana Dharma ==The term Sanatana DharmaIt, essentially, definitely grounded in and distinctively Hindumeans to follow one’s eternal duty, belonging which is to Bharatavarshaquest to understand every individual's core identity, unites under its fold his/her relationship and role in the most divergent forms bigger sense of thought Universe and philosophies, yet exclusive enough then to learn to live according to leave outside it forms of thought which are non-Hindu. Its directives are towards building up a character - pious, dutiful, strongthose eternal and spiritual characteristics, especially attained by one’s own self reliant, upright, righteous, gentle realizations. This is also the purpose and well-balanced - a character which will be that mission of a good man the Vedic philosophy and culture, and a good citizenour ultimate duty in human life.<ref name=":0" /> <blockquote>''"Hindu is a descriptive =Authority of Sanatana Dharma==A term for the people from the other side of river Sindhu and first used by Arabs in fifth century AD."''<ref>Pandeywide import, A Sanatana Dharma is inclusive of many siddhantas and Navare, A. V. tattvas (2018philosophies) ''Paths all unified in their goal of Yoga : Perspective for Workplace Spirituality.'' Springer International Publishing Inc.</ref></blockquote><blockquote>''The word Hindu (in achieving the form 'Hidu') appears to have been applied by the Persian Emperors Darius highest state of mankind which is [[Nihshreyasa (522 - 486 B. C.निःश्रेयसम्) and Xerxes (486 - 465 B]]. C.) to As knowledge is the territory and people to west and to the east rightful source of authority, as knowledge of the great river, Sindhu, while Rshis was the Greeks referred to the people product of their Reason in resonance with the same region as 'Indoi' from which comes Divine Reason, the word 'Indian'.''<ref>KaneShrutis, Pandurang Vamangiven to the world are authoritative. (1962) ''History of Dharmasastra (Ancient and Medieval Religious and Civil Law). Volume 5 Part 2.'' Poona : Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute</ref></blockquote>Hinduism is thus a more recent term greatly in use these days. Sanatana Dharma reflects the timelessness The system of the spiritual and theological practices prevalent morality inculcated in Bharatavarsha even in the present day. Sanatana Dharma eternally holds All together. , is therefore authoritative as it
It, essentially, means to follow one’s eternal duty, which *is to quest to understand every individual's core identity, his/her relationship and role in founded on the bigger sense recognition of Universe Unity of Self*draws its precepts and then to learn sanctions from that supreme truth*is capable of appealing to live according to those eternal and spiritual characteristics, especially being verified by attained by one’s own self realizations. This is also the purpose and mission of the Vedic philosophy and culture, and our ultimate duty in human life.Reason
== Authority Here in the following sections we revisit all the texts of final authority on which Sanatana Dharma is based on.===Shrutis===A term of wide import, Sanatana Dharma is inclusive founded on the [[Shruti (श्रुतिः)|Shrutis]], consisting of [[The Four Vedas (चतुर्वेदाः)|The Four Vedas]], which are the final authority, revealed by to the Rshis ([[Apaurusheya (अपौरुषेयम्)]], organized and compiled by Maharshi Veda Vyasa. Each of may these vedas are classified into 4 based on their content namely, [[Samhita (संहिता)|Samhita]], [[Brahmana (ब्राह्मणम्)|Brahmana]], [[Aranyaka (आरण्यकम्)|Aranyaka]] and [[Upanishads (उपनिषदः)|Upanishads]]. The subject matter deals with profound jnanakanda with exclusively unique siddhantas and tattvas thoughts about the aspects of life, death, [[Yajna (philosophiesयज्ञः) all unified in |yajnas]], punarjiva (rebirth), karma, [[Brahman (ब्रह्मन्)|brahman]] and the karmakanda which includes descriptions of yajnas, their goal procedures, materials required and the reason for such activities. They also include the governing powers of achieving nature (the deities) and their stuti (praise) which extol their heroic deeds. The various procedures, the classification and the highest state results of mankindperforming [[Shrauta Yajnas (श्रौतयज्ञाः)|shrauta yajnas]] are clearly elaborated in these texts. Here we revisit Atharva veda also describes the texts of final authority on which Sanatana Dharma is based onmore mundane things such as remedies in medicine, agriculture, charms and other socio-cultural perspectives.
=== Shrutis ===Sanatana Dharma is founded on the Shrutis, consisting of The Four Vedas, which is the final authority, revealed by to the Rishis, organized and compiled by Maharshi Veda Vyasa. Sri Adi Shankaracharya, in his Brahmasutra Bhasyam attributes the following to Maharshi Veda Vyasa<blockquote>युगान्तेऽन्तर्हितान्वेदान् सेतिहासान् युगान्तेऽन्तर्हितान्वेदान् सेतिहासान् महर्षयः । लेभिरे तपसा पूर्वमनुज्ञातः स्वयंभुवा ॥ (Brah. Bhas. 1.3.29)<ref>Bramhasutra Bhashyam ([https://archive.org/stream/BrahmaSutraBhashyaByAdiShankaracharyasanskrit.pdf/Brahma.Sutra.Bhashya.By.Adi.Shankaracharya.Sanskrit#page/n53 Adhyaya 1 Pada 3]) By Sri Adi Shankaracharya</ref></blockquote><blockquote>yugānte'ntarhitānvedān setihāsān ntarhitānvedān setihāsān maharṣayaḥ । lebhire tapasā pūrvamanujñātaḥ svayaṁbhuvā ॥ (Brah. Bhas. 1.3.29)</blockquote>''The Vedas, together with the Itihasas, were withdrawn at the end of the Yugas. The Maharshis, permitted by Svayambhu (Brahma) recovered them by Tapas.''<ref name=":0022" />
Further modifications of the recovered vedas taking place at the beginning of each cycle were suited for the special conditions for that age as given by in the Devi Bhagavata slokas <blockquote>द्वापरे द्वापरे विष्ण्णुर्व्यासरूपेण सर्वदा । वेदमेकं स बहुधा कुरुते हितकाम्यया ॥ १९ (Devi. Bhag. 1.3.19)<ref>Devi Bhagavata ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%87%E0%A4%B5%E0%A5%80%E0%A4%AD%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%97%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%AA%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A3%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8D/%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%A8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A7%E0%A4%83_%E0%A5%A6%E0%A5%A7/%E0%A4%85%E0%A4%A7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%83_%E0%A5%A6%E0%A5%A9 Skanda 1 Adhyaya 3])</ref></blockquote><blockquote>dvāpare dvāpare viṣṇṇurvyāsarūpeṇa sarvadā । vedamekaṁ sa bahudhā kurute hitakāmyayā ॥ 19 (Devi. Bhag. 1.3.19)</blockquote>''Then, in the Kali yuga, He (Vishnu) in the form of Vyasa, divides one Veda into many parts for the benefit (of men).''<ref name=":0022" />===Smrtis===Next to [[Shruti (श्रुतिः)|Shrutis]] in authority comes the [[Smrti (स्मृतिः)|Smrtis]], which explain and develop Dharmika Vyvastha laid down for common understanding the laws which regulate national, social, family and individual obligations. Just as revealed in the Vedas, the Rshis with the necessary authority made alterations and adaptations to suit the needs of the time.<ref name=":022" />
=== Of the Smrtis, Manusmrti and Yajnavalkya smrti, are widely accepted as chief authority in all matters of law. The other Smrtis ===Next are drawn upon when it is necessary to Shrutis in authority comes supplement these. Manu, the Smritis, which explain first codifier of social and develop Dharmik Vyvastha laid down for common understanding the individual laws which regulate national, socialproclaims the authority of Shrutis and Smrtis thus, family and individual obligations<blockquote>श्रुतिस्तु वेदो विज्ञेयो धर्मशास्त्रं तु वै स्मृतिः । ते सर्वार्थेष्वमीमांस्ये ताभ्यां धर्मो हि निर्बभौ ॥ २.१० (Manu. Smrt. 2.10) <ref name=":2">Manusmriti ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%A8%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%83%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%83/%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%80%E0%A4%AF%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%A7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%83 Adhyaya 2])</ref></blockquote><blockquote>śrutistu vēdō vijñēyō dharmaśāstraṁ tu vai smr̥tiḥ । tē sarvārthēṣvamīmāṁsyē tābhyāṁ dharmō hi nirbabhau ॥ 2.10 (Manu. Smrt. 2. Just 10)</blockquote>''The Veda is known as the VedasShruti, the Rishis with the necessary authority made alterations Dharmashastras as Smrti; these should not be doubted (but carefully consulted and adaptations to suit the needs of the timeconsidered) in all matters, for from them Dharma arise.'' <ref name=":0022" />===Puranas and Itihasa===Next in succession to the Smrtis come the [[Puranas (पुराणानि)|Puranas]] and [[Itihasa (इतिहासः)|Itihasa]], which according to the Bhagavata and Skanda Puranas are considered as Panchamaveda. As given above the Devi Bhagavata sloka ascertains that Vishnu in the form of Vyasa reveals the Puranas, as is fitting for the sake of Dharma.
Of It was this flexibility, characteristic of the SmrtisSanatana Dharma, Manusmrti and Yajnavalkya smrtithat preserved it through so many ages, are widely accepted as chief authority in all matters of law. The when other Smrtis are drawn upon when it is necessary to supplement theseancient practices perished. ManuTill date every adherent of Sanatana Dharma, falls back on the first codifier Vedas, compiled by Vedavyasa for resolving any points of social and individual laws, proclaims contention. Thus came into being the authority of Shrutis and Smrtis thus,saying<blockquote>श्रुतिस्तु वेदो विज्ञेयो धर्मशास्त्रं तु वै स्मृतिः व्यासोच्छिष्टं जगत् सर्वम् । vyāsocchiṣṭaṁ jagat sarvam ते सर्वार्थेष्वमीमांस्ये ताभ्यां धर्मो हि निर्बभौ ॥ २.१० (Manu. Smrt. 2.10) <ref>Manusmriti ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%A8%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%83%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%83/%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%80%E0%A4%AF%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%A7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%83 Adhyaya 2])</ref></blockquote><blockquote>śrutistu vēdō vijñēyō dharmaśāstraṁ tu vai smr̥tiḥ । tē sarvārthēṣvamīmāṁsyē tābhyāṁ dharmō hi nirbabhau ॥ 2On these Shrutis the whole fabric of Vaidika Dharma or Sanatana Dharma, the religion of the Vedas, as it is truly named, is built.10 They propound a system by the mastery of which all the energies which vitalize the Universe and nature may be controlled, at the direction of Isvara (Manu. SmrtAbsolute Consciousness). 2.10)<ref name=":022" /blockquote>''==Siddhantas in Sanatana Dharma==The Veda is known as Shrutiscience of ancient [[Bharatavarsha (भरतवर्षम्)|Bharatavarsha]] was contained in the [[Shad Vedangas (षड्वेदाङ्गानि)|Shad Vedangas]], the Dharmashastras as Smrti; these should not be doubted six angas (limbs or parts) while its theosophical ideas were given by [[Vedanta (but carefully consulted वेदान्तः)|Vedanta]] and considered[[Shad Darshanas (षड्दर्शनानि) in |Shad Darshanas]]. All philosophies are designed to lead man to the One Science, and One Wisdom, which saw One Self as Real and all else as unreal. Unity of all mattersknowledge was the core concept with no distinction between science, for from them Dharma arisephilosophy and religion.'' <ref name=":0022" />
The following principles are unique, distinctive features, most accepted by the majority of people who follow Sanatana-dharma, and are also referenced in the Vedic texts. Beyond these, there are various schools of thought, which have further developments in their own outlook and philosophy, such as the Shaivites, Vaishnavas, Shaktas, Brahmanandis, Tantrics, and so on as an extension to the basic principles of Sanatana Dharma. These concepts unique and ancient, which mark out Hinduism among many other faiths, constitute the dharmika tattvajnana (धार्मिकतत्वज्ञानम्) explaining the integral unity of Sanatana Dharma. === Puranas and Itihasa एकम् सत् || One Supreme Being===Next Sanatana Dharma's highest point of convergence is the [[Brahman (ब्रह्मन्)|Brahman]] or the Supreme Being with exceptionally absolute nature. With no beginning or end, the all in succession to all, the unlimited Absolute Truth, who can expand into many forms is the Smrtis come Supreme Being. In this regard, the Puranas RigVeda (1.164.46) says<blockquote>एकम् सत् विप्रह् बहुध वदन्ति || ekam sat viprah bahudha vadanti ||<ref>Rig Veda ([http://vedicheritage.gov.in/samhitas/rigveda/shakala-samhita/rigveda-shakala-samhitas-mandal-01-sukta-164/ Mandala 1 Sukta 164])</ref></blockquote>Though sages may call Him by different names (such as Krishna, Rama, Paramatma, etc.) there is but one Absolute Truth (Satya), or The One Existence (Brahman) which is source and Itihasafoundation of everything. Vedas declare the triple nature of Ishvara (called variously as Brahman, which according Paramatma, Parameshvara, Supreme etc) to be <blockquote>Sat-Chit-Ananda (सत्-चित्-आनन्द) </blockquote><blockquote>Satyam-Jnanam-Anantam Brahma सत्यंज्ञानमनन्तं ब्रह्मा (Taittriya Upanishad 2.1.1)</blockquote>It is the Bhagavata form of eternal knowledge, universal truth and Skanda Puranas are considered bliss. Also referred to as PanchamavedaHe, He is supreme, full of beauty, knowledge, is all-powerful and all-pervading. As given above He is also known by His three main features: namely '''[[Brahman (ब्रह्मन्)|Brahman]]''', the Devi Bhagavata sloka assertains that Vishnu all-pervading, impersonal spiritual force or effulgence; the '''Paramatma''', the localized expansion known as the Super Consciousness which accompanies every individual soul in the heart of everyone; and then '''Bhagavan''', the Supreme Personality and form of Vyasa reveals God. The goal to be achieved by every human being and Concept of God as the Puranas, as is fitting for ultimate goal are the sake foundational aspects of DharmaIndian theosophical views.<ref name=":022" />
It was this flexibility, characteristic Kathopanishad clearly explains the attributes and nature of the Sanatana DharmaBrahman as follows, that preserved it through so many ages, when other ancient practices perished<blockquote>अशब्दमस्पर्शमरूपमव्ययं तथाऽरसं नित्यमगन्धवच्च यत् ।</blockquote><blockquote>अनाद्यनन्तं महतः परं ध्रुवं निचाय्य तन्मृत्युमुखात् प्रमुच्यते ॥ १५ ॥ (Kath. Upan. 1. Till date every adherent of Sanatana Dharma, falls back on the Vedas, compiled by Vedavyasa for resolving any points of contention3. Thus came into being the saying15)</blockquote><blockquote>aśabdamasparśamarūpamavyayaṁ tathā'rasaṁ nityamagandhavacca yat ।</blockquote><blockquote>व्यासोच्छिष्टं जगत् सर्वम् । vyāsocchiṣṭaṁ jagat sarvam ।anādyanantaṁ mahataḥ paraṁ dhruvaṁ nicāyya tanmr̥tyumukhāt pramucyatē ॥ 15 ॥ (Kath. Upan. 1.3.15)</blockquote>On these Shrutis the whole fabric of Vaidika Dharma or Sanatana DharmaMeaning : Having perceived (through meditation) that (Supreme Paramatman) which is always soundless, touchless, colourlesss, imperishable, the religion of the Vedastasteless, as it is truly namedodourless, is built. They propound a system by beginningless and endless and higher than the mastery of which all the energies which vitalize the Universe and nature may be controlledgreat (Jivatma), at one gets released from the direction clutches of Isvara (Absolute Consciousness)death.<ref name=":003" >N. S. Ananta Rangacharya (2003) ''Principal Upanishads (Isa, Kena, Katha, Prasna, Mundaka, Mandookya, Taittiriya, Mahanarayana, Svetasvatara) Volume 1.'' Bangalore : Sri Rama Printers</ref>== Principles of Sanatana Dharma =जीवात्मा || Jivatma===In Shruti and Smrti, in Purana and Itihasa, the Self in man is declared to be of the nature of Brahman. The science Jivatma is Brahman, as a seed is to the tree, and remains a wanderer in Samsara till he realizes his true Self. Shvetashvatara Upanishad says thus<blockquote>अङ्गुष्ठमात्रः पुरुषोऽन्तरात्मा सदा जनानां हृदये सन्निविष्टः ।(Shve. Upan. 3.13)<ref>Shvetashvatara Upanishad ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%B6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B5%E0%A5%87%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%B6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%B7%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%8D/%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%83%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%80%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%83_%E0%A4%85%E0%A4%A7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%83 Adhyaya 3])</ref> </blockquote>The measure of ancient Bharatavarsha was contained a thumb, the Purusha, the Inner Self of all, ie ever residing in the heart of men. Embodied in a form ([[Shad Vedangas Upadhi (षड्वेदाङ्गानिउपाधिः)|Shad VedangasUpadhi]]) (casting off the wornout ones), experiencing and evolving through it, reaps his reward in the six angas invisible worlds. Three-fold is his nature - Iccha (Will), Jnana (limbs or partsWisdom) while its philosophy was given by [[Vedanta]] and [[Shad Darshanas Kriya (षड्दर्शनानिAction)|Shad Darshanas]]the laws of which cover the making of Karma for the Jivatma. All philosophies are designed to lead man He goes through the three stages of the evolution of Manas : subjection to the One ScienceKama, and One Wisdomconflict with Kama, which saw One Self as Real triumph over Kama and all else as unrealdevelopment of higher intellectual powers. Unity of all knowledge was the core concept with no distinction between scienceOnce Buddhi or Intellect is evolved, philosophy Avidya disappears and religionhe attains unity with Brahman.<ref name=":0022" /><ref name=":03" />
Thus the first thing we learn here is the Unity of all Selves and this is the foundation of Dharma (word used in the sense of Ethics). ===कर्मसिद्धान्तम् || Karma Siddhanta===Karma literally means action, but every action belongs partly to the past, partly to the present, partly to the future, it has come to mean the sequence of events, the law of causes and effects. So Karma is not simply action, it inseparably includes the consequence of an action also. The following principles Jivatma undergoes it’s own karma, by which each person must experience the results or consequences of his activities and creates his own destiny based on his thought, words and deeds. Hence all things are interlinked together indissolubly, woven, and interwoven inseparably; nothing occurs which is not linked to the ones most accepted by past and to the majority future. As discussed previously, Jivatma is three-fold in nature consisting of people who follow Sanatana-dharmaIccha, Jnana and Kriya (Will, Wisdom and Activity) which are also referenced expressed as Desire, Knowledge and Action in the Vedic texts. Beyond lower world of upadhis, of forms and thesethree fashion a man's Karma, there are various schools of following a definite law. Desire is the key force directing a thought, which have further developments in their own outlook and philosophy, such turn determines an action in man. Brhadaranyakopanishad (also given in Shatapatha Brahmana 14.7.2) aptly summarizes it as follows<blockquote>काममय एवायं पुरुष इति स यथाकामो भवति तत्क्रतुर्भवति यत्क्रतुर्भवति तत्कर्म कुरुते यत्कर्म कुरुते तदभिसम्पद्यते ॥ ५ ॥ (Brha. Upan.4.4.5)</blockquote><blockquote>kāmamaya evāyaṁ puruṣa iti sa yathākāmo bhavati tatkraturbhavati yatkraturbhavati tatkarma kurute yatkarma kurute tadabhisampadyate ॥ 5 ॥</blockquote>''Man verily is desire-formed; as the Shaivitesis his desire, Vaishnavasso is his thought, Shaktasas his thought is, Brahmanandisso he does action, Tantricsas his action is, and so he attains.'' <ref name=":022" /> Shankaracharya comments onthis saying "Desire is the root of the world". These concepts Thus, Karma siddhanta is based on three aspects '''Desires''' (which impel man towards attachment), '''Mind''' (the creative power makes a man's character), '''Actions''' (circumstances are uniquemade by actions). Sri Ramana Maharshi in his Upadesasaram, very clearly explains that Karma is jada (insentient) thus,<blockquote>कर्तुराज्ञया प्राप्यते फलम् । कर्म किं परं कर्म तज्जडम् ॥ १॥</blockquote><blockquote>karturājñayā prāpyatē phalam । karma kiṁ paraṁ karma tajjaḍam ॥ 1॥ (Upad. Sara. 1)</blockquote>Meaning: ''By the command of karta (performer of Karma) the fruit of action is determined. So how is Karma supreme, ancient and distinguish Hinduism among many faithsfor it is inanimate. ''
Karma differs from destiny in that Karma is not a final thing awaiting us, but is a constant becoming, in which future is not just shaped by the past but is also being modified by the present. Karma is said to be of three kinds - Prarabdha, Sanchita, Agami.=== एकम् सत् पुनर्जन्मा || One Supreme Being Punarjanma===With no beginning or end, Man (Jiva the all seed of Brahman) transmigrates in different forms wandering about in all, the unlimited Absolute TruthUniverse, who can expand into many forms is as long as he thinks of himself as different from Ishvara or the Supreme Being. In As long as this regardAvidya continues he wanders in Samsara only attaining moksha from punarjanma (cycle of birth and death) once he realizes his identity with the Paramatma. Shvetashvatara Upanishad summarizes in a single sloka, the RigVeda reason for punarjanma and the means to end it.<blockquote>सर्वाजीवे सर्वसंस्थे बृहन्ते तस्मिन्हंसो भ्राम्यते ब्रह्मचक्रे । पृथगात्मानं प्रेरितारं च मत्वा जुष्टस्ततस्तेनामृतत्वमेति ॥ ६ ॥(Shve. Upan. 1.1646)<ref>Shvetashvatara Upanishad ([https://sa.46wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%B6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B5%E0%A5%87%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%B6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%B7%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%8D/%E0%A4%AA%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%A5%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%83_%E0%A4%85%E0%A4%A7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%83 Adhyaya 1]) says </ref></blockquote><blockquote>एकम् सत् विप्रह् बहुध वदन्ति || ekam sat viprah bahudha vadanti ||sarvājīve sarvasaṁsthe br̥hante tasminhaṁso bhrāmyate brahmacakre । pr̥thagātmānaṁ preritāraṁ ca matvā juṣṭastatastenāmr̥tatvameti ॥ 6 ॥(Shve. Upan. 1.6)</blockquote>Though sages may call Him by different names (such as KrishnaIn the wheel of Brahman, Ramathe immense source and support of all Jivas, Paramatma, etc.the Hamsa (the Individual) there is but one Absolute Truth made to wander, thinking himself and the director (SatyaRuler)different. United with Him, or he attains immortality (Amrtatva)''.''<ref name=":022" />===ज्ञानम् || Jnana===The One Existence knowledge of Vedas, Vedangas, Darshanas all culminate in the Vedanta. All these were summed up together as the Lesser Knowledge (Brahmanoutward and revealed) which , and the Knowledge of the ONE, is source alone considered as supreme and foundation indivisible by virtue of everythingit being an internal experience of Atma. Vedas declare the triple nature of Ishvara Thus states Mundakopanishad<blockquote>द्वे विद्ये वेदितव्ये इति ह स्म यद्ब्रह्मविदो वदन्ति परा चैवापरा च ॥ ४ ॥ तत्रापरा ऋग्वेदो यजुर्वेदः सामवेदोऽथर्ववेदः शिक्षा कल्पो व्याकरणं निरुक्तं छन्दो ज्योतिषमिति । अथ परा यया तदक्षरमधिगम्यते ॥ ५ ॥ (called variously as Brahman, Supreme etcMund. Upan. 1.1.4 and 5) to be Sat-Chit-Ananda <ref>Mundakopanishad (सत्-चित्-आनन्द[https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%A3%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A1%E0%A4%95%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%B7%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%8D Mundaka 1 Khanda 1]) and Satyam-Jnanam-Anantam Brahma सत्यंज्ञानमनन्तं ब्रह्मा </ref> </blockquote><blockquote>dve vidye veditavye iti ha sma yadbrahmavido vadanti parā caivāparā ca ॥ 4 ॥ tatrāparā r̥gvedo yajurvedaḥ sāmavedo'tharvavedaḥ śikṣā kalpo vyākaraṇaṁ niruktaṁ chando jyotiṣamiti । atha parā yayā tadakṣaramadhigamyate ॥ 5 ॥ (Taittriya Upanishad 2Mund. Upan.1.1.4 and 5). He is the form </blockquote>Two kinds of eternal knowledgeare to be known, universal truth thus say the knowers of Brahman - Para (परा Supreme) and blissApara (अपरा foundational). He is supremeApara vidya consists of the four vedas, shiksha, kalpa, full of beautyvyakarana, knowledgenirukta, is all-powerful chandas and all-pervadingjyotisha. He Then there is also known the higher (Para knowledge) by His three main featureswhich is attained that Aksharam or Immutable Brahman.<ref name=": namely '''Brahman'8">Swami Gambhirananda (1937) ''Eight Upanishads, Volume 2 (Aitareya, the all-pervadingMundaka, impersonal spiritual force or effulgence; the Mandukya and Karika and Prasna)'''Paramatma''', the localized expansion known as the Super Consciousness which accompanies every individual soul in the heart Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama</ref>===पुरुषार्थाः ॥ Purusharthas===The ultimate purpose of everyone; human life is to shed all attachments to matter and then '''Bhagavan''', attain moksha (liberation from material existence) and return to the Supreme Personality and form of Godtranscendental realm which is not only our true nature but also our real home. The goal Vedic path offers personal freedom for one to be achieved by every human being make his or her own choice of how he or she wants to pursue their spiritual approach, and Concept what level of God as the ultimate goal are Absolute Truth he or she wishes to understand. This is the foundational aspects height of Indian theosophical viewsspiritual democracy and freedom from tyranny.<ref name=":0" />
=== जीवात्मा || Jivatma ===In Shruti and Smrti#Dharma (धर्मः), in Purana is to develop ourselves morally and Itihasaspiritually#Artha (अर्थः), the Self in man is declared to be of the nature of Brahman. The Jivatma is Brahman, as develop a seed is to the tree, career or trade and remains a wanderer in Samsara till he realizes his true Self. Shvetashvatara Upanishad says thus <blockquote>अङ्गुष्ठमात्रः पुरुषोऽन्तरात्मा सदा जनानां हृदये सन्निविष्टः ।(Shve. Upan. 3.13)<ref>Shvetashvatara Upanishad prosper materially#Kama ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%B6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B5%E0%A5%87%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%B6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%B7%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%8D/%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%83%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%80%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%83_%E0%A4%85%E0%A4%A7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%83 Adhyaya 3]कामः)</ref> </blockquote>The measure of a thumb, the Purusha, the Inner Self is to enjoy and work out our basic material desires as is appropriate for our particular stage of all, ie ever residing in the heart of men. Embodied in a form life#Moksha ([[Upadhi (उपाधिःमोक्षम्)|Upadhi]]) (casting off is to retire from all the wornout ones), experiencing activities and evolving through it, reaps his reward in the invisible worlds. Threefocus on attaining Self-fold is his nature - Iccha (Will), Jnana (Wisdom) realization and Kriya (Action) the laws freedom from any further rounds of which cover the making of Karma for the Jivatma. He goes through the three stages of the evolution of Manas : subjection to Kama, conflict with Kama, triumph over Kama birth and development of higher intellectual powers. Once Buddhi or Intellect is evolved, Avidya disappears and he attains unity with Brahman.<ref name=":0" /><ref>N. S. Ananta Rangacharya (2003) ''Principal Upanishads (Isa, Kena, Katha, Prasna, Mundaka, Mandookya, Taittiriya, Mahanarayana, Svetasvatara) Volume 1death in material existence.'' Bangalore : Sri Rama Printers</ref>
=== कर्मसिद्धान्तम् || Karma Siddhanta ===Karma literally means action, but every action belongs partly to Here we elaborate on the past, partly to the present, partly to two boundaries of the futurebook called Life, it has come to mean the sequence of events, the law of causes namely Dharma and effects. So Karma is not simply action, it inseparably includes the consequence of an action alsoMoksha. The Jivatma undergoes it’s own karma, by which each person must experience the results or consequences of his activities and creates his own destiny based on his thought, words and deeds. Hence all things are interlinked together indissolubly, woven, and interwoven inseparably; nothing occurs which is not linked to the past and to the future. As discussed previously, Jivatma is three-fold in nature consisting of Iccha, Jnana and Kriya (Will, Wisdom intermediary two namely Artha and Activity) which Kama are expressed as Desire, Knowledge and Action in the lower world of upadhis, of forms and these three fashion a man's Karma, following a definite law. Desire is the key force directing a thought, which in turn determines an action in man. Brhadaranyakopanishad (also given in Shatapatha Brahmana 14.7.2) aptly summarizes it as follows <blockquote> काममय एवायं पुरुष इति स यथाकामो भवति तत्क्रतुर्भवति यत्क्रतुर्भवति तत्कर्म कुरुते यत्कर्म कुरुते तदभिसम्पद्यते ॥ ५ ॥ (Brha. Upan.4.4.5)</blockquote> <blockquote> kāmamaya evāyaṁ puruṣa iti sa yathākāmo bhavati tatkraturbhavati yatkraturbhavati tatkarma kurute yatkarma kurute tadabhisampadyate ॥ 5 ॥ </blockquote>''Man verily is desire-formed; as is his desire,so is his thought, as his thought is, so he does action, as his action is, so he attains.'' <ref name=":0" /> Shankaracharya comments on this saying "Desire is the root of the world". Thus, Karma siddhanta is based on three aspects '''Desires''' (which impel man towards attachment), '''Mind''' (Dharma thus forming Trivarga governing the creative power makes a man's character), '''Actions''' (circumstances are made by actions). Karma differs from destiny in that Karma is not a final thing awaiting us, but is a constant becoming, in which future is not just shaped by the past but is also being modified by the present. Karma is said to be of three kinds - Prarabdha, Sanchita, Agamicodes for worldly existence.
=== पुनर्जन्मा || Punarjanma =धर्मः॥ Dharma====Man (Jiva Purusharthas define our lifestyle by influencing our thought processes directly, establishing the seed code of Brahman) transmigrates in different forms wandering about in conduct through Dharma, the Universe, as long as he thinks first of himself as different from Ishvara or the SupremePurusharthas. As long The system of morality so inculcated by the Sanatana Dharma is authoritative as this Avidya continues he wanders in Samsara only attaining moksha from punarjanma it is developed based on Reason (cycle of birth and deathChit) once he realizes his identity with the Paramatma. Shvetashvatara Upanishad summarizes in a single sloka, on the reason for punarjanma Divine Wisdom primarily and on the means to end it. <blockquote> सर्वाजीवे सर्वसंस्थे बृहन्ते तस्मिन्हंसो भ्राम्यते ब्रह्मचक्रे । पृथगात्मानं प्रेरितारं च मत्वा जुष्टस्ततस्तेनामृतत्वमेति ॥ ६ ॥(Shve. Upan. 1.6)<ref>Shvetashvatara Upanishad illuminated Human Reason ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%B6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B5%E0%A5%87%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%B6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%B7%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%8D/%E0%A4%AA%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%A5%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%83_%E0%A4%85%E0%A4%A7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%83 Adhyaya 1]Buddhi)</ref></blockquote><blockquote>sarvājīve sarvasaṁsthe br̥hante tasminhaṁso bhrāmyate brahmacakre । pr̥thagātmānaṁ preritāraṁ ca matvā juṣṭastatastenāmr̥tatvameti ॥ 6 ॥(Shve. Upan. 1secondarily.6)</blockquote>In the wheel of Brahman, the immense source and support The object of morality is bring about happiness by establishing harmonious relations between all Jivas, the Hamsa (Jivatmas. Thus the Individual) standard of Ethics or Dharma is made in other words to unite not to wander, thinking himself and the director (Ruler) different. United with Him, he attains immortality (Amrtatva)''divide.''<ref name=":0" />
=== ज्ञानम् || Jnana ===The knowledge of Vedas, Vedangas, Darshanas all culminate in the Vedanta. All these were summed up together as the Lesser Knowledge (outward and revealed), and the Knowledge of Ethical teachings have therefore reference to the ONE, is alone considered as supreme and indivisible by virtue of it being an internal experience lower sheaths of Atma. Thus states Mundakopanishad <blockquote>द्वे विद्ये वेदितव्ये इति ह स्म यद्ब्रह्मविदो वदन्ति परा चैवापरा च ॥ ४ ॥ तत्रापरा ऋग्वेदो यजुर्वेदः सामवेदोऽथर्ववेदः शिक्षा कल्पो व्याकरणं निरुक्तं छन्दो ज्योतिषमिति । अथ परा यया तदक्षरमधिगम्यते ॥ ५ ॥ (Mund. Upan. 1.1.4 and 5)<ref>Mundakopanishad ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%A3%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A1%E0%A4%95%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%B7%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%8D Mundaka 1 Khanda 1])</ref> </blockquote><blockquote>dve vidye veditavye iti ha sma yadbrahmavido vadanti parā caivāparā ca ॥ 4 ॥ tatrāparā r̥gvedo yajurvedaḥ sāmavedoa man'tharvavedaḥ śikṣā kalpo vyākaraṇaṁ niruktaṁ chando jyotiṣamiti । atha parā yayā tadakṣaramadhigamyate ॥ 5 ॥ (Mund. Upan. 1.1.4 s body and 5)</blockquote>Two kinds of knowledge are to be known, thus say the knowers of Brahman - Para (परा Supreme) and Apara (अपरा foundational). Apara vidya consists of the four vedas, shiksha, kalpa, vyakarana, nirukta, chandas and jyotisha. The Paravidya, whereby that Eternal is reached. Knowledge of the Brahman (Jnana) is attained by experiencing the Self or Atma which is possible by the removal of Avidya, the root cause of karmic cycle different classes of rebirthbeings who form his surroundings.
==== मोक्षम् || Moksha ====Along The development of the road - NivrttamargaChit aspect of the Jivatma, or purification of the Iccha aspect being the main work of the returning pathhuman stage of evolution, the growth of Manas and later of Buddhi marks the journey of the Jivatma towards the gathering of experience. In this stage, Jivatma returns from his wanderings in experiences varied sensations of the outer world, through the Samsara Manas receives and ultimately reaches organizes the destinationimpressions conveyed by the senses. Manas being a slave of Kama, searches for the objects of enjoyment. Soon the EternalJivatma realises that there is a conflict between the Manas and Kama, all that the while paying pleasures longed for by Kama are not always pleasurable. Thwarting objects of pleasure sought by Kama, Manas diverts Iccha (Will) towards discrimination seeking the debts he incurred in inner Self and not the Pravrittamargasense-born images. To see This leads to the Self is Jnana, wisdom; evolution of Buddhi or intellect and Jivatma endeavors to love understand the Self and Non-Self. Realization that the cycle of birth and death is Bhakti, devotion; due to serve the Self is Kriyahis own desires, action. Based on his nature brings the Jivatma, chooses his path to Mokshathe threshold of liberation. Thus evolved the three fold path to Moksha : <blockquote>भक्तिमार्गः नाविरतो दुश्चरितान्नाशान्तो नासमाहितः । नाशान्तमानसो वाऽपि प्रज्ञानेनैनमाप्नुयात् ॥ २४ Bhaktimarga is for those in whom Iccha (इच्छाKath. Upan. 1.2.24) predominates<ref name=":1">Kathopanishad ([https://sa.wikisource. org/wiki/%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%A0%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%B7%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%8D/%E0%A4%AA%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%A5%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%A7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%83/%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%80%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%B2%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B2%E0%A5%80 Adhyaya 1 Valli 2])</ref></blockquote> <blockquote>ज्ञानमार्गः nāviratō duścaritānnāśāntō nāsamāhitaḥ । nāśāntamānasō vā'pi prajñānēnainamāpnuyāt ॥ 24 Jnanamarga is for in those in whom Chit (चित्Kath. Upan. 1.2.24) predominates</blockquote><blockquote>यदा सर्वे प्रमुच्यन्ते कामा येऽस्य हृदि श्रिताः । अथ मर्त्योऽमृतो भवत्यत्र ब्रह्म समश्नुते ॥ १४ ॥ (Kath. Upan. 1.2.14)<ref name=":1" /></blockquote> <blockquote>कर्ममार्गः yadā sarvē pramucyantē kāmā yē'sya hr̥di śritāḥ । atha martyō'mr̥tō bhavatyatra brahma samaśnutē ॥ 14 Karmamarga is for those in whom Kriya (क्रियाKath. Upan. 1.2.14) predominates.</blockquote> All Meaning : When all the three margas, desires hiding in fact, his heart are oneloosened, in which emphasis is laid on one of then the three inseparable temperaments. Yoga amply supplies a sadhaka the tools by which the Self can be seen, loved and served. Mukti involves not an alteration of the circumstances surrounding the Jivatma, but the attitude of the Jivatma towards the Self and Non-Selfmortal becomes immortal ; here he enjoys Brahman.<ref name=":003" />
=== वेदप्रमाणत्वम् ॥ The Authority of Vedas ===Texts like Bhagavadgita which have been given or spoken by Sri KrishnaAccording to Brhdaranyaka Upanishad, Jivatma having become tranquil, wise, subdued, considered as a Supreme Beingdispassionate, enduring and others composed by sages collected, he sees the Self in their deepest super conscious state Self, in which they were able to give revelations of Universal Truths while all, overcomes all papa, free from passion he comes a Brahman in meditation, on the Supreme form, all-pervading the spiritual core of Sanatana DharmaBrahmaloka. This [[Bharatiya Samskrtika Parampara <blockquote>स वा एष महानज आत्माऽजरोऽमरोऽमृतोऽभयो ब्रह्माभयं वै ब्रह्माभय हि वै ब्रह्म भवति य एवं वेद ॥ २५ ॥ (भारतीयसांस्कृतिकपरम्पराBrhd. Upan. 4.4.25)|Bharatiya Samskrtika Parampara<ref>Brhdaranyaka Upanishad ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AC%E0%A5%83%E0%A4%B9%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%A3%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%95_%E0%A4%89%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%B7%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%8D_4p Adhyaya 4 Brahmana 4]] or Vedic literature)</ref></blockquote>So long as the mind is turned towards senses it finds misery, when it turns to understanding the Self, it finds Bliss. Such a man is termed Mukta, along with other texts like Agamas and the practices congruent state Moksha, who has reached the stage of liberation, with themthe Jnana of Self, form free from the basis cycle of births and deaths, and may or may not be surrounded by the Sanatana-dharmaphysical conditions.<ref name=":022" />
=== गुरुशिष्यपरम्परा ॥ Guru-Shishya Parampara =Sanatana Dharma Vyavastha==In The previous section is a brief summary of the heart of siddhantas (theories) or mental processes on which Sanatana Dharma lies is based on. The present section deals with the tradition of handing down course of knowledge from preceptor action to be taken, the student. Teaching not only system of Karma (activities) that leads one on the shastras a Guru lays the seed path of all moral and spiritual education at a young impressionable age thereby leading Dharma, establishes him on the path Prvritti marga of Jnana taking him to his goal of [[Nihshreyasa (निःश्रेयसम्)|Nihshreyasa]] and Moksha. ===वेदप्रमाणत्वम् ॥ The Authority of Vedas===Texts like Bhagavadgita which have been given or spoken by Sri Krishna, considered as a dharmik life. All can receive proper instruction Supreme Being, and others composed by seers in their deepest super conscious state in which they were able to give revelations of Universal Truths while in meditation, on how to follow the teachings Supreme Being, form the spiritual core of Sanatana Dharma. This [[Bharatiya Samskrtika Parampara (भारतीयसांस्कृतिकपरम्परा)|Bharatiya Samskrtika Parampara]] or Vedic literature, along with other texts like Agamas and the Vedic philosophy from a Guru who is in line practices congruent with a genuine paramparathem, or line form the basis of gurusthe Sanatana dharma. This was The Astika darshanas include the [[Shad Darshanas (षड्दर्शनानि)|Shad Darshanas]] which accept the authority of Vedas form the one tradition different theological bases of explaining about Atma, Brahman, Avidya, and Moksha which upheld are exclusive features of Sanatana Dharma.===यज्ञाः ॥ Yajnas===Shrutis declare it, Smrtis inculcate it and the society till date Shad Vedangas circle around the concept while Dharmashastras show by practice that the worlds are built and maintained by [[Yajna (यज्ञः)|Yajnas]]. Sanatana Dharma has incorporated and maintains that the yajnas pervade the whole life of man. That Srishti (Creation) began with Yajna is given by the following mantras of Brhdarnayakopanishad<blockquote>उषा वा अश्वस्य मेध्यस्य शिरः । uṣā vā aśvasya medhyasya śiraḥ । (Brhd. Upan. 1.1.1)</blockquote>Meaning : The dawn verily is the head of the yajna horse. Here the preserved dawn is explained as the continuity beginning of Vedas when no written the day of Brahma, the day of creation.
The Shatapatha Brahmana, the Purusha sukta, Chandogya and other Upanishads, Manusmrti and Bhagavad Gita contain references of importance of Yajna in srishti. One of the fundamental concepts has been that of the ''''ऋृणम् (debts)''' owed by a person to the seers, devatas, pitrs, bhutas (manushya and other beings), which he paid off by Svadhyaya, by Yajnas, by having progeny, and by charity respectively. Yajnas also taught to see that man is a part of a great whole and related to all around him; and that as his own life was maintained by the sacrifice of other lives, so he must repay that debt by sacrificing to the Devatas in the fire and to men by charitable gifts as laid down in [[Panchamahayajnas (पञ्चमहायज्ञाः)|Panchamahayajnas]].<ref name=":022" /><ref name=":0" />===संस्काराः ॥ Samskaras===All rites and ceremonies ordained by the seers and ancient preceptors are based on the the concepts given as above such as about Atman, Jivatma, Moksha etc and those who understand these can clearly see the reason for the presence of injunctions and prohibitions along with the prayaschittas found in Vaidika Dharma.<ref name=":022" /> Thus Samskaras are a complex combination of various elements expressing belief, sentiments and knowledge of the ancient seers about the nature of human life and the interrelationship with the Universe. Almost all samskaras, the domestic rites, involve kindling of Agni (Fire) as a primary constituent.<ref>Pandey, Rajbali. (2002 Reprint) ''Hindu Samskaras : Socio-Religious Study of the Hindu Sacraments.'' Delhi : Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.</ref>=== धार्मिकजीवनविधानम् गुरुशिष्यपरम्परा Dharmik Jeevanavidhana Guru-Shishya Parampara===Leading In the heart of Sanatana Dharma lies the tradition of handing down of knowledge from preceptor to the student. Teaching not only the shastras a [[Dharmik Lifestyle Guru (धार्मिकजीवनविधानम्गुरुः)|Dharmik lifestyleGuru]] includes adherence to principles lays the seed of Dharma as laid down in Shrutis and Smrtis. Vedas proclaim that society and nature sustains one and all hence our duties towards them are more important not the individual. Rishis placed morals moral and ethics in spiritual education at a young impressionable age thereby leading him on the forefront and daily activities path of a dharmik life were based . All can receive proper instruction on them rather than for individual gains how to follow the teachings of the Vedic philosophy from a Guru who is in line with a genuine parampara, or sense gratificationline of gurus. Following Rta (ऋत) or highest natural order This was the one tradition which upheld the society till date and the preserved the continuity of prime importance and jeevana vidhana Vedas when script was aligned to that principlenot developed.
=== देवताराधना ॥ Devataradhana ===The presence of vast host of Devatas does not obscure Teachableness and obedience to the Unity of Brahman (Ishvara)teacher are insisted on, in and many rules were given intended to impresss on the student the duty he owned to his triple form as Brahmapreceptor. A student was to be ever serviceable and careful not to offend, Vishnu and Shiva than does regarding the vast hosts of men, animals, plants and minerals. As said guru as his father in the Shruti <blockquote>इन्द्रं मित्रं वरुणमग्निमाहु॒रथो दिव्यः स सुपर्णो गरुत्मान् । एकं सद् विप्रा बहुधा वदन्त्यग्निं यमं मातरिश्वानमाहुः ॥४६॥ (Righighest sense. Veda. 1.164.46)</blockquote> <blockquote> indraṁ mitraṁ varuṇamagnimāhu̱ratho divyaḥ sa suparṇo garutmān । ekaṁ sad viprā bahudhā vadantyagniṁ yamaṁ mātariśvānamāhuḥ ॥46॥ </blockquote> Meaning : Indra, Mitra, Varuna, Agni they call Him, and The position of the golden feathered Garutman. Of what Guru is One, sages speak defined and elevated as manifold, they call Him Agni, Yama, Matarishva. So also in the Smrti given below by Manu<blockquote>आत्मैव देवताः सर्वाः सर्वं आत्मन्यवस्थितम् । ātmaiva devatāḥ sarvāḥ sarvaṁ ātmanyavasthitam उत्पादकब्रह्मदात्रोर्गरीयान्ब्रह्मदः पिता ब्रह्मजन्म हि विप्रस्य प्रेत्य चेह च शाश्वतम् ॥ २.१४६ ॥ (Manu. Smrt. 122.119146)<ref>Manusmriti ([httpsname=":2" //sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%A8%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%83%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%83/%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%B6%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%A7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%83 Adhyaya 12])></refblockquote></blockquote> ''All the devatas are indeed the Self, all rests on the Selfutpādakabrahmadātrōrgarīyānbrahmadaḥ pitā । brahmajanma hi viprasya prētya cēha ca śāśvatam ॥ 2.'' 146 ॥<ref name=":0" /blockquote> '''Yajna''' Meaning : Shrutis declare it, Smrtis inculcate it and the Shad Vedangas circle around the concept while Dharmashastras show by practice that Of the worlds are built progenitor and maintained by Yajnas. Sanatana Dharma has incorporated and maintains that the yajnas pervade giver of the whole life knowledge of man. That Srishti (Creation) began with Yajna is given by Brahman, the following mantras giver of Brhdarnayakopanishad <blockquote> उषा वा अश्वस्य मेध्यस्य शिरः । uṣā vā aśvasya medhyasya śiraḥ । (Brhd. Upan. 1.1.1)</blockquote> ''The dawn verily Knowledge of Brahman is the head of more venerable garther; for the sacrificial horse. Here the dawn is explained as the beginning birth of the day of Brahma, Brahman in the day of creation.'' The Shatapatha Brahmana, the Purusha sukta, Manusmrti also contain references of importance of Yajna in srishtiis verily eternal both here and after death.<ref name=":0022" /> <ref>Manusmrti English Translation ([https://archive.org/details/ManuSmriti_201601/page/n26 Page 26])</ref>
=== पुरुषार्थाः Only to a dutiful pupil was the knowledge given :<blockquote>यथा खनन्खनित्रेण नरो वार्यधिगच्छति । तथा गुरुगतां विद्यां शुश्रूषुरधिगच्छति Purusharthas ===The ultimate purpose of human life is to shed all attachments to matter and attain moksha २.२१८॥ (liberation from material existence) and return to the transcendental realm which is not only our true nature but also our real homeManu. The Vedic path offers personal freedom for one to make his or her own choice of how he or she wants to pursue their spiritual approach, and what level of the Absolute Truth he or she wishes to understandSmrt. This is the height of spiritual democracy and freedom from tyranny2. # '''Dharma''', which is to develop ourselves morally and spiritually; # then '''Artha''', which is to develop 218)<ref name=":2" /></blockquote>Meaning : As a man by digging with a career or trade and prosper materially; # then '''Kama'''spade obtains water, to enjoy and work out our basic material desires as is appropriate for our particular stage of life; # and then retire from all that and focus on '''Moksha''' or attaining Self-realization and freedom from any further rounds of birth and death so also he who does service obtains the wisdom enshrined in material existencehis guru.<ref name=":022" />
===देवताराधना ॥ Devataradhana===The presence of vast host of Devatas does not obscure the Unity of Brahman (Ishvara), in his triple form as Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva than does the vast hosts of men, animals, plants and minerals which are held sacred and prayed to since ages. As said in the Shruti<blockquote>इन्द्रं मित्रं वरुणमग्निमाहु॒रथो दिव्यः स सुपर्णो गरुत्मान् । एकं सद् विप्रा बहुधा वदन्त्यग्निं यमं मातरिश्वानमाहुः ॥४६॥ (Rig. Veda. 1.164.46)</blockquote><blockquote>indraṁ mitraṁ varuṇamagnimāhu̱ratho divyaḥ sa suparṇo garutmān । ekaṁ sad viprā bahudhā vadantyagniṁ yamaṁ mātariśvānamāhuḥ ॥46॥</blockquote>Meaning : [[Indra (इन्द्रः)|Indra]], Mitra, Varuna, [[Agni (अग्निः)|Agni]] they call Him, and the golden feathered Garutman. Of what is One, seers speak as manifold, they call Him Agni, [[Yama (यमः)|Yama]], Matarishva.So also in the Manusmrti it is explained<blockquote>आत्मैव देवताः सर्वाः सर्वं आत्मन्यवस्थितम् । ātmaiva devatāḥ sarvāḥ sarvaṁ ātmanyavasthitam । (Manu. Smrt. 12.119)<ref>Manusmriti ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%A8%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%83%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%83/%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%B6%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%A7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%83 Adhyaya 12])</ref></blockquote>All the devatas are indeed the Self, all rests on the Self. <ref name=":022" />=== आश्रमाः ॥ The Four Ashramas ===In our life there are four main goals, as indicated by the four ashramas of life,  # ब्रह्मचर्य |[[Brahmacharyashrama (ब्रह्मचर्याश्रमः)| brahmacharya Brahmacharya]] (ब्रह्मचर्यम् । the student’s life), # गृहस्थ [[Grhasthashrama (गृहस्थाश्रमः)|| grihastha Grhastha]] (गृहस्थः) or the householder stage of life, # वानप्रस्थ || vanaprastha Vanaprastha (वानप्रस्थः) or retired stage of life in which we take our spiritual goals more seriously, # सन्यास || sanyasa Sanyasa (सन्यासः) or renunciation stage of life in which our spiritual purpose is the main focus.  ===वर्णाः ॥ The Four Varnas=== Ten general rules Varna is a conceptual framework that aims to provide a conceptual basis for building a social order that promotes harmony and overall wellbeing of moral conduct everyone.<ref name=":22">Nithin Sridhar, [http://indiafacts.org/varna-vyavastha-as-a-conceptual-social-order-that-facilitates-self-actualization/ Varṇa vyavastha as a conceptual social order that facilitates self-actualization], indiafacts.org</ref> There are four varnas, namely #Brahmana#Kshatriya#Vaishya#Shudra The purpose of varnas was to organize the Vedic path society.  ===धार्मिकजीवनविधानम् ॥ Dharmik Jeevanavidhana===Of Leading a [[Dharmika Jivana Vidhana (धार्मिकजीवनविधानम्)|Dharmika Jivana Vidhana]] includes adherence to principles of Dharma as laid down in Shrutis and Smrtis. Vedas proclaim that society and nature sustains one and all hence our duties towards them are more important not the individual. Rishis placed morals and ethics in the forefront and daily activities of life were based on them rather than for individual gains or sense gratification. Following Rta (ऋत) or highest natural order was of prime importance and jeevana vidhana was aligned to that principle.==Dharmika Vyavahara==Yoga shashtra of Pantanjali lays down ten rules of moral conduct , five of which are observances for positive traits and self-restraint to attain inner mental purity (Yamas) & the . The other five are rules for lifestyle changes for discipline and external purification (niyamasNiyamas). These rules are for regulating one's behavior to avoid suffering and pain leading to the foundation of spiritual life. The path to discipline, control of the senses and mind, and discrimination between right and wrong is given by the Yoga darshana, to be practiced in everyday life by a spiritual aspirant.<blockquote>अहिंसासत्यास्तेयब्रह्मचर्यापरिग्रहा यमाः ॥३०॥ शौचसंतोषतपःस्वाध्यायेश्वरप्रणिधानानि नियमाः ॥३२॥(Yoga. Dars. 2.30 and 32)<ref name=":12">Yoga Darshana by Patanjali ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%9E%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%9C%E0%A4%B2%E0%A4%AF%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%97%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B6%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8D_-_%E0%A4%B5%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%B8%E0%A4%AD%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%B7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%B8%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%87%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8D/%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%83_%E0%A5%A8 Pada 2])</ref></blockquote><blockquote>ahiṁsāsatyāstēyabrahmacaryāparigrahā yamāḥ ॥30॥ śaucasaṁtōṣatapaḥsvādhyāyēśvarapraṇidhānāni niyamāḥ ॥32॥</blockquote>'''Yamas (for inner purity)''' #अहिंसा || Ahimsa or non-injury to others and treating all beings with respect#सत्यम् || Satya or truthfulness#अस्तेयम् || Asteya or no cheating or stealing#ब्रह्मचर्यम् || Brahmacharya or celibacy#अपरिग्रहः || Aparighara or no unnecessarily selfish accumulation of resources for one’s own purpose
'''Yamas (for inner purity)'''
# सत्यम् ''||'' Satya or truthfulness,
# अहिंसा ''||'' Ahimsa or non-injury to others and treating all beings with respect,
# अस्तेयम् ''||'' Asteya or no cheating or stealing,
# ब्रह्मचर्यम् ''||'' Brahmacharya or celibacy,
# अपरिग्रहः || Aparighara or no unnecessarily selfish accumulation of resources for one’s own purpose.
'''Niyamas (for external purification)'''
# शौच || Shaucha or cleanliness and purity of mind and body,
# तपस || Tapas or austerity and perseverance,
# स्वाध्याय || Swadhyaya or study of the Vedas and self-analysis,
# संतोष || Santosh or contentment,
# ईश्वर प्रणिधान || Ishwara-pranidhana, or acceptance of the Supreme.
== Dharma Lakshanam ==
# Dhriti (firmness or fortitude),
# Kshama (forgiveness),
# Dama (self-control),
# Asteya (refraining from stealing or dishonesty),
# Shauch (purity),
# Indriya nigraha (control over the senses),
# Dhih (intellect),
# Vidya (knowledge),
# Satyam (truth)
# Akrodhah (absence of anger).
These principles are part of the eternal, universal truths that apply equally to all living entities who can use them for progress '''regardless of class, caste, nationality, gender, or any other temporary qualifications.''' These basic principles, as we can see, are not so difficult to understand and are the basis of the Vedic spiritual life.
== Paths in Sanatana Dharma ==
# '''Karma yoga''', which is the path of right action, detachment from the fruits of one’s labor, and dedicating our activities for a higher and spiritual purpose, especially to Bhagavan. This is not merely to acquire good karma, but to become free from it altogether to attain moksha.
# '''Jnana yoga''' (pronounced gyana), the path of intellectual development and understanding of what is real and what is not. On a deeper level, jnana yoga is the process of discriminating between truth and non-truth, or reality and illusion (maya), and understanding what is the Divine. This is the knowledge of the soul and Bhagavan, and the relationship between them. Therefore, the acquirement of jnana or spiritual knowledge is one of the first steps in spiritual development.
# '''Bhakti yoga''' is the final form of spiritual realization and attainment of the spiritual world. It is the process of simply developing loving devotional service to the Bhagavan. It is by far the easiest of all the yoga processes and has fewer requirements for the practitioners than any other process. Bhakti is the yoga that begins, continues, and ends with love and devotion to the Supreme. There is no stronger binding mechanism than love, and spiritual love is the natural sentiment that emanates from Bhagavan and connects all living beings. Thus, it is said that attaining this sentiment of devotion to Bhagavan holds the sum and substance of all other yoga processes and religions. It is the strength of this connection that can deliver one to the spiritual realm or Bhagavan’s domain.
== Some important points of Sanatana Dharma ==
* A formal process of conversion to Sanatana-dharma is not necessary because the principles, as outlined above, can be practiced by anyone at any time, or to any degree one wishes.
* Anyone can be on the path of Sanatana-dharma merely by adopting this way of life.
* It is not an institution that you need to join that makes you a follower.
* It is the acceptance of it in your heart and the practices that you adopt.
* However, you can approach a guru of your choice who inspires you and can guide you and then ask for diksha, or initiation, by which you may then accept a formal ritual as a qualified follower of the Vedic path in the school of thought or parampara that your guru represents. Then you may receive a spiritual name, indicating your dedication and change of spiritual orientation, or even further take an initiation as a priest or brahmana.
#शौच || Shaucha or cleanliness and purity of mind and body#संतोषः || Santosh or contentment to cut the roots of desires#तपस् || Tapas or austerity and perseverance (ability to bear the 'pairs' - hot and cold etc)#स्वाध्यायम् || Swadhyaya or study of the shastras for attaining Moksha (or Pranava japa) and self-analysis#ईश्वरप्रणिधानम् || Ishwara-pranidhana or self surrender to the Supreme (sarvakarmarpana)<ref name=":12" /> ===आत्मगुणाः ॥ Atmagunas===By following the practice path laid down in Yoga darshana man achieves certain qualities of the Self. Gautama Dharmasutras describe these eight virtues of the Self, to be cultivated at will by everyone, as follows (Page 1648 of Reference <ref name=":0" />).<blockquote>दया सर्वभूतेषु क्षान्तिर् अनसूया शौचम् अनायासोमङ्गलम् अकार्पण्यम् अस्पृहेति ॥ (Gaut. Dhar. 1.8.23)</blockquote><blockquote>dayā sarvabhūtēṣu kṣāntir anasūyā śaucam anāyāsōmaṅgalam akārpaṇyam aspr̥hēti ॥ (Gaut. Dhar. 1.8.23)</blockquote>Dayā (दया । Compassion towards all creatures), kṣānti (क्षान्ति। forbearance) anasūyā (अनसूया। devoid of ill-will or envy ) śaucam (शौचम्। purity (external and internal)) anāyāsaḥ (अनायासः । avoiding pain even to oneself ) maṅgalam (मङ्गलम् । auspiciousness) akārpaṇyam (अकार्पण्यम् । freedom from self-pity or weakness) aspr̥heti (अस्पृहः। free from covetousness) are the qualities of the Atman.===धर्मलक्षणम्‌ || Dharma Lakshanas===With conscious practice of yoga, purity of mind and body, atman gets purified by which Atmagunas are manifested. Such a person automatically aligns with Rta and follows Dharma. Manusmrti lays down the following four lakshanas of Dharma. Following the Vedas, Smrtis, Sadachara (सदाचारः), one's inner consciousness are the four lakshanas defined in a simplified form.<ref name=":022" /> <blockquote>वेदः स्मृतिः सदाचारः स्वस्य च प्रियमात्मनः । एतच्चतुर्विधं प्राहुः साक्षाद् धर्मस्य लक्षणम् || (Manu. Smrt. 2.12)</blockquote><blockquote>vedaḥ smr̥tiḥ sadācāraḥ svasya ca priyamātmanaḥ । etaccaturvidhaṁ prāhuḥ sākṣād dharmasya lakṣaṇam || (Manu. Smrt. 2.12)</blockquote>Additionally Manu lays down the following ten lakshanas<blockquote>धृति: क्षमा दमोऽस्‍तेयं शौचमिन्‍द्रियनिग्रह:। धीर्विद्या सत्‍यमक्रोधो दशकं धर्मलक्षणम्‌ || (Manu. Smrt. 6.92)</blockquote><blockquote>dhr̥ti: kṣamā damō's‍tēyaṁ śaucamin‍driyanigraha:। dhīrvidyā sat‍yamakrōdhō daśakaṁ dharmalakṣaṇam‌ || (Manu. Smrt. 6.92)</blockquote> #Dhrti (धृति: । firmness or fortitude)#Kshama (क्षमा । forgiveness)#Dama (दमः । self-control)#Asteya (अस्‍तेयम् । refraining from stealing or dishonesty)#Shaucha (शौचम् । purity both external and internal)#Indriya nigraha (इन्‍द्रियनिग्रह: । control over the indriyas or worldly senses)#Dhih (धीः । intellectual power, knowledge of Shastras)#[[Vidya (विद्या)|Vidya]] (विद्या । knowledge of Self)#Satyam (सत्‍यम् । truthfulness)#Akrodhah (अक्रोधः । absence of anger) Yajnavalkya Smrti recounts the above qualities as the means to be on the Dharmika path, similar to those given in Manusmrti, with slight differences. :अहिंसा सत्‍यमस्‍तेयं शौचमिन्‍द्रियनिग्रह:। दानं दमो दया शान्‍ति: सर्वेषां धर्मसाधनम्‌ || (Yajn. Smrt. 1.122)<ref>Yajnavalkya Smrti ([https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%9C%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%9E%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%B2%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%95%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%83%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%83/%E0%A4%86%E0%A4%9A%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%83/%E0%A4%97%E0%A5%83%E0%A4%B9%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A5%E0%A4%A7%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%AA%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%A3%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8D Adhyaya 1 Grhasthadharma Prakarana])</ref>:ahiṁsā sat‍yamas‍tēyaṁ śaucamin‍driyanigraha:। dānaṁ damō dayā śān‍ti: sarvēṣāṁ dharmasādhanam‌ || According to Yajnavalkya, Ahimsa (not hurting other creatures by thought, word or deed) and Dana (charity) are also the means to attain Dharma apart from the other qualities. ===परो धर्मः || Paradharmas===Bhagavata Purana (7.11.8-12) describes the 30 Para Dharmas (highest dharmas of mankind) that everyone should have<ref>Poddar, Hanuman Prasad (1986) ''Manav Dharma''. Gorakhpur : Gita Press</ref><blockquote>सत्यं दया तपः शौचं तितिक्षेक्षा शमो दमः । अहिंसा ब्रह्मचर्यं च त्यागः स्वाध्याय आर्जवम् ॥ ८ ॥</blockquote><blockquote>सन्तोषः समदृक् सेवा ग्राम्येहोपरमः शनैः । नृणां विपर्ययेहेक्षा मौनं आत्मविमर्शनम् ॥ ९ ॥</blockquote><blockquote>अन्नाद्यादेः संविभागो भूतेभ्यश्च यथार्हतः । तेष्वात्मदेवताबुद्धिः सुतरां नृषु पाण्डव ॥ १० ॥</blockquote><blockquote>श्रवणं कीर्तनं चास्य स्मरणं महतां गतेः । सेवेज्यावनतिर्दास्यं सख्यमात्म समर्पणम् ॥ ११ ॥</blockquote><blockquote>नृणामयं परो धर्मः सर्वेषां समुदाहृतः । त्रिंशत् लक्षणवान् राजन् सर्वात्मा येन तुष्यति ॥ १२ ॥</blockquote>{{columns-list|colwidth=12em|style=width: 800px; font-style: normal;|# Truthfulness (सत्यम्) # Compassion (दया)# Asceticism (तपः)# Purity (शौचम्)# Endurance (तितिक्षा)# Discriminatory power (इक्षा)# Control of mind (शमः)# Control of senses (दमः)# Nonviolence (अहिंसा)# Celibacy (ब्रह्मचर्यम्)# Selflessness (त्यागः)# Study of Vedas (स्वाध्यायः)# Unity of word, action and deeds(आर्जवम्)# Contentment (सन्तोषः)# Service with equality (समदृक् सेवा)# Withdrawing from Pravritti (ग्राम्येहोपरमः) # Observing fruitlessness of human actions (नृणां विपर्ययेहेक्षा)# Refraining from useless conversations (मौनं)# Self Introspection (आत्मविमर्शनम्)# Equitable distribution of food etc to needy (अन्नाद्यादेः संविभागो भूतेभ्यश्च यथार्हतः)# Knowledge of Self and Deities in all beings (भूतेभ्यः आत्मदेवताबुद्धिः)# Hearing (the stories and qualities of Srihari)(श्रवणम्)# Constant chanting (of the name of Srihari)(कीर्तनम्)# Contemplation on Supreme (स्मरणम्)# Service (सेवा)# Performing dharmik duties (इज्या)# Bowing to (अवनतिः) # Rendering service to (दस्यं)# Behaving as his friend (सख्यम्)# Dedication of oneself to Srihari (आत्म समर्पणम्)}} These principles are part of the eternal, universal truths that apply equally to all living entities who can use them for progress regardless of class, caste, nationality, gender, or any other temporary qualifications. These basic tenets, as we can see, are not so difficult to understand and are the basis of the Vedic spiritual life.==Margas in Sanatana Dharma==Many texts describe the two primary paths adopted by the Jivatma; one outgoing and worldly where the Jivatma gathers the experience of samsara through the [[Pravrtti (प्रवृत्तिः)|Pravrtti]] Marga and the second being [[Nivrtti (निवृत्तिः)|Nivrtti]] Marga the inward or the returning path, where the Jivatma explores internally for the Self, the Eternal. It should be noted here that whatever be the siddhantas or thought ways (the three main being Advaita, Dvaita or Vishisthaadvaita) the goal of all philosophical pathways is to attain or be in union with the Eternal, Supreme Brahman.<ref name=":022" /> Many Sampradayas have evolved over time however, their common goal has been to achieve union with the Brahman. The constitution of the the human being is clearly outlined in the Shantiparva of Mahabharata (मोक्षधर्मपर्व Adhyaya 202) Along the road - Nivrttimarga, or the returning path, the Jivatma returns from his wanderings in the Samsara and ultimately reaches the destination, the Eternal, all the while paying for the debts he incurred in the Pravrttimarga. To see the Self is Jnana, wisdom; to love the Self is Bhakti, devotion; to serve the Self is Kriya, action. Based on his nature the Jivatma, chooses his path to Moksha. Thus evolved the three fold path to Moksha :<blockquote>भक्तिमार्गः ॥ Bhaktimarga is for those in whom Iccha (इच्छा) predominates.</blockquote><blockquote>ज्ञानमार्गः ॥ Jnanamarga is for in those in whom Chit (चित्) predominates.</blockquote><blockquote>कर्ममार्गः ॥ Karmamarga is for those in whom Kriya (क्रिया) predominates.</blockquote>All the three margas, in fact, are one, in which emphasis is laid on one of the three inseparable temperaments. Yoga amply supplies a sadhaka the tools by which the Self can be seen, loved and served. Mukti involves not an alteration of the circumstances surrounding the Jivatma, but the attitude of the Jivatma towards the Self and Non-Self.<ref name=":022" /> ==Goal of Sanatana Dharma==Recognition of Unity of the Self and leads to the establishment of mutually helpful relations between all separated selves. Every moral precept finds its sanction in this Unity. Universal Love which is an expression of the Unity, is the root of all virtues and its opposite is the root of all vices. Universal Brotherhood has its basis in the Unity; men are divided by their Upadhis, both dense (Sthulasharira) and subtle (Sukshmasharira) but all are rooted in the one Self. Only this teaching advocated by Sanatana Dharma, when realized by one an all can put an end to all strife and serve as a foundation for peace.<ref name=":022" /> ==Sanatana Dharma Vs Religion== *A formal process of conversion to Sanatana-dharma is not necessary because the principles, as outlined above, can be practiced by anyone at any time, or to any degree one wishes.*Anyone can be on the path of Sanatana-dharma merely by adopting this way of life.*It is not an institution that you need to join that makes you a follower.*It is the acceptance of it in your heart and the practices that you adopt.*However, you can approach a guru of your choice who inspires you and can guide you and then ask for diksha, or initiation, for learning more about the Vedic path in the school of thought or parampara that your guru represents. == References ==<references />
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